Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: Jordanian

85 Private Law, Public Justice: Another Look at Imprisonment for Debt under the Jordanian Law

Authors: Haitham A. Haloush

Abstract:

Debtors' imprisonment in Jordan is a problematic issue since it impinges upon required financial guarantees that are presumably offered by debtors on the one hand, and infringes flagrantly the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the other hand. Jordan lacks regulatory provisions in this respect and debtors' imprisonment is indirectly exercised in Jordan without giving a special legal attention to this concern. From this perspective, this research reviews the available regulations, standard laws and codes of conduct that might guide the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in the Jordanian context. Furthermore, this article will examine the suitability of the Jordanian legal system in providing sufficient protection for debtors. The author argues that there are serious obstacles in this aspect.

Keywords: the Jordanian civil code, the Jordanian execution law, imprisonment for debt, good faith, the Jordanian constitution, the international covenant on civil and political rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
84 The Jordanian Traditional Dress of Women as a Form of Cultural Heritage

Authors: Sarah Alkhateeb

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This research explores the Jordanian traditional dress of women as a form of cultural heritage. The dress of the Jordanian woman expresses her social and cultural functions and reflects the local environment in its social and cultural frameworks and the determinants of the natural formation of climate and terrain, in addition to what is expressed by the person’s social status and position in the social ladder of any society. Therefore, the traditional dress of Jordanian women is distinguished by its abundance and diversity. Few studies have been conducted on the Jordanian traditional dress of women, the lack of studies about the Jordanian traditional dress of women needs highlighting and the characteristics of this dress have to be featured and documented as a part of cultural heritage. The main aim of this research is to contribute or to develop a conservation strategy to save this part of cultural heritage from loss. In this research, the qualitative method approach will be used and will follow the ethnographic method. The data will be gathered from a primary source which is the single focus group discussion with the TIRAZ museum team; the Jordanian traditional dress will be explored across three regions: The North, Middle and South of Jordan, investigating the regional differences and focusing on the details of the individual garment.

Keywords: Jordanian traditional dress, cultural heritage, tiraz museum, ethnographic method

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83 The Level of Disclosure of Intellectual Capital at Jordanian Development Banks

Authors: Firas A. N. Al-Dalabih

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This study aims at identifying the level of disclosure of intellectual capital at the Jordanian development banks. The study sample composed of (100) individuals working at the National Bank to Finance Small Projects around the different governorates of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed over the study sample. (95) Questionnaires have been retrieved; valid for the statistical analysis purposes with a percentage of (95%). The study results showed that the level of disclosure of intellectual capital with all its dimensions (human capital, customer capital and structural capital) at the Jordanian development banks was of a high level. The results also showed that there is a high level of awareness performed by the Jordanian development banks’ employees in regard to the necessity and importance of the intellectual capital’s disclosure. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations among which were that the Jordanian development banks shall take notice toward increasing their workers’ awareness regarding the importance of intellectual capital’s disclosure, as well as applying this study over commercial and Islamic banks for the purposes of carrying out a comparison between them and the development banks.

Keywords: intellectual capital, Jordanian development banks, the level of disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
82 Factors Affecting the Formation of Architectural Space and Construction Systems in the Jordanian Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Mohannad Tarrad

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The research deals with the beginnings of the vernacular Jordanian architecture since the establishment of the Jordanian state in the early nineteenth century until now, where the Jordanian architecture was based on the interactions of the Jordanian society with the surrounding environment, where the local materials available in the construction area were used, and the construction systems inherited from previous civilizations were used. The builders in Jordan relied on exchanging knowledge and transferring it from one generation to another, where they were able to formulate a construction style capable of responding to the requirement of architectural spaces, and each region of Jordan has its own way of building, as there are various geographical areas in Jordan, including agricultural, mountainous and desert areas. Then the research touched on a historical study of the architectural space and identifying the value of the architectural space in the Jordanian social life, which is related to the customs and traditions of a society influenced by the Arab Islamic civilization, and then the construction, the structural structure, its characteristics and the constituent elements of the building were defined in the vernacular l Jordanian architecture. From the structural point of view, and then to identify the structural materials used in the structural structure and the impact of the structural structure on the design from several aspects, leading to the interior space and the factors affecting it. The research aims to explain and clarify the interconnected design and construction solutions in the vernacular Jordanian architecture in a manner that respects the environmental context, taking into account the material cost of the building, where the financial situation of the home owner plays an important role in choosing the building material and construction method. Case studies from heritage buildings from several Jordanian regions will be analyzed to illustrate the idea of the research.

Keywords: construction systems, architectural space, environmental context, Jordanian architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
81 The Formation of the Diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic

Authors: Yousef Barahmeh

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This paper is a linguistic and pragmatic analysis of the use of the diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic (CJA). It demonstrates a peculiar form of the diminutive in CJA inflected by means of feminine plural ends with -aat suffix. The analysis shows that the pragmatic function(s) of the diminutive in CJA refers primarily to ‘littleness’ while the morphological inflection conveys the message of ‘the plethora’. Examples of this linguistic phenomenon are intelligible and often include a large number of words that are culture-specific to the rural dialect in the north of Jordan. In both cases, the diminutive in CJA is an adaptive strategy relative to its pragmatic and social contexts.

Keywords: Colloquial Jordanian Arabic, diminutive, morphology, pragmatics

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80 Rejoinders to the Expression of Reprimand among Jordanian Youth: A Pragmatic Study

Authors: Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

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The study investigates the expressions voiced by Jordanian youth as rejoinders to the expressions of reprimands. It also explores the impact sociocultural variables exert on such types of rejoinders. To our best knowledge, this study is the first of its kind. Despite the significance and sensitivity of such type of communicative act, there is a scarcity of research on it, and it has not been investigated in the Jordanian context. Data collected from observation of naturally occurring data. Data have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in light of the rapport management approach (RMA). The analysis revealed different types of rejoinders, among which was the expression of apology, admitting responsibility, and trying to manage and fix the situation were the most used strategies. Variation in the types of strategies was attributed to the influence of the sociocultural variables. Promising ideas were recommended for future research.

Keywords: gender, rejoinder to reprimand, Jordanian youth, rapport management approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
79 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally

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Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: breast cancer, early stage, Jordanian, experience, phenomenology

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78 Anti-Language in Jordanian Spoken Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Authors: Ahmad Mohammad Al-Harahsheh

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Anti-language reflects anti-society; it is a restricted spoken code used among a group of interlocutors because of anti-society. This study aims to shed light on the sociolinguistic characteristics of anti-language used by prisoners in Jordan. The participants included were 15 male-Jordanian prisoners who have recently been released. The data were written, transliterated, and analyzed on the basis of sociolinguistics and discourse analysis. This study draws on sociolinguistic theory of language codes as the theoretical framework. The study concludes that anti-language is a male language and is used for secrecy, as the prisoners' tendency to protect themselves from the police; it is a verbal competition, contest and display. In addition, it is employed to express obnoxious ideas and acts by using more pleasant or blurred words and expressions. Also, the anti-language used by prisoners has six linguistic characteristics in JSA (Jordanian Spoken Arabic), such as relexicalization, neologism, rhyme formation, semantic change, derivation, and metaphorical expressions.

Keywords: anti-language, Jordanian Spoken Arabic, sociolinguistics, prisoners

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77 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

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The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: banks, Jordan, knowledge, organizational factors, sharing

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76 Depression in Non Hospitalized Jordanian Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ibtisam Al-Zaru

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Background: Worldwide, depression among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients is considered a serious problem that may cause many complications and negative consequences; particularly serious being increased mortality and morbidity rate. Studying depression among CAD patients in Jordan has not been investigated thoroughly and thus a need for further studies has been a priority. Aims: To assess depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD; to describe the relationship between socio-demographic data, health related factors, and depression; and to examine the best predictors of depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD. Method: A cross-sectional-descriptive design was used to collect data from 174 non-hospitalized Jordanian patients diagnosed with CAD in outpatients’ cardiac clinics, using a self- administered questionnaires and Cardiac Depression Scale. Results: 53.4% of CAD patients reported mild/moderate, and severe depressive symptoms. Significant relationships between depressive symptoms and some demo-clinical characteristics (i.e. being female gender; having of chronic disease and surgical history; being physically inactive, and perceived their sexual activity, physical and psychological as poor). The preceding factors are also found to be statistically significant predictors for depression among this patients’ group. Conclusion: Jordanian patients with CAD had various levels of severity regarding their depressive symptoms. Therefore, health care providers need to introduce depression assessment and treatment in cardiac rehabilitation to control depression and its impact on the patient. Consequently, such control will reduce co-morbidity, mortality, complications and health costs among CAD patients and enhance the quality of their lives.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, predictors, depression, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
75 Exposure of Emergency Department Staff in Jordanian Hospitals to Workplace Violence: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Ibrahim Bashayreh Al-Bashtawy Mohammed, Al-Azzam Manar Ahmad Rawashda, Abdul-Monim Batiha Mohammad Sulaiman

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Background: Workplace violence against emergency department staff (EDS) is considered one of the most common and widespread phenomena of violence. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the incidence rates of workplace violence and the predicting factors of violent behaviors among emergency departments’ staff in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate workplace violence towards a convenience sample of 355 emergency staff departments from 8 governmental and 4 private Jordanian hospitals. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was developed for the purpose of this study. Results: 72% of workers in emergency departments within Jordanian hospitals are exposed to violent acts, and that patients and their relatives are the main source of workplace violence. The contributing factors as reported by the participants were related to overcrowding, lack of resources, staff shortages, and the absence of effective antiviolence policies. Conclusions/implications for Practice: Policies and legislation regarding violence should be instituted and developed, and emergency department staff should be given training on how to deal with violent incidents, as well as on violence-management policies.

Keywords: Jordan, emergency staff department, workplace violence, community health

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74 Armenian in the Jordanian Linguistic Landscape: Marginalisation and Revitalisation

Authors: Omar Alomoush

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This paper examines the Armenian language in the linguistic landscape of Jordanian cities. The results indicate that Armenian is chiefly marginalised in the LL. By quantitative and qualitative methods, the current study attempts to identify the main reasons behind this marginalisation. In the light of the fact that Armenian is completely absent from the commercial streets of major Jordanian cities, all monolingual and multilingual signs in Armenian Neighbourhood in Amman city are photographed to identify them according to function and language. To provide plausible explanations for the marginalisation of the Armenian language in the LL, the current study builds upon issues of language maintenance and underlying language policy. According to the UNESCO Endangerment Framework, it can be assumed that Armenian is a vulnerable language, even though the Armenian Church exerted great efforts to revitalise Armenian in all social settings, including the LL. It was found that language policies enacted by the state of Jordan, language shift, language hostility, voluntary migration and economic pressures are among the reasons behind this marginalisation.

Keywords: linguistic landscape, multilingualism, Armenian, marginalisation and revitalisation

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73 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Fatmeh Alzoubi, Reem Ali

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Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, Jordanian men and women’s health, attitudes, family functioning

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72 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Mousa Bani Baker, Raed Abendeh, Zaidoon Abu Salem, Hesham Ahmad

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This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, compressive strength, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness, abrasion, absorption, modulus of rupture, porosity

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71 Pregnancy Outcomes among Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Women: A Comparative Study

Authors: Karimeh Alnuaimi, Manal Kassab, Reem Ali, Khitam Mohammad, Kholoud Shattnawi

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Aim: To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. Background and introduction: The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Jordan. Pregnant refugee women are therefore facing many difficulties are known to increase the prevalence of poor reproductive health outcomes and antenatal complications. However, there is very little awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental Hospitals in the north of Jordan, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birth weight (< 2500 g), Apgar score and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks' gestational age). Results: Statistical analysis revealed that refugee mothers had a significant increase in the rate of cesarean section and the higher rate of anemia, a lower neonates’ weight, and Apgar scores when compared to their Jordanian counterparts. Discussion and Conclusion: Results were congruent with findings from other studies in the region and worldwide. Minimizing inequalities in pregnancy outcomes between Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. Implications for nursing and health policy: The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. The action is required by the policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary health care services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the need for antenatal care of this vulnerable population.

Keywords: pregnancy, Syrian refugee, Jordanian women, comparative study

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70 The Prevalence of Postpartum Stress among Jordanian Women

Authors: Khitam Ibrahem Shlash Mohammad

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Background: Postnatal depression is a focus of considerable research attention, but little is known about the pattern of stress across this period. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of stress after childbirth for Jordanian women and identify associated risk factors. Method: Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited six to eight weeks postpartum, provided personal, social and obstetric information, and completed the stress subscale of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-S), the Maternity Social Support Scale (MSSS), and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES). Setting: maternal and child health care clinics in four health care centres in Maan city in Southern Jordan. Participants: Arabic speaking women (n = 324) between the ages of 18 and 45 years, six to eight weeks postpartum, primiparous or multiparous at low risk for obstetric complications. Data collection took place between October 2015 and January 2016. Ethical clearance was obtained prior to data collection. Results: The prevalence of postpartum stress among Jordanian women was 39.8 %. A regression analysis revealed that occupation, low social support, financial problems, difficult marital relationships, difficult relationship with family-in-law, giving birth to a female baby, difficult childbirth, and low self-efficacy were associated with postpartum stress. Conclusions and implications for practice: Jordanian women need support during pregnancy, during and after childbirth. Postpartum emotional support and assessment of symptoms of stress need to be incorporated into routine practice. The opportunity for open discussion along with increased awareness and clarification of common misconceptions about postpartum stress is necessary.

Keywords: prevalence, postpartum, stress, Jordanian women

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69 Stock Price Informativeness and Profit Warnings: Empirical Analysis

Authors: Adel Almasarwah

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This study investigates the nature of association between profit warnings and stock price informativeness in the context of Jordan as an emerging country. The analysis is based on the response of stock price synchronicity to profit warnings percentages that have been published in Jordanian firms throughout the period spanning 2005–2016 in the Amman Stock Exchange. The standard of profit warnings indicators have related negatively to stock price synchronicity in Jordanian firms, meaning that firms with a high portion of profit warnings integrate with more firm-specific information into stock price. Robust regression was used rather than OLS as a parametric test to overcome the variances inflation factor (VIF) and heteroscedasticity issues recognised as having occurred during running the OLS regression; this enabled us to obtained stronger results that fall in line with our prediction that higher profit warning encourages firm investors to collect and process more firm-specific information than common market information.

Keywords: Profit Warnings, Jordanian Firms, Stock Price Informativeness, Synchronicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
68 The Impact of Gender Differences on the Expressions of Refusal in Jordanian Arabic

Authors: Hanan Yousef, Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh

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The present study investigates the use of the expression of refusal by native speakers of Jordanian Arabic (NSsJA) in different social situations (i.e. invitations, suggestions, and offers). It also investigates the influence of gender on the refusal realization patterns within the Jordanian culture to provide a better insight into the relation between situations, strategies and gender in the Jordanian culture. To that end, a group of 70 participants, including 35 male and 35 female students from different departments at the Hashemite University (HU) participated in this study using mixed methods (i.e. Discourse Completion Test (DCT), interviews and naturally occurring data). Data were analyzed in light of a developed coding scheme. The results showed that NSsJA preferred indirect strategies which mitigate the interaction such as "excuse, reason and, explanation" strategy more than other strategies which aggravate the interaction such as "face-threatening" strategy. Moreover, the analysis of this study has revealed a considerable impact of gender on the use of linguistic forms expressing refusal among NSsJA. Significant differences in the results of the Chi-square test relating the effect of participants' gender indicate that both males and females were conscious of the gender of their interlocutors. The findings provide worthwhile insights into the relation amongst types of communicative acts and the rapport between people in social interaction. They assert that refusal should not be labeled as face threatening act since it does not always pose a threat in some cases especially where refusal is expressed among friends, relatives and family members. They highlight some distinctive culture-specific features of the communicative acts of refusal.

Keywords: gender, Jordanian Arabic, politeness, refusals, speech act

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
67 Factorial Validity for the Morale Sprit Scale: The Case for Physical Education Faculty Members at Jordanian Universities

Authors: Abedalbasit M. Abedalhafiz, Aman Kasawneh, Zyad Altahynah, Ahmad Okor

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The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of the morale sprit scale (MSS). Ninety faculty members from colleges of physical education at Jordanian universities were chosen to participate in this study. The design of this study was an ex-post facto. The MSS consists of (48) items that measure different dimensions of morale spirit among faculty members. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was utilized to uncover the underlying structure of the instrument. The findings revealed eight factor solution explaining (72.825%). Seven factors were accepted according to the conditions of accepting factors. The seven factors were named morale as reflection of faculty and department's administration, regulations and instructions, working environment and conditions, promotions and incentives and salaries, relations between the faculty member's, the trend toward the college and university, the trend toward self factors.

Keywords: Factorial validity, morale sprit, faculty members, Jordanian Universities

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66 Referring to Jordanian Female Relatives in Public

Authors: Ibrahim Darwish, Noora Abu Ain

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Referring to female relatives by male Jordanian speakers in public is governed by various linguistic and social constraints. Although Jordanian society is less conservative than it was a few decades ago, women are still considered the weaker link in society and men still believe that they need to protect them. Conservative Jordanians often avoid referring to their female relatives overtly, i.e., using their real names. Instead, they use covert names, such as pseudonyms, nicknames, pet names, etc. The reason behind such language use has to do with how Arab men, in general, see women as part of their honor. This study intends to investigate to what extent Jordanian males hide their female relatives’ names in public domains. The data was collected from spontaneous informal voice-recorded interviews carried out in the village of Saham in the far north of Jordan. Saham’s dialect is part of a larger Horani dialect used by speakers along a wide area that stretches from Salt in the south to the Syrian borders in the north of Jordan. The voice-recorded interviews were originally carried out as an audio record of some customs and traditions in the village of Saham in 2013. During most of these interviews, the researchers observed how the male participants indirectly referred to their female relatives. Instead of using real names, the male speakers used broad terms to refer to their female relatives, such al-Beit ‘the home,’ al-ciyaal ‘the kids’, um-x ‘the mother of x,’ etc. All tokens related to the issue in question were collected, analyzed and quantified about three age cohorts: young, middle-aged and old speakers. The results show that young speakers are more direct in referring to their female relatives than the other two age groups. This can point to a possible change in progress in the speech community of Saham. It is argued that due to contact with other urban speech communities, the young speakers in Saham do not feel the need to hide the real names of their female relatives as they consider them as equals. Indeed, the young generation is more open to the idea of women's rights and call for expanding Jordanian women’s roles in Jordanian society.

Keywords: gender differences, Horan, proper names, social constraints

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65 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa

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Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, Jordan, blood pressure, cross-sectional study, obesity, hypertension, waist circumference

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64 Cloud Computing in Jordanian Libraries: An Overview

Authors: Mohammad A. Al-Madi, Nagham A. Al-Madi, Fanan A. Al-Madi

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The current concept of the technology of cloud computing libraries has been increasing where users can store their data in a virtual space and can be retrieved from anywhere whilst using the network. By using cloud computing technology, industries and individuals save money, time, and space. Moreover, data and information about libraries can be placed in the cloud. This paper discusses the meaning of cloud computing along with its types. Further, the focus has been given to the application of cloud computing in modern libraries. Additionally, the advantages of cloud computing and the areas in which cloud computing be applied with current usage are discussed. Finally, the present situation of the Jordanian libraries is considered and discussed in further detail.

Keywords: cloud computing, community cloud, hybrid cloud, private cloud, public cloud

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63 The Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Lara Al-Haddad, Mark Whittington

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This paper aims to examine the impact of two influential internal corporate governance mechanisms, namely board characteristics and ownership structure on the use of real activities-based and accrual-based earnings management by Jordanian public firms. Using panel data from Jordanian public firms after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code (JCGC) in 2009, the study finds both institutional ownership and managerial ownership constrain the use of real and accrual earnings manipulations. On the other side, both independent directors and largest shareholders are found to exaggerate the incidence of using real and accrual earnings management. The study also examines the trade-off between real and accrual earnings management and found that Jordanian firms use a combination of real and accrual-based earnings management to obtain the greatest effect on earnings reporting strategies. For the purpose of this study, three types of real earnings management are considered: sales manipulation, overproduction, and the abnormal reduction of discretionary expenditures. The abnormal discretionary accrual is considered for accruals management. While for the internal corporate governance mechanisms; board characteristics are examined by using board independence, board size, and CEO-duality; and ownership structure is examined by using managerial ownership, institutional ownership, foreign ownership and largest shareholder ownership. To the best knowledge of the researchers, this study is the first to examine the relationship between board characteristics and real earnings management in Jordan. Further, it is the first to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and discretionary accruals after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code in 2009. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications for policymakers, regulators, standard setters, audit professional, and investors in their attempts to constrain the practice of earnings management, whether real or accrual, and to improve the financial reporting quality in Jordan.

Keywords: board characteristics, Jordan, ownership structure, real earnings management

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62 The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Alfalah Tasneem, Abdallah Bataineh, Falah Jannat, Alfalah Salsabeel

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The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, higher education, job performance, job satisfaction

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61 The Successful Implementation of Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector Using Cross-Case Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Nassar

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This paper was designed for interviews with companies that had implemented Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector in full. Each company in this paper was examined as an entity to obtain an understanding of the process of MAIs adoption and implementation as well as the respondents’ opinions and perspectives of each individual company as to what are considered to be the important factors in the company. By firstly using within-case analysis has the potential to aid in-depth views of the issues and their impact on each particular company. Then, cross-case analysis was used to analyse the similarities and differences of the six companies. The study concludes that, the six companies interviewed gradually moved to using MAIs over the last ten years. The length of time required to implement the MAIs varied across the companies. Interviewees revealed several factors from both the demand and supply side that influence implementation of MAIs within the Jordanian industrial companies. Respondents mentioned and emphasised the important effect of the following factors: top management support, education about ABC concept and benefits, training programmes, shortcoming of existing cost system, competition, size of company, professional accounting bodies, management accounting journals, management accounting research and PhD degrees, and cooperation between universities and companies.

Keywords: industrial sector, innovations, Jordan, management accounting

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60 Intangible Capital and Stock Prices: A Study of Jordanian Companies

Authors: Almoutassem Bellah Nasser

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at calculating the intangible assets of Jordanian economy. This effort is a response to the demand from corporations for these services which reflects a perceived gap in internal and external financial reporting on intangible investments. The main conclusion of the paper is to suggest that the way forward to a standardized, more comparable approach to measuring intangible capital is to employ CIV method of valuation. Published macroeconomic data traditionally exclude most intangible investment from measured GDP. This situation is beginning to change as some attempts have been made to measure the amount of intangible assets. It was found that intangible assets account for $164.20 million in all the listed companies of Jordan. All this money does not appear on the balance sheets of these companies and hence requires special attention of policy makers for better utilization.

Keywords: intangible capital, stock prices, Amman Stock Exchange

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59 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie

Abstract:

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nursing, ergonomic, occupational stress

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58 The Dynamics of Jordanian Socio-Political Satire after the Arab Spring

Authors: Yousef Barahmeh

Abstract:

There is a wide cultural belief that Jordanians are po-faced and unable to produce humour and satire. However, in the light of the harbingers of the Arab Spring in the early 2011, socio-political satire has thrived notably in social media as a rigorous act of critique and dissent against the institutionalized discourse. This paper seeks to explore the case study of Ahmad Hassan al-Zou’bi’s satirical articles and Facebook posts in the context of theories of satire and digital politics. Al-Zou’bi is the most prominent and prolific Jordanian satirist who rose to prominence after the Arab Spring. The analysis shows that his satirical articles provide a vintage point to the rhetoric behind the socio-political and economic reform programs as much as the adverse impact of neoliberal governments in the modern history of Jordan.

Keywords: Arab Spring, digital politics, humour and socio-political satire

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57 The Leadership Criterion: Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in the Jordanian Public Sector

Authors: Shaker Aladwan, Paul Forrester

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges that face leaders when implementing business excellence programmes in the Jordanian public sector. The study adopted a content analysis approach to analyse the excellence assessment reports that have been produced by the King Abdullah II Centre for Excellence (KACE). The sample comprises ten public organisations which have participated in the King Abdullah Award for Excellence (KAA) more than once and acknowledge in their reports that they have failed to achieve satisfactory results. The key challenges to the implementation of leadership criteria in the public sector in Jordan were found to be poor strategic planning, lack of employee empowerment, weaknesses in benchmarking performance, a lack of financial resources, poor integration and coordination, and poor measurement system: This study proposes a conceptual model for the as assessment of challenges that face managers when seeking to implement excellence in leadership in the Jordanian public sector. Theoretically, this paper fills context gaps in the excellence literature in general and organisational excellence in the public sector in particular. Leadership challenges in the public sector are generally widely studied, but it is important to gain a better understanding of how these challenges can be overcome. In comparison to many existing studies, this research has provided specific and detailed insights these organisational excellence challenges in the public sector and provides a conceptual model for use by other researchers into the future.

Keywords: leadership criterion, organisational excellence, challenges, quality awards, public sector, Jordan

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56 Supply Chain of Energy Resources and Its Alternatives Due to the Arab Spring: The Case of Egyptian Natural Gas Flow to Jordan

Authors: Moh’d Anwer Al-Shboul

Abstract:

The year 2011 was a challenging year for Jordanian economy, which felt a variety of effects from the Arab Spring which took place in neighboring countries. Since February, 5th 2012, the Arab Gas Supply Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula and to Jordan and Israel, has been attacked more than 39 times. Jordan imported about 80 percent of its necessity of natural gas (about 250 million cubic feet of natural gas per day) from Egypt to generate particularly electricity, with the reminder of being produced locally. Jordan has utilized multiple alternatives to address the interruption of available natural gas supply from Egypt. The Jordanian distributed power plants now rely on the use of heavy fuel oil and diesel for electricity generation, in this case, it costs Jordan about four times than natural gas. The substitution of Egyptian natural gas supplies by fuel oil and diesel, coupled with the 32 percent rise in global fuel prices, has increased Jordan’s energy import bill by over 50 percent in 2011, reaching more than 16 percent of the 2011 GDP. The increase in the cost of electricity generation pushed the Jordanian economy to borrow from multiple internal and external resource channels, thus increasing the public debt. The Jordanian government’s short-term solution to the reduced natural gas supply from Egypt was alternatively purchasing the necessary quantities from some Gulf countries such as Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, which can be imported with two possible methods. The first method is to rent a ship equipped with a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, which is currently operating. The second method requires equipping the Aqaba port with an LNG terminal, which also currently is operating. In the long-term, a viable solution to depending on importing expensive and often unreliable natural gas supplies from surrounding countries is to depend more heavily on renewable supply energy, including solar, wind, and water energy.

Keywords: energy supply resources, Arab spring, liquefied natural gas, pipeline, Jordan

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