Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: Sepideh Soltani

75 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Simin Shahvazi, Sepideh Soltani, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Russell J. De Souza, Amin Salehi-Abargouei

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes such as attenuating cell proliferation and exacerbating differentiation and apoptosis. However, whether there exists a role for vitamin D in the treatment of prostate cancer specifically remains controversial. We systematically review the literature to assess whether supplementation with vitamin D influences PSA response and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google scholar from inception through up to 10 September 2017 for both before-and-after and randomized trials that evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rate in participants with prostate cancer. The DerSimonian and Laird, inverse-weighted random-effects model was used to pool effect estimates from the studies. Heterogeneity and potential publication bias were evaluated. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Results: Twenty-two studies (16 before-after and 6 randomized controlled trials) were found and included in meta-analysis. The analysis on controlled clinical trials revealed that PSA change from baseline [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.66 ng/ml, 95%CI: -0.69, 0.36, P= 0.543)], PSA response (RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.45, P=0.104) and mortality rate (risk ratio (RR) = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.81-1.36; P=0.713) was not significantly different between vitamin D supplementation and placebo groups. Single arm trials revealed that vitamin D supplementation had had a modest effect on PSA response rate: 19% of those enrolled had at least a 50% reduction in PSA by the end of treatment (95% CI: 7% to 31%; p=0.002). Conclusion: We found that vitamin D modestly increases the PSA response rate in single arm studies. No effect on serum PSA levels, PSA response and mortality was seen in randomized controlled clinical trials. It does not seem patients with prostate cancer benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

Keywords: mortality, prostatic neoplasms, PSA response, vitamin D

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74 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
73 The Effect of Microfinance on Labor Productivity of SME - The Case of Iran

Authors: Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalaee Esfand Abadi, Sepideh Samimi

Abstract:

Since one of the major difficulties to develop small manufacturing enterpriser in developing countries is the limitations of financing activities, this paper want to answer the question: “what is the role and status of micro finance in improving the labor productivity of small industries in Iran?” The results of panel data estimation show that micro finance in Iran has not yet been able to work efficiently and provide the required credit and investment. Also, reducing economy’s dependence on oil revenues reduced and increasing its reliance on domestic production and exports of industrial production can increase the productivity of workforce in Iranian small industries.

Keywords: microfinance, small manufacturing enterprises (SME), workforce productivity, Iran, panel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
72 Assessment of Breast, Lung and Liver Effective Doses in Heart Imaging by CT-Scan 128 Dual Sources with Use of TLD-100 in RANDO Phantom

Authors: Seyedeh Sepideh Amini, Navideh Aghaei Amirkhizi, Seyedeh Paniz Amini, Seyed Soheil Sayyahi, Mohammad Reza Davar Panah

Abstract:

CT-Scan is one of the lateral and sectional imaging methods that produce 3D-images with use of rotational x-ray tube around central axis. This study is about evaluation and calculation of effective doses around heart organs such as breast, lung and liver with CT-Scan 128 dual sources with TLD_100 and RANDO Phantom by spiral, flash and conventional protocols. In results, it is showed that in spiral protocol organs have maximum effective dose and minimum in flash protocol. Thus flash protocol advised for children and risk persons.

Keywords: X-ray computed tomography, dosimetry, TLD-100, RANDO, phantom

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71 Utilization of Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model for Simulation of Cavitation Inception and Super Cavitation

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Azadeh Yazdi, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study, the Reynolds-Stress-Navier-Stokes framework is utilized to investigate the flow inside the diesel injector nozzle. The flow is assumed to be multiphase as the formation of vapor by pressure drop is visualized. For pressure and velocity linkage, the coupled algorithm is used. Since the cavitation phenomenon inherently is unsteady, the quasi-steady approach is utilized for saving time and resources in the current study. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used, which was capable of predicting flow behavior both at the initial and final steps of the cavitation process. Two different turbulent models were used in this study to clarify which one is more capable in predicting cavitation inception and super-cavitation. It was found that K-ε was more compatible with the Shnerr-Sauer cavitation model; therefore, the mentioned model is used for the rest of this study.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, cavitation, fuel, injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
70 Effect of Inductance Ratio on Operating Frequencies of a Hybrid Resonant Inverter

Authors: Mojtaba Ghodsi, Hamidreza Ziaifar, Morteza Mohammadzaheri, Payam Soltani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a medium power (25 kW/25 kHz) hybrid inverter with a reactive transformer is investigated. To analyze the sensitivity of the inverster, the RSM technique is employed to manifest the effective factors in the inverter to minimize current passing through the Insulated Bipolar Gate Transistors (IGBTs) (current stress). It is revealed that the ratio of the axillary inductor to the effective inductance of resonant inverter (N), is the most effective parameter to minimize the current stress in this type of inverter. In practice, proper selection of N mitigates the current stress over IGBTs by five times. This reduction is very helpful to keep the IGBTs at normal temperatures.

Keywords: analytical analysis, hybrid resonant inverter, reactive transformer, response surface method

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
69 Optimisation of Photovoltaic Array with DC-DC Converter Groups

Authors: Fatma Soltani

Abstract:

In power electronics the DC-DC converters or choppers are now employed in large areas, particularly in the field of electricity generation by wind and solar energy conversion. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) can deliver maximum power for a point on the characteristic P = f (Vpv), called maximum power point (MPP), or climatic variations, entraiment fluctuation PPM. To remedy this problem is interposed between the generator and receiver a DC-DC converter. The converter is usually used a simple MOSFET chopper. However, the MOSFET can be applied in the field of low power when you need a high switching frequency but becomes highly dissipative when should block large voltages For PV generators medium and high power, the use of IGBT chopper is by far the most recommended. To reduce stress on semiconductor components using several choppers series connected in parallel is known as interleaved chopper. These choppers lead to rotas.

Keywords: converter DC-DC entrelaced, photovoltaic generators, IGBT, optimisation

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68 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi

Abstract:

Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.

Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate, synthesis, stabilizer

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67 Chronic Toxicity of Halofenozide on a Larvivorous Fish, Gambusia affinis: Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-transferase Activities and Glutathione

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

Abstract:

The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: biomarkers, chronic toxicity, insecticide, halofenozide, Gambusia affinis, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
66 Imagology: The Study of Multicultural Imagery Reflected in the Heart of Elif Shafak’s 'The Bastard of Istanbul'

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haji Babai, Sepideh Ahmadkhan Beigi

Abstract:

Internationalization and modernization of the globe have played their roles in the process of cultural interaction between globalized societies and, consequently, found their way to the world of literature under the name of ‘imagology’. Imagology has made it possible for the reader to understand the author’s thoughts and judgments of others. The present research focuses on the intercultural images portrayed in the novel of a popular Turkish-French writer, Elif Shafak, about the lifestyle, traditions, habits, and social norms of Turkish, Americans, and Armenians. The novel seeks to articulate a more intricate multicultural memory of Turkishness by grieving over the Armenian massacre. This study finds that, as a mixture of multiple lifestyles and discourses, The Bastard of Istanbul reflects not only images of oriental culture but also occidental cultures. This means that the author has attempted to maintain selfhood through historical and cultural recollection, which resulted in constructing the self and another identity.

Keywords: imagology, Elif Shafak, The Bastard of Istanbul, self-image, other-image

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
65 Comparison of Competitive State Anxiety among Elite and Non-Elite Futsal Players and Its Relationship with Situational Factors

Authors: Hassan Habibi, Hossein Soltani, Amir Moghadam, Najmeh Bakhshi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare competitive state anxiety among elite and non-elite futsal players and its relationship with situational factors. 130 non-elite and 70 elite male futsal players participated in the study. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and situational factors Inventory were applied. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and product moment correlation. Results showed there was significant difference between competitive state anxiety subscales (cognitive anxiety somatic anxiety & self-confidence) and situational factors among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05) but there was no significant correlations between situational factors subscales among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05).

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, situational factors, elite players, non-elite players

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64 High Thermal Selective Detection of NOₓ Using High Electron Mobility Transistor Based on Gallium Nitride

Authors: Hassane Ouazzani Chahdi, Omar Helli, Bourzgui Nour Eddine, Hassan Maher, Ali Soltani

Abstract:

The real-time knowledge of the NO, NO₂ concentration at high temperature, would allow manufacturers of automobiles to meet the upcoming stringent EURO7 anti-pollution measures for diesel engines. Knowledge of the concentration of each of these species will also enable engines to run leaner (i.e., more fuel efficient) while still meeting the anti-pollution requirements. Our proposed technology is promising in the field of automotive sensors. It consists of nanostructured semiconductors based on gallium nitride and zirconia dioxide. The development of new technologies for selective detection of NO and NO₂ gas species would be a critical enabler of superior depollution. The current response was well correlated to the NO concentration in the range of 0–2000 ppm, 0-2500 ppm NO₂, and 0-300 ppm NH₃ at a temperature of 600.

Keywords: NOₓ sensors, HEMT transistor, anti-pollution, gallium nitride, gas sensor

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63 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside the diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with, mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real-size nozzle was simulated, and it was found that among different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, RME fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
62 Providing a Secure Hybrid Method for Graphical Password Authentication to Prevent Shoulder Surfing, Smudge and Brute Force Attack

Authors: Faraji Sepideh

Abstract:

Nowadays, purchase rate of the smart device is increasing and user authentication is one of the important issues in information security. Alphanumeric strong passwords are difficult to memorize and also owners write them down on papers or save them in a computer file. In addition, text password has its own flaws and is vulnerable to attacks. Graphical password can be used as an alternative to alphanumeric password that users choose images as a password. This type of password is easier to use and memorize and also more secure from pervious password types. In this paper we have designed a more secure graphical password system to prevent shoulder surfing, smudge and brute force attack. This scheme is a combination of two types of graphical passwords recognition based and Cued recall based. Evaluation the usability and security of our proposed scheme have been explained in conclusion part.

Keywords: brute force attack, graphical password, shoulder surfing attack, smudge attack

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61 Effect of Inhibitor of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in the Mediterranean Flour Moth: Structural Parametrs of Cuticule and Ecdysteroid Amounts

Authors: S. Yezli-Touiker, L. Kirane-Amrani, N. Soltani-Mazouni

Abstract:

Ephestia kuehniella Zeller Lepidoptera, Pyralidae commonly called Mediterranean flour moth, is serious cosmopolitan pest of stored grain products, particularly flour Month. This species is also a source of allergen that causes asthma and rhinitis. Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) it was tested in vivo by topical application on development of E. kuehniella. The compound is diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae (10mg/2ml). Report chitin protein of cuticule and ecdysteroid Amounts were determined in vivo. Results show that the captopril does not affect chitin protein of cuticule but traitment with captopril increase the hormonal production, the quantitative analysis reveals the presence of two peaks one at third and another at fifth day.

Keywords: Ephestia kuehniella, cuticule, hormone, captopril

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60 The Impact of Economic Freedom on Entrepreneurship Motivation: A Gendered Perspective on OECD Countries

Authors: Sepideh Khavarinezhad, Paolo Pietro Biancone

Abstract:

This paper sheds light on how gender entrepreneurship is influenced by economic freedom in OECD countries. Our study empirically explores the interaction of financial institutions and its effect of both motivations on total entrepreneurial activities (TEA) of women and men in these countries and to discuss the differences between women and men in this field, which is always a hot topic in entrepreneurship. Employing a dynamic method, we conducted panel data analysis in the time frame from 2012-2015. In this regard, we evaluate the relationship between the Index of Economic Freedoms and its three years, and both indicators of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) on supportive financial institutions. We investigate that economic liberalization tends to persuade men and women entrepreneurs to start their businesses or to reduce motivation entrepreneurship. In particular, our paper demonstrates that motivation entrepreneurship seems to benefit from government support and fade barriers in legal structure in business, while we expect to confirm that free trade and economic freedom stimulate the entrepreneur’s motivation and their participation to start own business.

Keywords: economic freedom, gender entrepreneurship, financial institutions, OECD countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
59 Responsibility of Corporate Manager: To Synthesize of the Different Theories by Economic, Political, Social, and Behavioral Perspectives

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

Keywords: manager, accountability, corporate performance, financial crisis, behavior

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58 Effect of Nano Packaging Containing Ag-TiO₂ in Inactivating the Selected Bacteria Experimentally Exposed to the Chicken-Eggshell

Authors: Hamed Ahari, Sepideh Farokhi, Mohamad Reza Abedini

Abstract:

This paper focuses on inactivation of the growth of the bacterial mixture, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, experimentally subjected to the chicken eggshell by two types of nano particle-Ag, composite film and colloidal spray carried out at concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm over 28 days. The GLM, Repeated Measurement-ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the effect of time and concentration of nano groups on inactivation of bacteria, simultaneously. The maximum reduction of the bacterial growth was respected to the group “spray 2000 ppm” for which the value of the bacteria reached the minimum (0.93±0.42) on day 7, calculated to be 0.0 on days14 and 28 and followed by the group “spray 1000 ppm”. It was obviously concluded that increasing the dilution of nano coating in spray and film created a significant decrease in the number of bacteria colonies on the eggshells but the effect of packaging in different concentrations of nanocomposite was not statistically significant in different days of the study.

Keywords: nano particle, composite film, eggshell, bacteria

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57 The Application of Morphological Principles in Compilation of Solutions for Urban-Rural Problems, Case Study: Baghshater Neighborhood, Locating in Tehran, Iran Region1

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Elnaz Mohsenin

Abstract:

Today, with the rapid growth of urbanization, urban issues are so problematic more than ever. These problems have various origins and they should be studied in different aspects. One of these problems is destroying the structure and identity of urban-rural textures around cities. This destruction appears due to an uncontrolled and unplanned growth of large cities inside and/or connecting suburban areas to the cities. These textures which were called urban-rural areas are faced with the dual identity of rural and urban tissues. It should be noted that, urban-rural areas have the potential for creating urban habitats with the rural nature. However; these areas, due to lack of planning and proper management have encountered serious problems. The main objective of this article is offering some solutions for the structural-physical problems of urban-rural areas with the using of morphological principles and studies. In this case, after morphological studies of one of urban-rural texture example, and also with the use of offered research literature, general solutions have been suggested to solve some of these textures' issues.

Keywords: morphology, typo- morphology, urban-rural, urban texture

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56 Antecedents of Spinouts: Technology Relatedness, Intellectual Property Rights, and Venture Capital

Authors: Sepideh Yeganegi, Andre Laplume, Parshotam Dass, Cam-Loi Huynh

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines organizational and institutional antecedents of entrepreneurial entry. We employ multi-level logistic regression modelling methods on a sub-sample of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s 2011 survey covering 30 countries. The results reveal that employees who have experience with activities unrelated to the core technology of their organizations are more likely to spin out entrepreneurial ventures, whereas those with experiences related to the core technology are less likely to do so. In support of the recent theory, we find that the strength of intellectual property rights and the availability of venture capital have negative and positive effects, respectively, on the likelihood that employees turn into entrepreneurs. These institutional factors also moderate the effect of relatedness to core technology such that entrepreneurial entries by employees with experiences related to core technology are curbed more severely by stronger intellectual property rights protection regimes and lack of venture capital.

Keywords: spinouts, intellectual property rights, venture capital, entrepreneurship, organizational experiences, core technology

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55 Electromagnetic Modeling of a MESFET Transistor Using the Moments Method Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Takoua Soltani, Imen Soltani, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

The communications' and radar systems' demands give rise to new developments in the domain of active integrated antennas (AIA) and arrays. The main advantages of AIA arrays are the simplicity of fabrication, low cost of manufacturing, and the combination between free space power and the scanner without a phase shifter. The integrated active antenna modeling is the coupling between the electromagnetic model and the transport model that will be affected in the high frequencies. Global modeling of active circuits is important for simulating EM coupling, interaction between active devices and the EM waves, and the effects of EM radiation on active and passive components. The current review focuses on the modeling of the active element which is a MESFET transistor immersed in a rectangular waveguide. The proposed EM analysis is based on the Method of Moments combined with the Generalised Equivalent Circuit method (MOM-GEC). The Method of Moments which is the most common and powerful software as numerical techniques have been used in resolving the electromagnetic problems. In the class of numerical techniques, MOM is the dominant technique in solving of Maxwell and Transport’s integral equations for an active integrated antenna. In this situation, the equivalent circuit is introduced to the development of an integral method formulation based on the transposition of field problems in a Generalised equivalent circuit that is simpler to treat. The method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit (MGEC) was suggested in order to represent integral equations circuits that describe the unknown electromagnetic boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit presents a true electric image of the studied structures for describing the discontinuity and its environment. The aim of our developed method is to investigate the antenna parameters such as the input impedance and the current density distribution and the electric field distribution. In this work, we propose a global EM modeling of the MESFET AsGa transistor using an integral method. We will begin by describing the modeling structure that allows defining an equivalent EM scheme translating the electromagnetic equations considered. Secondly, the projection of these equations on common-type test functions leads to a linear matrix equation where the unknown variable represents the amplitudes of the current density. Solving this equation resulted in providing the input impedance, the distribution of the current density and the electric field distribution. From electromagnetic calculations, we were able to present the convergence of input impedance for different test function number as a function of the guide mode numbers. This paper presents a pilot study to find the answer to map out the variation of the existing current evaluated by the MOM-GEC. The essential improvement of our method is reducing computing time and memory requirements in order to provide a sufficient global model of the MESFET transistor.

Keywords: active integrated antenna, current density, input impedance, MESFET transistor, MOM-GEC method

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
54 Date Palm Compreg: A High Quality Bio-Composite of Date Palm Wood

Authors: Mojtaba Soltani, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, Hamid Reza Naji

Abstract:

Date Palm Wood (D.P.W) specimens were impregnated with Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at 15% level, using vacuum/pressure method. Three levels of moisture content (MC) (50%, 60%, and 70% ) before pressing stage and three hot pressing times (15, 20, and 30 minutes) were the variables. The boards were prepared at 20% compression rate. The physical properties of specimens such as spring back, thickness swelling and water absorption, and mechanical properties including MOR, MOE were studied and compared between variables. The results indicated that the percentage of MC levels before compression set was the main factor on the properties of the Date Palm Compreg. Also, the results showed that this compregnation method can be used as a good method for making high-quality bio-composite from Date Palm Wood.

Keywords: Date palm, phenol formaldehyde resin, high-quality bio-composite, physical and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
53 Crop Price Variation and Water Saving Technologies in Iran

Authors: Saeed Yazdani, Shahrbanoo Bagheri, Sepideh Nikravesh

Abstract:

Considering the importance and scarcity of water resources, the efficient management of water resources is of great importance. Adoption of modern irrigation technology is considered to be a key of increasing the efficiency of water used in agriculture. Policy makers have implemented several ways to induce the adoption of new irrigation technology. The empirical studies show that farmers are reluctant to utilize the use of new irrigation methods. This study aims to assess factors affecting on farmer’s decision on the application of water saving technologies with emphasize on crop price variation and water sources. A Logit model was employed to examine the impact of different variables on use of water saving technology. The required data gathered from a sample of 204 farmers in the year 2012. The results indicate that different variables such as crop price variability, water supply source, high-value crops, farm size, income, education, membership in cooperatives have a positive effect and variables such as age and number of plots have a negative impact on the probability of adopting modern water saving technologies.

Keywords: irrigation, water, water saving technology, scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
52 Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System

Authors: Soltani Amir, Wang Xuan

Abstract:

The advantage of using non-linear passive damping system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is connected between two adjacent structures. A Matlab program is developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage of application of this system device for vibration control of two adjacent tall building.

Keywords: active control, passive control, viscous dampers, structural control, vibration control, tall building

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51 Optimum Parameter of a Viscous Damper for Seismic and Wind Vibration

Authors: Soltani Amir, Hu Jiaxin

Abstract:

Determination of optimal parameters of a passive control system device is the primary objective of this study. Expanding upon the use of control devices in wind and earthquake hazard reduction has led to development of various control systems. The advantage of non-linearity characteristics in a passive control device and the optimal control method using LQR algorithm are explained in this study. Finally, this paper introduces a simple approach to determine optimum parameters of a nonlinear viscous damper for vibration control of structures. A MATLAB program is used to produce the dynamic motion of the structure considering the stiffness matrix of the SDOF frame and the non-linear damping effect. This study concluded that the proposed system (variable damping system) has better performance in system response control than a linear damping system. Also, according to the energy dissipation graph, the total energy loss is greater in non-linear damping system than other systems.

Keywords: passive control system, damping devices, viscous dampers, control algorithm

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50 Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Zahrasadat Saide Zarabadi

Abstract:

A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

Keywords: complexity theory, complex system, flexibility, parametric design

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49 Improving the Performance of DBE Structure in Pressure Flushing Using Submerged Vanes

Authors: Sepideh Beiramipour, Hadi Haghjouei, Kourosh Qaderi, Majid Rahimpour, Mohammad M. Ahmadi, Sameh A. Kantoush

Abstract:

Reservoir sedimentation is one of the main challenges by which the reservoir behind the dam is filled with sediments transferred through the river flow. Pressure flushing method is an effective way to drain the deposited sediments of the reservoirs through the bottom outlet. So far, several structural methods have been proposed to increase the efficiency of pressure flushing. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of Dendritic Bottomless Extended (DBE) structure on the efficiency of pressurized sediment flushing using submerged vanes. For this purpose, the physical model of the dam reservoir with dimensions of 7.5 m in length, 3.5 m in width, and 1.8 m in height in the hydraulic and water structures research laboratory of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman was used. In order to investigate the influence of submerged vanes on the performance of DBE structure in pressure flushing, the best arrangement and geometric parameters of the vanes were selected and combined with the DBE structure. The results showed that the submerged vanes significantly increased the performance of the DBE structure so that the volume of the sediment flushing cone with the combination of two structures increased by 3.7 times compared to the DBE structure test.

Keywords: dendritic bottomless extended structure, flushing efficiency, sedimentation, sediment flushing

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
48 The Effect of Bacteria on Mercury's Biological Removal

Authors: Nastaran Soltani

Abstract:

Heavy metals such as Mercury are toxic elements that enter the environment through different ways and endanger the environment, plants, animals, and humans’ health. Microbial activities reduce the amount of heavy metals. Therefore, an effective mechanism to eliminate heavy metals in the nature and factory slops, is using bacteria living in polluted areas. Karun River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been always polluted by heavy metals as it is located among different industries in the region. This study was performed based on the data from sampling water and sediments of four stations across the river during the four seasons of a year. The isolation of resistant bacteria was performed through enrichment and direct cultivation in a solid medium containing mercury. Various bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Serratia Marcescens, and E.coli were identified as mercury-resistant bacteria. The power of these bacteria to remove mercury varied from 28% to 86%, with strongest power belonging to Pseudomonas sp. isolated in spring making a good candidate to be used for mercury biological removal from factory slops.

Keywords: bacteria, Karun River, mercury, biological removal, mercury-resistant

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47 Tunable Graphene Metasurface Modeling Using the Method of Moment Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit

Authors: Imen Soltani, Takoua Soltani, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

Metamaterials crossover classic physical boundaries and gives rise to new phenomena and applications in the domain of beam steering and shaping. Where electromagnetic near and far field manipulations were achieved in an accurate manner. In this sense, 3D imaging is one of the beneficiaries and in particular Denis Gabor’s invention: holography. But, the major difficulty here is the lack of a suitable recording medium. So some enhancements were essential, where the 2D version of bulk metamaterials have been introduced the so-called metasurface. This new class of interfaces simplifies the problem of recording medium with the capability of tuning the phase, amplitude, and polarization at a given frequency. In order to achieve an intelligible wavefront control, the electromagnetic properties of the metasurface should be optimized by means of solving Maxwell’s equations. In this context, integral methods are emerging as an important method to study electromagnetic from microwave to optical frequencies. The method of moment presents an accurate solution to reduce the problem of dimensions by writing its boundary conditions in the form of integral equations. But solving this kind of equations tends to be more complicated and time-consuming as the structural complexity increases. Here, the use of equivalent circuit’s method exhibits the most scalable experience to develop an integral method formulation. In fact, for allaying the resolution of Maxwell’s equations, the method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit was proposed to convey the resolution from the domain of integral equations to the domain of equivalent circuits. In point of fact, this technique consists in creating an electric image of the studied structure using discontinuity plan paradigm and taken into account its environment. So that, the electromagnetic state of the discontinuity plan is described by generalised test functions which are modelled by virtual sources not storing energy. The environmental effects are included by the use of an impedance or admittance operator. Here, we propose a tunable metasurface composed of graphene-based elements which combine the advantages of reflectarrays concept and graphene as a pillar constituent element at Terahertz frequencies. The metasurface’s building block consists of a thin gold film, a dielectric spacer SiO₂ and graphene patch antenna. Our electromagnetic analysis is based on the method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit (MoM-GEC). We begin by restricting our attention to study the effects of varying graphene’s chemical potential on the unit cell input impedance. So, it was found that the variation of complex conductivity of graphene allows controlling the phase and amplitude of the reflection coefficient at each element of the array. From the results obtained here, we were able to determine that the phase modulation is realized by adjusting graphene’s complex conductivity. This modulation is a viable solution compared to tunning the phase by varying the antenna length because it offers a full 2π reflection phase control.

Keywords: graphene, method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit, reconfigurable metasurface, reflectarray, terahertz domain

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46 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Karima Sifi, Noureddine Soltani

Abstract:

Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, acetylcholinesterase, glutathion s-transferase, biomonitoring, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 305