Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 145

Search results for: optimisation

145 Optimisation of a Dragonfly-Inspired Flapping Wing-Actuation System

Authors: Jia-Ming Kok, Javaan Chahl

Abstract:

An optimisation method using both global and local optimisation is implemented to determine the flapping profile which will produce the most lift for an experimental wing-actuation system. The optimisation method is tested using a numerical quasi-steady analysis. Results of an optimised flapping profile show a 20% increase in lift generated as compared to flapping profiles obtained by high speed cinematography of a Sympetrum frequens dragonfly. Initial optimisation procedures showed 3166 objective function evaluations. The global optimisation parameters - initial sample size and stage one sample size, were altered to reduce the number of function evaluations. Altering the stage one sample size had no significant effect. It was found that reducing the initial sample size to 400 would allow a reduction in computational effort to approximately 1500 function evaluations without compromising the global solvers ability to locate potential minima. To further reduce the optimisation effort required, we increase the local solver’s convergence tolerance criterion. An increase in the tolerance from 0.02N to 0.05N decreased the number of function evaluations by another 20%. However, this potentially reduces the maximum obtainable lift by up to 0.025N.

Keywords: flapping wing, optimisation, quasi-steady model, dragonfly

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
144 Benefit Of Waste Collection Route Optimisation

Authors: Bojana Tot, Goran BošKović, Goran Vujić

Abstract:

Route optimisation is a process of planning one or multiple routes, with the purpose of minimizing overall costs, while achieving the highest possible performance under a set of given constraints. It combines routing or route planning, which is the process of creating the most cost-effective route by minimizing the distance or travelled time necessary to reach a set of planned stops, and route scheduling, which is the process of assigning an arrival and service time for each stop, with drivers being given shifts that adhere to their working hours. The objective of this paper is to provide benefits on the implementation of waste collection route optimisation and thus achieve economic efficiency for public utility companies, better service for citizens and positive environment and health.

Keywords: waste management, environment, collection route optimisation, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
143 Robust Optimisation Model and Simulation-Particle Swarm Optimisation Approach for Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands

Authors: Mohanad Al-Behadili, Djamila Ouelhadj

Abstract:

In this paper, a specific type of vehicle routing problem under stochastic demand (SVRP) is considered. This problem is of great importance because it models for many of the real world vehicle routing applications. This paper used a robust optimisation model to solve the problem along with the novel Simulation-Particle Swarm Optimisation (Sim-PSO) approach. The proposed Sim-PSO approach is based on the hybridization of the Monte Carlo simulation technique with the PSO algorithm. A comparative study between the proposed model and the Sim-PSO approach against other solution methods in the literature has been given in this paper. This comparison including the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to show the ability of the model and solution method in solving the complicated SVRP. The experimental results show that the proposed model and Sim-PSO approach has a significant impact on the obtained solution by providing better quality solutions comparing with well-known algorithms in the literature.

Keywords: stochastic vehicle routing problem, robust optimisation model, Monte Carlo simulation, particle swarm optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
142 Free Shape Optimisation of Cold Formed Steel Sections

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

Cold-formed steel sections are popular construction materials as structural or non-structural elements. The objective of this paper is to propose an optimisation method for open cross sections targeting the maximum nominal axial strength. The cross sections considered in the optimisation process should all meet a determined critical global buckling load to be considered as a candidate for optimisation process. The maximum dimensions of the cross section are fixed and limited into a predefined rectangular area. The optimisation process is repeated for different available coil thicknesses of 1 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm to determine the optimum thickness according to the cross section buckling behaviour. A simple-simple boundary is assumed as end conditions. The number of folds is limited to 20 folds to prevent extra complicated sections. The global buckling load is considered as Euler load and is determined according to the moment of inertia of the cross-section with a constant length. The critical buckling loads are obtained using Finite Strip Method. The results of the optimisation analysis are provided, and the optimum cross-section within the considered range is determined.

Keywords: shape optimisation, buckling, cold formed steel, finite strip method

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
141 Gas Network Noncooperative Game

Authors: Teresa Azevedo PerdicoúLis, Paulo Lopes Dos Santos

Abstract:

The conceptualisation of the problem of network optimisation as a noncooperative game sets up a holistic interactive approach that brings together different network features (e.g., com-pressor stations, sources, and pipelines, in the gas context) where the optimisation objectives are different, and a single optimisation procedure becomes possible without having to feed results from diverse software packages into each other. A mathematical model of this type, where independent entities take action, offers the ideal modularity and subsequent problem decomposition in view to design a decentralised algorithm to optimise the operation and management of the network. In a game framework, compressor stations and sources are under-stood as players which communicate through network connectivity constraints–the pipeline model. That is, in a scheme similar to tatonnementˆ, the players appoint their best settings and then interact to check for network feasibility. The devolved degree of network unfeasibility informs the players about the ’quality’ of their settings, and this two-phase iterative scheme is repeated until a global optimum is obtained. Due to network transients, its optimisation needs to be assessed at different points of the control interval. For this reason, the proposed approach to optimisation has two stages: (i) the first stage computes along the period of optimisation in order to fulfil the requirement just mentioned; (ii) the second stage is initialised with the solution found by the problem computed at the first stage, and computes in the end of the period of optimisation to rectify the solution found at the first stage. The liability of the proposed scheme is proven correct on an abstract prototype and three example networks.

Keywords: connectivity matrix, gas network optimisation, large-scale, noncooperative game, system decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
140 Computational Aerodynamic Shape Optimisation Using a Concept of Control Nodes and Modified Cuckoo Search

Authors: D. S. Naumann, B. J. Evans, O. Hassan

Abstract:

This paper outlines the development of an automated aerodynamic optimisation algorithm using a novel method of parameterising a computational mesh by employing user–defined control nodes. The shape boundary movement is coupled to the movement of the novel concept of the control nodes via a quasi-1D-linear deformation. Additionally, a second order smoothing step has been integrated to act on the boundary during the mesh movement based on the change in its second derivative. This allows for both linear and non-linear shape transformations dependent on the preference of the user. The domain mesh movement is then coupled to the shape boundary movement via a Delaunay graph mapping. A Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) algorithm is used for optimisation within the prescribed design space defined by the allowed range of control node displacement. A finite volume compressible NavierStokes solver is used for aerodynamic modelling to predict aerodynamic design fitness. The resulting coupled algorithm is applied to a range of test cases in two dimensions including the design of a subsonic, transonic and supersonic intake and the optimisation approach is compared with more conventional optimisation strategies. Ultimately, the algorithm is tested on a three dimensional wing optimisation case.

Keywords: mesh movement, aerodynamic shape optimization, cuckoo search, shape parameterisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
139 Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
138 Modification of the Athena Vortex Lattice Code for the Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
137 Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox

Authors: Mehmet Bozca

Abstract:

Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (µmax and µmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.

Keywords: Singular value, optimisation, gearbox, torsional vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
136 Multi-objective Rationality Optimisation for Robotic-fabrication-oriented Free-form Timber Structure Morphology Design

Authors: Yiping Meng, Yiming Sun

Abstract:

The traditional construction industry is unable to meet the requirements for novel fabrication and construction. Automated construction and digital design have emerged as industry development trends that compensate for this shortcoming under the backdrop of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Benefitting from more flexible working space and more various end-effector tools compared to CNC methods, robot fabrication and construction techniques have been used in irregular architectural design. However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive design and optimisation workflow considering geometric form, material, and fabrication methods. This paper aims to propose a design optimisation workflow for improving the rationality of a free-form timber structure fabricated by the robotic arm. Firstly, the free-form surface is described by NURBS, while its structure is calculated using the finite element analysis method. Then, by considering the characteristics and limiting factors of robotic timber fabrication, strain energy and robustness are set as optimisation objectives to optimise structural morphology by gradient descent method. As a result, an optimised structure with axial force as the main force and uniform stress distribution is generated after the structure morphology optimisation process. With the decreased strain energy and the improved robustness, the generated structure's bearing capacity and mechanical properties have been enhanced. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimisation workflow for free-form timber structure morphology design.

Keywords: robotic fabrication, free-form timber structure, Multi-objective optimisation, Structural morphology, rational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
135 Optimisation of Structural Design by Integrating Genetic Algorithms in the Building Information Modelling Environment

Authors: Tofigh Hamidavi, Sepehr Abrishami, Pasquale Ponterosso, David Begg

Abstract:

Structural design and analysis is an important and time-consuming process, particularly at the conceptual design stage. Decisions made at this stage can have an enormous effect on the entire project, as it becomes ever costlier and more difficult to alter the choices made early on in the construction process. Hence, optimisation of the early stages of structural design can provide important efficiencies in terms of cost and time. This paper suggests a structural design optimisation (SDO) framework in which Genetic Algorithms (GAs) may be used to semi-automate the production and optimisation of early structural design alternatives. This framework has the potential to leverage conceptual structural design innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Moreover, this framework improves the collaboration between the architectural stage and the structural stage. It will be shown that this SDO framework can make this achievable by generating the structural model based on the extracted data from the architectural model. At the moment, the proposed SDO framework is in the process of validation, involving the distribution of an online questionnaire among structural engineers in the UK.

Keywords: building information, modelling, BIM, genetic algorithm, GA, architecture-engineering-construction, AEC, optimisation, structure, design, population, generation, selection, mutation, crossover, offspring

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
134 Excel-VBA as Modelling Platform for Thermodynamic Optimisation of an R290/R600a Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

The availability of computers and educational software nowadays helps engineering students acquire better understanding of engineering principles and their applications. With these facilities, students can perform sensitivity and optimisation analyses which were not possible in the past by using slide-rules and hand calculators. Standard textbooks in engineering thermodynamics also use software such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Interactive Thermodynamics (IT) for solving calculation-intensive and design problems. Unfortunately, engineering students in most developing countries do not have access to such applications which are protected by intellectual-property rights. This paper shows how Microsoft ExcelTM and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), which are normally distributed with personal computers and laptops, can be used as an alternative modelling platform for thermodynamic analyses and optimisation. The paper describes the VBA user-defined-functions developed for determining the refrigerants properties with Excel. For illustration, the combination is used to model and optimise the intermediate temperature for a propane/iso-butane cascade refrigeration system.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimisation, engineering education, excel, VBA, cascade refrigeration system

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
133 Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
132 A Collective Approach to Optimisation of Renewing Warranty Policy

Authors: Ming Luo

Abstract:

In this real world, a manufacturer may produce more than one product. The products produced by the same manufacturer may share the same type of parts, similar design, and be produced in the same factory, i.e. some common causes. From the perspective of warranty management, the frequencies of those products’ warranty claims may have statistical dependence caused by the common causes. Warranty policy optimisation in the existing research, majorly, has not considered such dependence, which may increase bias in decision making. In the market, renewing warranty policies are provided to some unrepairable products and consumer electronic products. This paper optimises the renewing warranty policy collectively in a multi-product scenario with a consideration of the dependence among the warranty claims of the products produced by the same manufacturer. The existence of the optimal solution is proved. Numerical examples are used to validate the applicability of the proposed methods.

Keywords: mean-risk framework, modern portfolio theory, renewing warranty policy, warranty policy optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
131 Optimisation of the Hydrometeorological-Hydrometric Network: A Case Study in Greece

Authors: E. Baltas, E. Feloni, G. Bariamis

Abstract:

The operation of a network of hydrometeorological-hydrometric stations is basic infrastructure for the management of water resources, as well as, for flood protection. The assessment of water resources potential led to the necessity of adoption management practices including a multi-criteria analysis for the optimum design of the region’s station network. This research work aims at the optimisation of a new/existing network, using GIS methods. The planning of optimum network stations is based on the guidelines of international organizations such as World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The uniform spatial distribution of the stations, the drainage basin for the hydrometric stations and criteria concerning the low terrain slope, the accessibility to the stations and proximity to hydrological interest sites, were taken into consideration for its development. The abovementioned methodology has been implemented for two different areas the Florina municipality and the Argolis area in Greece, and comparison of the results has been conducted.

Keywords: GIS, hydrometeorological, hydrometric, network, optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
130 Size Optimization of Microfluidic Polymerase Chain Reaction Devices Using COMSOL

Authors: Foteini Zagklavara, Peter Jimack, Nikil Kapur, Ozz Querin, Harvey Thompson

Abstract:

The invention and development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology have revolutionised molecular biology and molecular diagnostics. There is an urgent need to optimise their performance of those devices while reducing the total construction and operation costs. The present study proposes a CFD-enabled optimisation methodology for continuous flow (CF) PCR devices with serpentine-channel structure, which enables the trade-offs between competing objectives of DNA amplification efficiency and pressure drop to be explored. This is achieved by using a surrogate-enabled optimisation approach accounting for the geometrical features of a CF μPCR device by performing a series of simulations at a relatively small number of Design of Experiments (DoE) points, with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The values of the objectives are extracted from the CFD solutions, and response surfaces created using the polyharmonic splines and neural networks. After creating the respective response surfaces, genetic algorithm, and a multi-level coordinate search optimisation function are used to locate the optimum design parameters. Both optimisation methods produced similar results for both the neural network and the polyharmonic spline response surfaces. The results indicate that there is the possibility of improving the DNA efficiency by ∼2% in one PCR cycle when doubling the width of the microchannel to 400 μm while maintaining the height at the value of the original design (50μm). Moreover, the increase in the width of the serpentine microchannel is combined with a decrease in its total length in order to obtain the same residence times in all the simulations, resulting in a smaller total substrate volume (32.94% decrease). A multi-objective optimisation is also performed with the use of a Pareto Front plot. Such knowledge will enable designers to maximise the amount of DNA amplified or to minimise the time taken throughout thermal cycling in such devices.

Keywords: PCR, optimisation, microfluidics, COMSOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
129 A Case for Introducing Thermal-Design Optimisation Using Excel Spreadsheet

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

This paper deals with the introduction of thermal-design optimisation to engineering students by using Microsoft's Excel as a modelling platform. Thermal-design optimisation is an iterative process which involves the evaluation of many thermo-physical properties that vary with temperature and/or pressure. Therefore, suitable modelling software, such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) or Interactive Thermodynamics (IT), is usually used for this purpose. However, such proprietary applications may not be available to many educational institutions in developing countries. This paper presents a simple thermal-design case that demonstrates how the principles of thermo-fluids and economics can be jointly applied so as to find an optimum solution to a thermal-design problem. The paper describes the solution steps and provides all the equations needed to solve the case with Microsoft Excel. The paper also highlights the advantage of using VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) for developing user-defined functions when repetitive or complex calculations are met. VBA makes Excel a powerful, yet affordable, the computational platform for introducing various engineering principles.

Keywords: engineering education, thermal design, Excel, VBA, user-defined functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
128 Implications of Optimisation Algorithm on the Forecast Performance of Artificial Neural Network for Streamflow Modelling

Authors: Martins Y. Otache, John J. Musa, Abayomi I. Kuti, Mustapha Mohammed

Abstract:

The performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) is contingent on a host of factors, for instance, the network optimisation scheme. In view of this, the study examined the general implications of the ANN training optimisation algorithm on its forecast performance. To this end, the Bayesian regularisation (Br), Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), and the adaptive learning gradient descent: GDM (with momentum) algorithms were employed under different ANN structural configurations: (1) single-hidden layer, and (2) double-hidden layer feedforward back propagation network. Results obtained revealed generally that the gradient descent with momentum (GDM) optimisation algorithm, with its adaptive learning capability, used a relatively shorter time in both training and validation phases as compared to the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian Regularisation (Br) algorithms though learning may not be consummated; i.e., in all instances considering also the prediction of extreme flow conditions for 1-day and 5-day ahead, respectively especially using the ANN model. In specific statistical terms on the average, model performance efficiency using the coefficient of efficiency (CE) statistic were Br: 98%, 94%; LM: 98 %, 95 %, and GDM: 96 %, 96% respectively for training and validation phases. However, on the basis of relative error distribution statistics (MAE, MAPE, and MSRE), GDM performed better than the others overall. Based on the findings, it is imperative to state that the adoption of ANN for real-time forecasting should employ training algorithms that do not have computational overhead like the case of LM that requires the computation of the Hessian matrix, protracted time, and sensitivity to initial conditions; to this end, Br and other forms of the gradient descent with momentum should be adopted considering overall time expenditure and quality of the forecast as well as mitigation of network overfitting. On the whole, it is recommended that evaluation should consider implications of (i) data quality and quantity and (ii) transfer functions on the overall network forecast performance.

Keywords: streamflow, neural network, optimisation, algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
127 Optimal Design of Wind Turbine Blades Equipped with Flaps

Authors: I. Kade Wiratama

Abstract:

As a result of the significant growth of wind turbines in size, blade load control has become the main challenge for large wind turbines. Many advanced techniques have been investigated aiming at developing control devices to ease blade loading. Amongst them, trailing edge flaps have been proven as effective devices for load alleviation. The present study aims at investigating the potential benefits of flaps in enhancing the energy capture capabilities rather than blade load alleviation. A software tool is especially developed for the aerodynamic simulation of wind turbines utilising blades equipped with flaps. As part of the aerodynamic simulation of these wind turbines, the control system must be also simulated. The simulation of the control system is carried out via solving an optimisation problem which gives the best value for the controlling parameter at each wind turbine run condition. Developing a genetic algorithm optimisation tool which is especially designed for wind turbine blades and integrating it with the aerodynamic performance evaluator, a design optimisation tool for blades equipped with flaps is constructed. The design optimisation tool is employed to carry out design case studies. The results of design case studies on wind turbine AWT 27 reveal that, as expected, the location of flap is a key parameter influencing the amount of improvement in the power extraction. The best location for placing a flap is at about 70% of the blade span from the root of the blade. The size of the flap has also significant effect on the amount of enhancement in the average power. This effect, however, reduces dramatically as the size increases. For constant speed rotors, adding flaps without re-designing the topology of the blade can improve the power extraction capability as high as of about 5%. However, with re-designing the blade pretwist the overall improvement can be reached as high as 12%.

Keywords: flaps, design blade, optimisation, simulation, genetic algorithm, WTAero

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
126 Supply Chain Optimisation through Geographical Network Modeling

Authors: Cyrillus Prabandana

Abstract:

Supply chain optimisation requires multiple factors as consideration or constraints. These factors are including but not limited to demand forecasting, raw material fulfilment, production capacity, inventory level, facilities locations, transportation means, and manpower availability. By knowing all manageable factors involved and assuming the uncertainty with pre-defined percentage factors, an integrated supply chain model could be developed to manage various business scenarios. This paper analyse the utilisation of geographical point of view to develop an integrated supply chain network model to optimise the distribution of finished product appropriately according to forecasted demand and available supply. The supply chain optimisation model shows that small change in one supply chain constraint is possible to largely impact other constraints, and the new information from the model should be able to support the decision making process. The model was focused on three areas, i.e. raw material fulfilment, production capacity and finished products transportation. To validate the model suitability, it was implemented in a project aimed to optimise the concrete supply chain in a mining location. The high level of operations complexity and involvement of multiple stakeholders in the concrete supply chain is believed to be sufficient to give the illustration of the larger scope. The implementation of this geographical supply chain network modeling resulted an optimised concrete supply chain from raw material fulfilment until finished products distribution to each customer, which indicated by lower percentage of missed concrete order fulfilment to customer.

Keywords: decision making, geographical supply chain modeling, supply chain optimisation, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
125 Optimisation of the Input Layer Structure for Feedforward Narx Neural Networks

Authors: Zongyan Li, Matt Best

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization method for reducing the number of input channels and the complexity of the feed-forward NARX neural network (NN) without compromising the accuracy of the NN model. By utilizing the correlation analysis method, the most significant regressors are selected to form the input layer of the NN structure. An application of vehicle dynamic model identification is also presented in this paper to demonstrate the optimization technique and the optimal input layer structure and the optimal number of neurons for the neural network is investigated.

Keywords: correlation analysis, F-ratio, levenberg-marquardt, MSE, NARX, neural network, optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
124 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester

Abstract:

In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, Rule Based Architecture, Aircraft Design, Decision Support System

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
123 Optimisation of Photovoltaic Array with DC-DC Converter Groups

Authors: Fatma Soltani

Abstract:

In power electronics the DC-DC converters or choppers are now employed in large areas, particularly in the field of electricity generation by wind and solar energy conversion. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) can deliver maximum power for a point on the characteristic P = f (Vpv), called maximum power point (MPP), or climatic variations, entraiment fluctuation PPM. To remedy this problem is interposed between the generator and receiver a DC-DC converter. The converter is usually used a simple MOSFET chopper. However, the MOSFET can be applied in the field of low power when you need a high switching frequency but becomes highly dissipative when should block large voltages For PV generators medium and high power, the use of IGBT chopper is by far the most recommended. To reduce stress on semiconductor components using several choppers series connected in parallel is known as interleaved chopper. These choppers lead to rotas.

Keywords: converter DC-DC entrelaced, photovoltaic generators, IGBT, optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
122 Part Performance Improvement through Design Optimisation of Cooling Channels in the Injection Moulding Process

Authors: M. A. Alhubail, A. I. Alateyah, D. Alenezi, B. Aldousiri

Abstract:

In this study conformal cooling channel (CCC) was employed to dissipate heat of, Polypropylene (PP) parts injected into the Stereolithography (SLA) insert to form tensile and flexural test specimens. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to fabricate a mould with optimised CCC, while optimum parameters of injection moulding were obtained using Optimal-D. The obtained results show that optimisation of the cooling channel layout using a DMLS mould has significantly shortened cycle time without sacrificing the part’s mechanical properties. By applying conformal cooling channels, the cooling time phase was reduced by 20 seconds, and also defected parts were eliminated.

Keywords: optimum parameters, injection moulding, conformal cooling channels, cycle time

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
121 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Abhijit Chatterjee, Aishwaryaprajna

Abstract:

Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem.

Keywords: geometric programming problem, multivariate optimisation technique, posynomial, spatial interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
120 Batch-Oriented Setting Time`s Optimisation in an Aerodynamic Feeding System

Authors: Jan Busch, Maurice Schmidt, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The change of conditions for production companies in high-wage countries is characterized by the globalization of competition and the transition of a supplier´s to a buyer´s market. The companies need to face the challenges of reacting flexibly to these changes. Due to the significant and increasing degree of automation, assembly has become the most expensive production process. Regarding the reduction of production cost, assembly consequently offers a considerable rationalizing potential. Therefore, an aerodynamic feeding system has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. In former research activities, this system has been enabled to adjust itself using genetic algorithm. The longer the genetic algorithm is executed the better is the feeding quality. In this paper, the relation between the system´s setting time and the feeding quality is observed and a function which enables the user to achieve the minimum of the total feeding time is presented.

Keywords: aerodynamic feeding system, batch size, optimisation, setting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
119 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
118 Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Muhammad Moaz

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted in a superior performance.

Keywords: differential drive robot, hybrid fuzzy controller, optimization, path tracking, unicycle robot

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117 Drone Swarm Routing and Scheduling for Off-shore Wind Turbine Blades Inspection

Authors: Mohanad Al-Behadili, Xiang Song, Djamila Ouelhadj, Alex Fraess-Ehrfeld

Abstract:

In off-shore wind farms, turbine blade inspection accessibility under various sea states is very challenging and greatly affects the downtime of wind turbines. Maintenance of any offshore system is not an easy task due to the restricted logistics and accessibility. The multirotor unmanned helicopter is of increasing interest in inspection applications due to its manoeuvrability and payload capacity. These advantages increase when many of them are deployed simultaneously in a swarm. Hence this paper proposes a drone swarm framework for inspecting offshore wind turbine blades and nacelles so as to reduce downtime. One of the big challenges of this task is that when operating a drone swarm, an individual drone may not have enough power to fly and communicate during missions and it has no capability of refueling due to its small size. Once the drone power is drained, there are no signals transmitted and the links become intermittent. Vessels equipped with 5G masts and small power units are utilised as platforms for drones to recharge/swap batteries. The research work aims at designing a smart energy management system, which provides automated vessel and drone routing and recharging plans. To achieve this goal, a novel mathematical optimisation model is developed with the main objective of minimising the number of drones and vessels, which carry the charging stations, and the downtime of the wind turbines. There are a number of constraints to be considered, such as each wind turbine must be inspected once and only once by one drone; each drone can inspect at most one wind turbine after recharging, then fly back to the charging station; collision should be avoided during the drone flying; all wind turbines in the wind farm should be inspected within the given time window. We have developed a real-time Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm to generate real-time and near-optimal solutions to the drone swarm routing problem. The schedule will generate efficient and real-time solutions to indicate the inspection tasks, time windows, and the optimal routes of the drones to access the turbines. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the quality of the solutions generated by ACO.

Keywords: drone swarm, routing, scheduling, optimisation model, ant colony optimisation

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116 Optimisation of Metrological Inspection of a Developmental Aeroengine Disc

Authors: Suneel Kumar, Nanda Kumar J. Sreelal Sreedhar, Suchibrata Sen, V. Muralidharan,

Abstract:

Fan technology is very critical and crucial for any aero engine technology. The fan disc forms a critical part of the fan module. It is an airworthiness requirement to have a metrological qualified quality disc. The current study uses a tactile probing and scanning on an articulated measuring machine (AMM), a bridge type coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and Metrology software for intermediate and final dimensional and geometrical verification during the prototype development of the disc manufactured through forging and machining process. The circumferential dovetails manufactured through the milling process are evaluated based on the evaluated and analysed metrological process. To perform metrological optimization a change of philosophy is needed making quality measurements available as fast as possible to improve process knowledge and accelerate the process but with accuracy, precise and traceable measurements. The offline CMM programming for inspection and optimisation of the CMM inspection plan are crucial portions of the study and discussed. The dimensional measurement plan as per the ASME B 89.7.2 standard to reach an optimised CMM measurement plan and strategy are an important requirement. The probing strategy, stylus configuration, and approximation strategy effects on the measurements of circumferential dovetail measurements of the developmental prototype disc are discussed. The results were discussed in the form of enhancement of the R &R (repeatability and reproducibility) values with uncertainty levels within the desired limits. The findings from the measurement strategy adopted for disc dovetail evaluation and inspection time optimisation are discussed with the help of various analyses and graphical outputs obtained from the verification process.

Keywords: coordinate measuring machine, CMM, aero engine, articulated measuring machine, fan disc

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