Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 171

Search results for: Ayman M. Mansour

171 Cooperative Learning Mechanism in Intelligent Multi-Agent System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Bilal Hawashin, Mohammed A. Mansour


In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning mechanism in a multi-agent intelligent system. The basic idea is that intelligent agents are capable of collaborating with one another by sharing their knowledge. The agents will start collaboration by providing their knowledge rules to the other agents. This will allow the most important and insightful detection rules produced by the most experienced agent to bubble up for the benefit of the entire agent community. The updated rules will lead to improving the agents’ decision performance. To evaluate our approach, we designed a five–agent system and implemented it using JADE and FuzzyJess software packages. The agents will work with each other to make a decision about a suspicious medical case. This system provides quick response rate and the decision is faster than the manual methods. This will save patients life.

Keywords: intelligent, multi-agent system, cooperative, fuzzy, learning

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170 EEG Diagnosis Based on Phase Space with Wavelet Transforms for Epilepsy Detection

Authors: Mohmmad A. Obeidat, Amjed Al Fahoum, Ayman M. Mansour


The recognition of an abnormal activity of the brain functionality is a vital issue. To determine the type of the abnormal activity either a brain image or brain signal are usually considered. Imaging localizes the defect within the brain area and relates this area with somebody functionalities. However, some functions may be disturbed without affecting the brain as in epilepsy. In this case, imaging may not provide the symptoms of the problem. A cheaper yet efficient approach that can be utilized to detect abnormal activity is the measurement and analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The main goal of this work is to come up with a new method to facilitate the classification of the abnormal and disorder activities within the brain directly using EEG signal processing, which makes it possible to be applied in an on-line monitoring system.

Keywords: EEG, wavelet, epilepsy, detection

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169 Real-time Rate and Rhythms Feedback Control System in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Mohammad A. Obeidat, Ayman M. Mansour


Capturing the dynamic behavior of the heart to improve control performance, enhance robustness, and support diagnosis is very important in establishing real time models for the heart. Control Techniques and strategies have been utilized to improve system costs, reliability, and estimation accuracy for different types of systems such as biomedical, industrial, and other systems that required tuning input/output relation and/or monitoring. Simulations are performed to illustrate potential applications of the technology. In this research, a new control technology scheme is used to enhance the performance of the Af system and meet the design specifications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, dynamic behavior, closed loop, signal, filter

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168 A Multi-Agent Intelligent System for Monitoring Health Conditions of Elderly People

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour


In this paper, we propose a multi-agent intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of elderly people. Monitoring the health condition of elderly people is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring. Such expert system is highly needed in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians or nurses. Such monitoring must have autonomous interactions between these medical units in order to be effective. A multi-agent system is formed by a community of agents that exchange information and proactively help one another to achieve the goal of elderly monitoring. The agents in the developed system are equipped with intelligent decision maker that arms them with the rule-based reasoning capability that can assist the physicians in making decisions regarding the medical condition of elderly people.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, inference system, monitoring system, multi-agent system

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167 GSM Based Smart Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour


In this paper, we propose an intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of Patients. Monitoring the health condition of Patients is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring especially in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians. The proposed system will Improve patient care and drive costs down comparing to the existing system in Jordan. The proposed system will be the start point to Faster and improve the communication between different units in the health system in Jordan. Connecting patients and their physicians beyond hospital doors regarding their geographical area is an important issue in developing the health system in Jordan. The propose system will provide an intelligent system that will generate initial diagnosing to the patient case. This will assist and advice clinicians at the point of care. The decision is based on demographic data and laboratory test results of patient data. Using such system with the ability of making medical decisions, the quality of medical care in Jordan and specifically in Tafial is expected to be improved. This will provide more accurate, effective, and reliable diagnoses and treatments especially if the physicians have insufficient knowledge.

Keywords: GSM, SMS, patient, monitoring system, fuzzy logic, multi-agent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
166 Signal Estimation and Closed Loop System Performance in Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring with Communication Channels

Authors: Mohammad Obeidat, Ayman Mansour


In this paper a unique issue rising from feedback control of Atrial Fibrillation monitoring system with embedded communication channels has been investigated. One of the important factors to measure the performance of the feedback control closed loop system is disturbance and noise attenuation factor. It is important that the feedback system can attenuate such disturbances on the atrial fibrillation heart rate signals. Communication channels depend on network traffic conditions and deliver different throughput, implying that the sampling intervals may change. Since signal estimation is updated on the arrival of new data, its dynamics actually change with the sampling interval. Consequently, interaction among sampling, signal estimation, and the controller will introduce new issues in remotely controlled Atrial Fibrillation system. This paper treats a remotely controlled atrial fibrillation system with one communication channel which connects between the heart rate and rhythm measurements to the remote controller. Typical and optimal signal estimation schemes is represented by a signal averaging filter with its time constant derived from the step size of the signal estimation algorithm.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, communication channels, closed loop, estimation

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165 Seismic Assessment of Old Existing RC Buildings In Madinah with Masonry Infilled Using Ambient Vibration Measurements

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, Nour M. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


Early, pre-code, reinforced concrete structures present undetermined resistance to earthquakes. This situation is particularly unacceptable in the case of essential structures, such as healthcare structures and pilgrims' houses. Among these, existing old RC building in Madinah is seismically evaluated with and without infill wall and their dynamic characteristics are compared with measured values in the field using ambient vibration measurements (AVM). After, updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (Nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using SAP 2000 software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: seismic assessment, pushover analysis ambient vibration, modal update

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164 Seismic Assessment of Old Existing RC Buildings with Masonry Infill in Madinah as Per ASCE

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, Nour M. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


An existing RC building in Madinah is seismically evaluated with and without infill wall. Four model systems have been considered i. e. model I (no infill), model IIA (strut infill-update from field test), model IIB (strut infill- ASCE/SEI 41) and model IIC (strut infill-Soft storey-ASCE/SEI 41). Three dimensional pushover analyses have been carried out using SAP 2000 software incorporating inelastic material behavior for concrete, steel and infill walls. Infill wall has been modeled as equivalent strut according to suggested equation matching field test measurements and to the ASCE/SEI 41 equation. The effect of building modeling on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madinah area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 5 story RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40) for the studied models. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: infill wall, pushover analysis, response modification factor, seismic assessment

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163 Ambient Vibration Testing of Existing Buildings in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


The elastic period has a primary role in the seismic assessment of buildings. Reliable calculations and/or estimates of the fundamental frequency of a building and its site are essential during analysis and design process. Various code formulas based on empirical data are generally used to estimate the fundamental frequency of a structure. For existing structures, in addition to code formulas and available analytical tools such as modal analyses, various methods of testing including ambient and forced vibration testing procedures may be used to determine dynamic characteristics. In this study, the dynamic properties of the 32 buildings located in the Madinah of Saudi Arabia were identified using ambient motions recorded at several, spatially-distributed locations within each building. Ambient vibration measurements of buildings have been analyzed and the fundamental longitudinal and transverse periods for all tested buildings are presented. The fundamental mode of vibration has been compared in plots with codes formulae (Saudi Building Code, EC8, and UBC1997). The results indicate that measured periods of existing buildings are shorter than that given by most empirical code formulas. Recommendations are given based on the common design and construction practice in Madinah city.

Keywords: ambient vibration, fundamental period, RC buildings, infill walls

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162 A Multi-Agent System for Accelerating the Delivery Process of Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Results Using GSM Technology

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Bilal Hawashin, Hesham Alsalem


Faster delivery of laboratory test results is one of the most noticeable signs of good laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. Despite the availability of technology, the delivery time of clinical laboratory test results continues to be a cause of customer dissatisfaction which makes patients feel frustrated and they became careless to get their laboratory test results. The Medical Clinical Laboratory test results are highly sensitive and could harm patients especially with the severe case if they deliver in wrong time. Such results affect the treatment done by physicians if arrived at correct time efforts should, therefore, be made to ensure faster delivery of lab test results by utilizing new trusted, Robust and fast system. In this paper, we proposed a distributed Multi-Agent System to enhance and faster the process of laboratory test results delivery using SMS. The developed system relies on SMS messages because of the wide availability of GSM network comparing to the other network. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between different units and different laboratory medical centers. The system was built using java programming. To implement the proposed system we had many possible techniques. One of these is to use the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where all the peers are treated equally and the service is distributed among all the peers of the network. However, for the pure P2P model, it is difficult to maintain the coherence of the network, discover new peers and ensure security. Also, security is a quite important issue since each node is allowed to join the network without any control mechanism. We thus take the hybrid P2P model, a model between the Client/Server model and the pure P2P model using GSM technology through SMS messages. This model satisfies our need. A GUI has been developed to provide the laboratory staff with the simple and easy way to interact with the system. This system provides quick response rate and the decision is faster than the manual methods. This will save patients life.

Keywords: multi-agent system, delivery process, GSM technology, clinical laboratory results

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161 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).

Keywords: concrete jackets, steel jackets, RC buildings, pushover analysis, non-Linear analysis

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160 Seismic Assessment of an Existing Dual System RC Buildings in Madinah City

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


A 15-storey RC building, studied in this paper, is representative of modern building type constructed in Madina City in Saudi Arabia before 10 years ago. These buildings are almost consisting of reinforced concrete skeleton, i. e. columns, beams and flat slab as well as shear walls in the stairs and elevator areas arranged in the way to have a resistance system for lateral loads (wind–earthquake loads). In this study, the dynamic properties of the 15-storey RC building were identified using ambient motions recorded at several spatially-distributed locations within each building. After updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using SAP2000 software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The effect of modeling the building with and without infill walls on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madina area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 15 storey RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40). The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: seismic assessment, pushover analysis, ambient vibration, modal update

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159 Driving in a Short Arm Plaster Cast Steer a Patient off Course: A Randomised, Controlled, Crossover Study

Authors: B. W. Kenny, D.Mansour, K. G. Mansour, J. Attia, B. Meads


There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about safety while immobilized in a short arm cast. There is a paucity of published literature on this topic. The purpose of this study is to specifically evaluate short arm casts and their effect on driving abilities, particularly steering and avoidance of obstacles. The ability to drive safely is extrapolated from this data. In this study, a randomised, controlled, crossover design was used to assess 30 subjects randomised into 2 groups. A Logitech force feedback steering column and simulated driving program with a standardised road course was used. Objective outcome measures were the number of times subjects drove off the track, the number of crashes, time to lap completion and subjective assessment on whether wearing a short arm plaster cast impeded their steering. Recruited subjects had no upper limb pathology. The side of the applied plaster cast was randomised. The mean lap completion time reduced with repetition, the difference being statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean number of times subjects in casts drove off the track (3 with vs. 3.07 without casts), average number of crashes (1.27 vs 0.97). Steering ability was not reduced whilst a subject was immobilised in a short arm Plaster of Paris cast, despite subject’s own impressions that their steering was impeded. This may help guide doctors in their advice to patients regarding driving in these casts.

Keywords: upper limb, arm injury, plaster cast, splint, driving, automobile, bone fracture

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158 Synthesis of Uio-66 Metal Organic Framework Impregnated Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane for the Desalination via Pressure Assisted Osmosis

Authors: Rajesha Kumar Alambi, Mansour Ahmed, Garudachari Bhadrachari, Safiyah Al-Muqahwi, Mansour Al-Rughaib, Jibu P. Thomas


Membrane-based pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) for seawater desalination has the potential to overcome the challenges of forward osmosis technology. PAO technology is gaining interest among the research community to ensure the sustainability of freshwater with a significant reduction in energy. The requirements of PAO membranes differ from the FO membrane; as it needs a slightly higher porous with sufficient mechanical strength to overcome the applied hydraulic pressure. The porous metal-organic framework (MOF) as a filler for the membrane synthesis has demonstrated a great potential to generate new channels for water transport, high selectivity, and reduced fouling propensity. Accordingly, this study is aimed at fabricating the UiO-66 MOF-based thin film nanocomposite membranes with specific characteristics for water desalination by PAO. A PAO test unit manufactured by Trevi System, USA, was used to determine the performance of the synthesized membranes. Further, the synthesized membranes were characterized in terms of morphological features, hydrophilicity, surface roughness, and mechanical properties. The 0.05 UiO-66 loaded membrane produced highest flux of 38L/m2h and with low reverse salt leakage of 2.1g/m²h for the DI water as feed solution and 2.0 M NaCl as draw solutions at the inlet feed pressure of 0.6 MPa. The new membranes showed a good tolerance toward the applied hydraulic pressure attributed to the fabric support used during the membrane synthesis.

Keywords: metal organic framework, composite membrane, desalination, salt rejection, flux

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157 Modeling of Masonry In-Filled R/C Frame to Evaluate Seismic Performance of Existing Building

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


This paper deals with different modeling aspects of masonry infill: no infill model, Layered shell infill model, and strut infill model. These models consider the complicated behavior of the in-filled plane frames under lateral load similar to an earthquake load. Three strut infill models are used: NBCC (2005) strut infill model, ASCE/SEI 41-06 strut infill model and proposed strut infill model based on modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) strut infill model. Pushover and modal analyses of a masonry infill concrete frame with a single storey and an existing 5-storey RC building have been carried out by using different models for masonry infill. The corresponding hinge status, the value of base shear at target displacement as well as their dynamic characteristics have been determined and compared. A validation of the structural numerical models for the existing 5-storey RC building has been achieved by comparing the experimentally measured and the analytically estimated natural frequencies and their mode shapes. This study shows that ASCE/SEI 41-06 equation underestimates the values for the equivalent properties of the diagonal strut while Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation gives realistic values for the equivalent properties. The results indicate that both ASCE/SEI 41-06 and Canadian, NBCC (2005) equations for strut infill model give over estimated values for dynamic characteristic of the building. Proposed modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation shows that the fundamental dynamic characteristic values of the building are nearly similar to the corresponding values using layered shell elements as well as measured field results.

Keywords: masonry infill, framed structures, RC buildings, non-structural elements

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156 A Distribution Free Test for Censored Matched Pairs

Authors: Ayman Baklizi


This paper discusses the problem of testing hypotheses about the lifetime distributions of a matched pair based on censored data. A distribution free test based on a runs statistic is proposed. Its null distribution and power function are found in a simple convenient form. Some properties of the test statistic and its power function are studied.

Keywords: censored data, distribution free, matched pair, runs statistics

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155 Confidence Intervals for Quantiles in the Two-Parameter Exponential Distributions with Type II Censored Data

Authors: Ayman Baklizi


Based on type II censored data, we consider interval estimation of the quantiles of the two-parameter exponential distribution and the difference between the quantiles of two independent two-parameter exponential distributions. We derive asymptotic intervals, Bayesian, as well as intervals based on the generalized pivot variable. We also include some bootstrap intervals in our comparisons. The performance of these intervals is investigated in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths.

Keywords: asymptotic intervals, Bayes intervals, bootstrap, generalized pivot variables, two-parameter exponential distribution, quantiles

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154 Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi


The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.

Keywords: LDH, POA, photo-catalysis, Bi-ZnO doping

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153 People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables

Authors: Nizar Mansour, Chiha Gaha, Emna Gara


The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.

Keywords: human capital, knowledge intensive firms, knowledge sharing, organizational climate, Tunisia

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152 Carbonylative Cross Coupling of 2-Bromopyridine with Different Boronic Acids under Carbon Monoxide Atmosphere

Authors: N. Touj, M. Sauthier, L. Mansour, N. Hamdi


The palladium NHC complexes are one of the most interesting and widely investigated complexes in different catalytic transformations, especially C–C bond. Thus, the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes associated with palladium has been reported as efficient catalysts for the carbonyl coupling under mild and varied conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic activities of two new families of benzimidazolium salts. Then we studied the use of this class of benzimidazolium salts as a ligand in the carbonylative cross-coupling of 2-bromopyridine with different boronic acids under CO atmosphere to form unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones.

Keywords: NHC-Pd(II) catalysts, carbonylative Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, arylboronic acids, 2-bromopyridine, unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones

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151 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla


Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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150 Ground States of Structure of Even ¹⁰⁴-¹⁰⁶ Ru Isotopes

Authors: I. Hossain, Huda H. Kassim, Fadhil I. Sharrad, Said A. Mansour


In this conference, we apply the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) formula for U(5) symmetry in order to calculate the energy levels and reduced transition probabilities for a few yrast transitions in Ru with neutron N=60, 62. The neutron rich even-even isotopes of Ru are very interesting to investigate using IBM-1, because even 104,106Ru isotopes are great consequence due to excited near the magic number 50. The calculation of ground state band and B(E2) values using IBM-1 for Z=44 are not calculated to describe the valuable information of nuclear structure by U(5) limit. The parameters in the formula are deduced based on the experimental energy level and value of B(E2, 2+->0+). The yrast states and transition strength B(E2) from 1st 4+ to 1st 2+, 1st 6+ to 1st 4+ and 1st 8+ to 1st 6+ states of Ru for even N= 60, 62 were calculated. The quadrupole moments, deformation parameters and U(5) limit were discussed for those nuclei.

Keywords: B(E2), energy level, ¹⁰⁴Ru, ¹⁰⁶Ru

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149 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum

Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid


Four Acetylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.

Keywords: Centaurium spicatum, flavonoids, biological activity, isolation, glycosides

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148 The Effect of Coronavirus on Social Adjustment and Depression of Arak University Students

Authors: Mansour Abdi


The aim of this study has been the investigation of coronavirus influence/impact on social adjustment and depression of Arak University students. The samples of study are 100 available female students at Arak University. They were assessed by the Bell Social Adjustment Questionnaire and Beck Depression. They were asked to answer two situations before the corona outbreak and the present. The result of evaluating/assessing the difference between social adjustment before and after coronavirus was not significant but, the averages indicate a decrease in the adjustment of students before and after the coronavirus. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in depression findings but, in the present, the average amount of depression indicated an increase than its amount before the corona.

Keywords: depression, social adjustment student, coronavirus, student

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147 Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets

Authors: Sara Ali Alokley, Mansour Saleh Albarrak


This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.

Keywords: clustring, extremes, returns, dependency, extermal index

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146 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi


Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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145 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha


This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: ferrite, microstrip antenna, plasma, radiation

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144 A Proposed Approach for Emotion Lexicon Enrichment

Authors: Amr Mansour Mohsen, Hesham Ahmed Hassan, Amira M. Idrees


Document Analysis is an important research field that aims to gather the information by analyzing the data in documents. As one of the important targets for many fields is to understand what people actually want, sentimental analysis field has been one of the vital fields that are tightly related to the document analysis. This research focuses on analyzing text documents to classify each document according to its opinion. The aim of this research is to detect the emotions from text documents based on enriching the lexicon with adapting their content based on semantic patterns extraction. The proposed approach has been presented, and different experiments are applied by different perspectives to reveal the positive impact of the proposed approach on the classification results.

Keywords: document analysis, sentimental analysis, emotion detection, WEKA tool, NRC lexicon

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143 Characterization of Leakage Current on the Surface of Porcelain Insulator under Contaminated Conditions

Authors: Hocine Terrab , Abdelhafid Bayadi, Adel Kara, Ayman El-Hag


Insulator flashover under polluted conditions has been a serious threat on the reliability of power systems. It is known that the flashover process is mainly affected by the environmental conditions such as; the pollution level and humidity. Those are the essential parameters influencing the wetting process. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of leakage current (LC) developed on the surface of porcelain insulator at contaminated conditions under AC voltage. The study is done in an artificial fog chamber and the LC is characterized for different stages; dry, wetted and presence of discharge activities. Time-frequency and spectral analysis are adopted to calculate the evolution of LC characteristics with various stages prior to flashover occurrence. The preliminary results could be used in analysing the LC to develop more effective diagnosis of early signs of dry band arcing as an indication for insulation washing.

Keywords: flashover, harmonic components, leakage current, phase angle, statistical analysis

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142 Doping ZnO with Bi through Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxide Application of Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Indigoid Dye in the Visible Light

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami


The aim of this study is to use a synthetic of the layered double hydroxide as a method of doping of zinc by transition metal. The choice of dopant metal being bismuth. The material has been heat treated at different temperatures then tested on the Photo discoloration of indigo carmine under visible irradiation. In contrast, the diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of the UV-visible heat treated material exhibits an absorbance in the visible unlike ZnO and TiO2 P25. This property let the photocatalytic activity of Bi-ZnO under visible irradiation. Indeed, the photocatalytic effectiveness of Bi-ZnO in a visible light was proved by the total discoloration of indigo carmine solution with intial concentration of 16 mg/L after 90 minutes, whereas the TiO2 P25 and ZnO their discolorations are obtained after 120 minutes.

Keywords: photo-catalysis, doping, AOP, ZnO

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