Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3292

Search results for: stiff ordinary differential equation

3292 On the Derivation of Variable Step BBDF for Solving Second Order Stiff ODEs

Authors: S. A. M. Yatim, Z. B. Ibrahim, K. I. Othman, M. Suleiman


The method of solving second order stiff ordinary differential equation (ODEs) that is based on backward differentiation formula (BDF) is considered in this paper. We derived the method by increasing the order of the existing method using an improved strategy in choosing the step size. Numerical results are presented to compare the efficiency of the proposed method to the MATLAB’s suite of ODEs solvers namely ode15s and ode23s. The method was found to be efficient to solve second order ordinary differential equation.

Keywords: backward differentiation formulae, block backward differentiation formulae, stiff ordinary differential equation, variable step size

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
3291 A Trapezoidal-Like Integrator for the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Johnson Oladele Fatokun, I. P. Akpan


In this paper, the one-dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation is discretized by the method of lines using a second order finite difference approximation to replace the second order spatial derivative. The evolving system of stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time is solved numerically by an L-stable trapezoidal-like integrator. Results show accuracy of relative maximum error of order 10-4 in the interval of consideration. The performance of the method as compared to an existing scheme is considered favorable.

Keywords: Schrodinger’s equation, partial differential equations, method of lines (MOL), stiff ODE, trapezoidal-like integrator

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
3290 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y^'''= f(x,y,y^',y^'' ), y(α)=y_0,〖y〗^' (α)=β,y^('' ) (α)=μ with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non-stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, hybrid, linear multistep, self-starting, third order ordinary differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3289 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: M. S. H. Chowdhury, Ishak Hashim


In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Adomian decomposition method, Multistage ADM

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3288 A Family of Second Derivative Methods for Numerical Integration of Stiff Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Luke Ukpebor, C. E. Abhulimen


Stiff initial value problems in ordinary differential equations are problems for which a typical solution is rapidly decaying exponentially, and their numerical investigations are very tedious. Conventional numerical integration solvers cannot cope effectively with stiff problems as they lack adequate stability characteristics. In this article, we developed a new family of four-step second derivative exponentially fitted method of order six for the numerical integration of stiff initial value problem of general first order differential equations. In deriving our method, we employed the idea of breaking down the general multi-derivative multistep method into predator and corrector schemes which possess free parameters that allow for automatic fitting into exponential functions. The stability analysis of the method was discussed and the method was implemented with numerical examples. The result shows that the method is A-stable and competes favorably with existing methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy.

Keywords: A-stable, exponentially fitted, four step, predator-corrector, second derivative, stiff initial value problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3287 Empirical Evaluation of Gradient-Based Training Algorithms for Ordinary Differential Equation Networks

Authors: Martin K. Steiger, Lukas Heisler, Hans-Georg Brachtendorf


Deep neural networks and their variants form the backbone of many AI applications. Based on the so-called residual networks, a continuous formulation of such models as ordinary differential equations (ODEs) has proven advantageous since different techniques may be applied that significantly increase the learning speed and enable controlled trade-offs with the resulting error at the same time. For the evaluation of such models, high-performance numerical differential equation solvers are used, which also provide the gradients required for training. However, whether classical gradient-based methods are even applicable or which one yields the best results has not been discussed yet. This paper aims to redeem this situation by providing empirical results for different applications.

Keywords: deep neural networks, gradient-based learning, image processing, ordinary differential equation networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
3286 High Order Block Implicit Multi-Step (Hobim) Methods for the Solution of Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J. P. Chollom, G. M. Kumleng, S. Longwap


The search for higher order A-stable linear multi-step methods has been the interest of many numerical analysts and has been realized through either higher derivatives of the solution or by inserting additional off step points, supper future points and the likes. These methods are suitable for the solution of stiff differential equations which exhibit characteristics that place a severe restriction on the choice of step size. It becomes necessary that only methods with large regions of absolute stability remain suitable for such equations. In this paper, high order block implicit multi-step methods of the hybrid form up to order twelve have been constructed using the multi-step collocation approach by inserting one or more off step points in the multi-step method. The accuracy and stability properties of the new methods are investigated and are shown to yield A-stable methods, a property desirable of methods suitable for the solution of stiff ODE’s. The new High Order Block Implicit Multistep methods used as block integrators are tested on stiff differential systems and the results reveal that the new methods are efficient and compete favourably with the state of the art Matlab ode23 code.

Keywords: block linear multistep methods, high order, implicit, stiff differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3285 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3284 The Dynamics of Unsteady Squeezing Flow between Parallel Plates (Two-Dimensional)

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Ibrahim Ismail Giwa


Unsteady squeezing flow of a viscous fluid between parallel plates is considered. The two plates are considered to be approaching each other symmetrically, causing the squeezing flow. Two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate is considered. The Navier-Stokes equation was reduced using similarity transformation to a single fourth order non-linear ordinary differential equation. The energy equation was transformed to a second order coupled differential equation. We obtained solution to the resulting ordinary differential equations via Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). HPM deforms a differential problem into a set of problem that are easier to solve and it produces analytic approximate expression in the form of an infinite power series by using only sixth and fifth terms for the velocity and temperature respectively. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. Comparisons among present and existing solutions were provided and it is shown that the proposed method is in good agreement with Variation of Parameter Method (VPM). The effects of appropriate dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles and temperature field are demonstrated with the aid of comprehensive graphs and tables.

Keywords: coupled differential equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method, plates, squeezing flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3283 Step Method for Solving Nonlinear Two Delays Differential Equation in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: H. N. Agiza, M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder with common age of onset, symptoms, and progression levels. In this paper we will solve analytically the PD model as a non-linear delay differential equation using the steps method. The step method transforms a system of delay differential equations (DDEs) into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). On some numerical examples, the analytical solution will be difficult. So we will approximate the analytical solution using Picard method and Taylor method to ODEs.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, step method, delay differential equation, two delays

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3282 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad


Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
3281 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3280 Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede


This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.

Keywords: differential equations, numerical, polynomial, initial value problem, differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3279 Unsteady Similarity Solution for a Slender Dry Patch in a Thin Newtonian Fluid Film

Authors: S. S. Abas, Y. M. Yatim


In this paper the unsteady, slender, symmetric dry patch in an infinitely wide and thin liquid film of Newtonian fluid draining under gravity down an inclined plane in the presence of strong surface-tension effect is considered. A similarity transformation, named a travelling-wave similarity solution is used to reduce the governing partial differential equation into the ordinary differential equation which is then solved numerically using a shooting method. The introduction of surface-tension effect on the flow leads to a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. The solution obtained predicts that the dry patch has a quartic shape and the free surface has a capillary ridge near the contact line which decays in an oscillatory manner far from it.

Keywords: dry patch, Newtonian fluid, similarity solution, surface-tension effect, travelling-wave, unsteady thin-film flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3278 Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through Geogebra Program

Authors: F. Maass, P. Martin, J. Olivares


The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.

Keywords: education, geogebra, ordinary differential equations, resonance

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3277 Comparing Numerical Accuracy of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Using Taylor's Series Method, Euler's Method and Runge-Kutta (RK) Method

Authors: Palwinder Singh, Munish Sandhir, Tejinder Singh


The ordinary differential equations (ODE) represent a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real-life situations in the field of engineering, control systems, physics, chemistry and astronomy etc. Such type of differential equations can be solved by analytical methods or by numerical methods. If the solution is calculated using analytical methods, it is done through calculus theories, and thus requires a longer time to solve. In this paper, we compare the numerical accuracy of the solutions given by the three main types of one-step initial value solvers: Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method and Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method (RK4). The comparison of accuracy is obtained through comparing the solutions of ordinary differential equation given by these three methods. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy; we compare these numerical solutions with the exact solutions.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations (ODE), Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3276 Development of Variable Order Block Multistep Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Suleiman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Nor Ain Azeany, Khairil Iskandar Othman


In this paper, a class of variable order fully implicit multistep Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (VOBBDF) using uniform step size for the numerical solution of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is developed. The code will combine three multistep block methods of order four, five and six. The order selection is based on approximation of the local errors with specific tolerance. These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration in order to further increase the efficiency. The proposed VOBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with single order Block Backward Differentiation Formula (BBDF). Numerical results shows the advantage of using VOBBDF for solving ODEs.

Keywords: block backward differentiation formulas, uniform step size, ordinary differential equations

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3275 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed


An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3274 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji


The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced.

Keywords: damping, Duffing's equation, fixed point analysis, second order differential, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3273 Solution of Singularly Perturbed Differential Difference Equations Using Liouville Green Transformation

Authors: Y. N. Reddy


The class of differential-difference equations which have characteristics of both classes, i.e., delay/advance and singularly perturbed behaviour is known as singularly perturbed differential-difference equations. The expression ‘positive shift’ and ‘negative shift’ are also used for ‘advance’ and ‘delay’ respectively. In general, an ordinary differential equation in which the highest order derivative is multiplied by a small positive parameter and containing at least one delay/advance is known as singularly perturbed differential-difference equation. Singularly perturbed differential-difference equations arise in the modelling of various practical phenomena in bioscience, engineering, control theory, specifically in variational problems, in describing the human pupil-light reflex, in a variety of models for physiological processes or diseases and first exit time problems in the modelling of the determination of expected time for the generation of action potential in nerve cells by random synaptic inputs in dendrites. In this paper, we envisage the use of Liouville Green Transformation to find the solution of singularly perturbed differential difference equations. First, using Taylor series, the given singularly perturbed differential difference equation is approximated by an asymptotically equivalent singularly perturbation problem. Then the Liouville Green Transformation is applied to get the solution. Several model examples are solved, and the results are compared with other methods. It is observed that the present method gives better approximate solutions.

Keywords: difference equations, differential equations, singular perturbations, boundary layer

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3272 Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells

Authors: Hesamoddin Abdollahpour, Roghayeh Abdollahpour, Elham Rahgozar


This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.

Keywords: large amplitude, free vibrations, analytical solution, Danell Equation, diagram of phase plane

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
3271 Finite Element Method for Solving the Generalized RLW Equation

Authors: Abdel-Maksoud Abdel-Kader Soliman


The General Regularized Long Wave (GRLW) equation is solved numerically by giving a new algorithm based on collocation method using quartic B-splines at the mid-knot points as element shape. Also, we use the Fourth Runge-Kutta method for solving the system of first order ordinary differential equations instead of finite difference method. Our test problems, including the migration and interaction of solitary waves, are used to validate the algorithm which is found to be accurate and efficient. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the algorithm.

Keywords: generalized RLW equation, solitons, quartic b-spline, nonlinear partial differential equations, difference equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3270 A Class of Third Derivative Four-Step Exponential Fitting Numerical Integrator for Stiff Differential Equations

Authors: Cletus Abhulimen, L. A. Ukpebor


In this paper, we construct a class of four-step third derivative exponential fitting integrator of order six for the numerical integration of stiff initial-value problems of the type: y’= f(x,y); y(x₀) =y₀. The implicit method has free parameters which allow it to be fitted automatically to exponential functions. For the purpose of effective implementation of the proposed method, we adopted the techniques of splitting the method into predictor and corrector schemes. The numerical analysis of the stability of the new method was discussed; the results show that the method is A-stable. Finally, numerical examples are presented, to show the efficiency and accuracy of the new method.

Keywords: third derivative four-step, exponentially fitted, a-stable, stiff differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3269 Large Amplitude Vibration of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Youssef Abdelli, Rachid Nasri


The large amplitude free vibration analysis of three-layered symmetric sandwich beams is carried out using two different approaches. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in free natural vibration are derived using Hamilton's principle. The formulation leads to two nonlinear partial differential equations that are coupled both in axial and binding deformations. In the first approach, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the governing equation that is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In the second approach, we discretize the governing equation by using Galerkin's procedure and then apply the shooting method to the obtained ordinary differential equations. In order to check the validity of the solutions obtained by the two approaches, they are compared with the solutions obtained by two approaches; they are compared with the solutions obtained numerically by the finite difference method.

Keywords: finite difference method, large amplitude vibration, multiple scales, nonlinear vibration

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3268 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir


The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

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3267 Rayleigh Wave Propagation in an Orthotropic Medium under the Influence of Exponentially Varying Inhomogeneities

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishwakarma


The aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of inhomogeneity associated with the elastic constants and density of the orthotropic medium. The inhomogeneity is considered as exponential function of depth. The impact of gravity had been discussed. Using the concept of separation of variables, the system of a partial differential equation (equation of motion) has been converted into ordinary differential equation, which is coupled in nature. It further reduces to a biquadratic equation whose roots were found by using MATLAB. A suitable boundary condition is employed to derive the dispersion equation in a closed-form. Numerical simulations had been performed to show the influence of the inhomogeneity parameter. It was observed that as the numerical values of increases, the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves decreases at a particular wavenumber. Graphical illustrations were drawn to visualize the effect of the increasing and decreasing values of the inhomogeneity parameter. It can be concluded that it has a remarkable bearing on the phase velocity as well as damping velocity.

Keywords: Rayleigh waves, orthotropic medium, gravity field, inhomogeneity

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3266 Periodicity of Solutions of a Nonlinear Impulsive Differential Equation with Piecewise Constant Arguments

Authors: Mehtap Lafcı


In recent years, oscillation, periodicity and convergence of solutions of linear differential equations with piecewise constant arguments have been significantly considered but there are only a few papers for impulsive differential equations with piecewise constant arguments. In this paper, a first order nonlinear impulsive differential equation with piecewise constant arguments is studied and the existence of solutions and periodic solutions of this equation are investigated by using Carvalho’s method. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

Keywords: Carvalho's method, impulsive differential equation, periodic solution, piecewise constant arguments

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3265 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh


In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: spectral decomposition, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems, eigenvalues of the Jacobian

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3264 The Development of a New Block Method for Solving Stiff ODEs

Authors: Khairil I. Othman, Mahfuzah Mahayaddin, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


We develop and demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical technique to solve first order stiff differential equations. This technique is based on block method whereby three approximate points are calculated. The Cholistani of varied step sizes are presented in divided difference form. Stability regions of the formulae are briefly discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that this block method perform very well compared to existing methods.

Keywords: block method, divided difference, stiff, computational

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3263 Differential Transform Method: Some Important Examples

Authors: M. Jamil Amir, Rabia Iqbal, M. Yaseen


In this paper, we solve some differential equations analytically by using differential transform method. For this purpose, we consider four models of Laplace equation with two Dirichlet and two Neumann boundary conditions and K(2,2) equation and obtain the corresponding exact solutions. The obtained results show the simplicity of the method and massive reduction in calculations when one compares it with other iterative methods, available in literature. It is worth mentioning that here only a few number of iterations are required to reach the closed form solutions as series expansions of some known functions.

Keywords: differential transform method, laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions, Neumann boundary conditions

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