Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Taoufik Aguili

13 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili


In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

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12 Use of Metamaterials Structures to Reduce the SAR in the Human Head

Authors: Hafawa Messaoudi, Taoufik Aguili


Due to the rapid growth in the use of wireless communication systems, there has been a recent increase in public concern regarding the exposure of humans to Radio Frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation. This is particularly evident in the case of mobile telephone handsets. Previously, the insertion of a ferrite sheet between the antenna and the human head, the use of conductive materials (such as aluminum), the use of metamaterials (SRR), frequency selective surface (FSS), and electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures to design high performance devices were proposed as methods of reducing the SAR value. This paper aims to provide an investigation of the effectiveness of various available Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) reduction solutions.

Keywords: EBG, HIS, metamaterials, SAR reduction

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11 On the Study of the Electromagnetic Scattering by Large Obstacle Based on the Method of Auxiliary Sources

Authors: Hidouri Sami, Aguili Taoufik


We consider fast and accurate solutions of scattering problems by large perfectly conducting objects (PEC) formulated by an optimization of the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). We present various techniques used to reduce the total computational cost of the scattering problem. The first technique is based on replacing the object by an array of finite number of small (PEC) object with the same shape. The second solution reduces the problem on considering only the half of the object.These two solutions are compared to results from the reference bibliography.

Keywords: method of auxiliary sources, scattering, large object, RCS, computational resources

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10 Rectenna Modeling Based on MoM-GEC Method for RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Soulayma Smirani, Mourad Aidi, Taoufik Aguili


Energy harvesting has arisen as a prominent research area for low power delivery to RF devices. Rectennas have become a key element in this technology. In this paper, electromagnetic modeling of a rectenna system is presented. In our approach, a hybrid technique was demonstrated to associate both the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and MoM-GEC (the method of moments combined with the generalized equivalent circuit technique). Auxiliary sources were used in order to substitute specific electronic devices. Therefore, a simple and controllable model is obtained. Also, it can easily be interconnected to form different topologies of rectenna arrays for more energy harvesting. At last, simulation results show the feasibility and simplicity of the proposed rectenna model with high precision and computation efficiency.

Keywords: computational electromagnetics, MoM-GEC method, rectennas, RF energy harvesting

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9 Electromagnetic Modeling of a MESFET Transistor Using the Moments Method Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Takoua Soltani, Imen Soltani, Taoufik Aguili


The communications' and radar systems' demands give rise to new developments in the domain of active integrated antennas (AIA) and arrays. The main advantages of AIA arrays are the simplicity of fabrication, low cost of manufacturing, and the combination between free space power and the scanner without a phase shifter. The integrated active antenna modeling is the coupling between the electromagnetic model and the transport model that will be affected in the high frequencies. Global modeling of active circuits is important for simulating EM coupling, interaction between active devices and the EM waves, and the effects of EM radiation on active and passive components. The current review focuses on the modeling of the active element which is a MESFET transistor immersed in a rectangular waveguide. The proposed EM analysis is based on the Method of Moments combined with the Generalised Equivalent Circuit method (MOM-GEC). The Method of Moments which is the most common and powerful software as numerical techniques have been used in resolving the electromagnetic problems. In the class of numerical techniques, MOM is the dominant technique in solving of Maxwell and Transport’s integral equations for an active integrated antenna. In this situation, the equivalent circuit is introduced to the development of an integral method formulation based on the transposition of field problems in a Generalised equivalent circuit that is simpler to treat. The method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit (MGEC) was suggested in order to represent integral equations circuits that describe the unknown electromagnetic boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit presents a true electric image of the studied structures for describing the discontinuity and its environment. The aim of our developed method is to investigate the antenna parameters such as the input impedance and the current density distribution and the electric field distribution. In this work, we propose a global EM modeling of the MESFET AsGa transistor using an integral method. We will begin by describing the modeling structure that allows defining an equivalent EM scheme translating the electromagnetic equations considered. Secondly, the projection of these equations on common-type test functions leads to a linear matrix equation where the unknown variable represents the amplitudes of the current density. Solving this equation resulted in providing the input impedance, the distribution of the current density and the electric field distribution. From electromagnetic calculations, we were able to present the convergence of input impedance for different test function number as a function of the guide mode numbers. This paper presents a pilot study to find the answer to map out the variation of the existing current evaluated by the MOM-GEC. The essential improvement of our method is reducing computing time and memory requirements in order to provide a sufficient global model of the MESFET transistor.

Keywords: active integrated antenna, current density, input impedance, MESFET transistor, MOM-GEC method

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8 Tunable Graphene Metasurface Modeling Using the Method of Moment Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit

Authors: Imen Soltani, Takoua Soltani, Taoufik Aguili


Metamaterials crossover classic physical boundaries and gives rise to new phenomena and applications in the domain of beam steering and shaping. Where electromagnetic near and far field manipulations were achieved in an accurate manner. In this sense, 3D imaging is one of the beneficiaries and in particular Denis Gabor’s invention: holography. But, the major difficulty here is the lack of a suitable recording medium. So some enhancements were essential, where the 2D version of bulk metamaterials have been introduced the so-called metasurface. This new class of interfaces simplifies the problem of recording medium with the capability of tuning the phase, amplitude, and polarization at a given frequency. In order to achieve an intelligible wavefront control, the electromagnetic properties of the metasurface should be optimized by means of solving Maxwell’s equations. In this context, integral methods are emerging as an important method to study electromagnetic from microwave to optical frequencies. The method of moment presents an accurate solution to reduce the problem of dimensions by writing its boundary conditions in the form of integral equations. But solving this kind of equations tends to be more complicated and time-consuming as the structural complexity increases. Here, the use of equivalent circuit’s method exhibits the most scalable experience to develop an integral method formulation. In fact, for allaying the resolution of Maxwell’s equations, the method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit was proposed to convey the resolution from the domain of integral equations to the domain of equivalent circuits. In point of fact, this technique consists in creating an electric image of the studied structure using discontinuity plan paradigm and taken into account its environment. So that, the electromagnetic state of the discontinuity plan is described by generalised test functions which are modelled by virtual sources not storing energy. The environmental effects are included by the use of an impedance or admittance operator. Here, we propose a tunable metasurface composed of graphene-based elements which combine the advantages of reflectarrays concept and graphene as a pillar constituent element at Terahertz frequencies. The metasurface’s building block consists of a thin gold film, a dielectric spacer SiO₂ and graphene patch antenna. Our electromagnetic analysis is based on the method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit (MoM-GEC). We begin by restricting our attention to study the effects of varying graphene’s chemical potential on the unit cell input impedance. So, it was found that the variation of complex conductivity of graphene allows controlling the phase and amplitude of the reflection coefficient at each element of the array. From the results obtained here, we were able to determine that the phase modulation is realized by adjusting graphene’s complex conductivity. This modulation is a viable solution compared to tunning the phase by varying the antenna length because it offers a full 2π reflection phase control.

Keywords: graphene, method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit, reconfigurable metasurface, reflectarray, terahertz domain

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7 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili


In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: double negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method

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6 Phytoremediation Potential of Hibiscus Cannabinus L. Grown on Different Soil Cadmium Concentration

Authors: Sarra Arbaoui, Taoufik Bettaieb


Contaminated soils and problems related to them have increasingly become a matter of concern. The most common the contaminants generated by industrial urban emissions and agricultural practices are trace metals). Remediation of trace metals which pollute soils can be carried out using physico-chemical processes. Nevertheless, these techniques damage the soil’s biological activity and require expensive equipment. Phytoremediation is a relatively low-cost technology based on the use of selected plants to remove, degrades or contains pollutants. The potential of kenaf for phytoremediation on Cd-contaminated soil was investigated. kenaf plants have been grown in pots containing different concentrations of cadmium. The observations made were for biomass production and cadmium content in different organs determinate by atomic emission spectrometry. Cadmium transfer from a contaminated soil to plants and into plant tissues are discussed in terms of the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and the Transfer Factor (TF). Results showed that Cd was found in kenaf plants at different levels. Tolerance and accumulation potential and biomass productivity indicated that kenaf could be used in phytoremediation.

Keywords: kenaf, cadmium, phytoremediation, contaminated soil

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5 Modeling of the Effect of Explosives, Geological and Geotechnical Parameters on the Stability of Rock Masses Case of Marrakech: Agadir Highway, Morocco

Authors: Taoufik Benchelha, Toufik Remmal, Rachid El Hamdouni, Hamou Mansouri, Houssein Ejjaouani, Halima Jounaid, Said Benchelha


During the earthworks for the construction of Marrakech-Agadir highway in southern Morocco, which crosses mountainous areas of the High Western Atlas, the main problem faced is the stability of the slopes. Indeed, the use of explosives as a means of excavation associated with the geological structure of the terrain encountered can trigger major ruptures and cause damage which depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass. The study consists of a geological and geotechnical analysis of several unstable zones located along the route, mobilizing millions of cubic meters of rock, with deduction of the parameters influencing slope stability. From this analysis, a predictive model for rock mass stability is carried out, based on a statistic method of logistic regression, in order to predict the geomechanical behavior of the rock slopes constrained by earthworks.

Keywords: explosive, logistic regression, rock mass, slope stability

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4 Strategies and Perceptions of Small Olive Oil Farmers of By-Product Valorization

Authors: Judit Manuel-i-Martin, Mechthild Donner, Ivana Radic, Yamna Erraach, Fatima Elhadad, Taoufik Yatribi, Feliu Lopez-i-Gelats


This paper investigates how small olive farmers and olive oil producers implement circular economy practices to manage olive related waste and how such strategies are perceived by the farmers themselves. While there is a lot of data and research about possible uses of olive oil by-products, the perceptions and related practices of olive oil farmers is a much less investigated domain. A total of 60 semi-structured interviews were conducted in one of the most relevant olive oil producing regions in the Iberian Peninsula -the region of Terres de Ponent (Catalonia – Spain) - to examine the different by-product valorization strategies the olive oil farms develop. We test the hypothesis that the strategies conducted depend on the nature and amount of resources available by the farm. The results obtained point that access to milling infrastructure is a determining factor. We also found that olive tree pruning biomass and olive pomace are the most common by-products valorized by farmers, the first one on-farm and the latter in mills. Results indicate that high value uses for olive oil by-products are rarely implemented by farmers. We conclude that olive farmers tend to perceive by-product valorization strategies as waste management practices rather than as additional sources of value for their farm.

Keywords: circular economy, discourses, Mediterranean region, olive oil by-products, farmers’ strategies, olive pomace

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3 Epidemiological, Clinical and Bacteriological Profile of Human Brucellosis in the District of Tunis

Authors: Jihene Bettaieb, Ghassen kharroubi, Rym mallekh, Ines Cherif, Taoufik Atawa, Kaouther Harrabech


Brucellosis is a major worldwide zoonosis. It is a reportable condition in Tunisia where the disease remains endemic, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and bacteriological profile of human brucellosis cases notified in the district of Tunis. It was a retrospective descriptive study of cases reported in the district of Tunis through the national surveillance system between the 1st January and 31th December 2017. During the study period, 133 brucellosis confirmed cases were notified. The mean age was 37.5 ± 18.0 years, and 54.9% of cases were males. More than four-fifths (82.7%) of cases were reported in spring and summer with a peak in the month of May (36 cases). Fever and sweats were the most common symptoms; they occurred in 95% and 72% of cases, respectively. Osteoarticular complications occurred in 10 cases, meningitis in one case and endocarditis in one other case. Wright agglutination test and Rose Bengale test were positive in 100% and 91% of cases, respectively. While blood culture was positive in 9 cases and PCR in 2 cases. Brucella melitensis was the only identified specie (9 cases). Almost all cases (99.2%) reported the habit of consuming raw dairy products. Only 5 cases had a suspect contact with animals; among them, 3 persons were livestock breeders. The transmission was essentially due to raw dairy product consumption. It is important to enhance preventive measures to control animal Brucellosis and to educate the population regarding the risk factors of the disease.

Keywords: brucellosis, risk factors, surveillance system, Tunisia

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2 Study on The Pile Height Loss of Tunisian Handmade Carpets Under Dynamic Loading

Authors: Fatma Abidi, Taoufik Harizi, Slah Msahli, Faouzi Sakli


Nine different Tunisian handmade carpets were used for the investigation. The raw material of the carpet pile yarns was wool. The influence of the different structure parameters (linear density and pile height) on the carpet compression was investigated. Carpets were tested under dynamic loading in order to evaluate and observe the thickness loss and carpet behavior under dynamic loads. To determine the loss of pile height under dynamic loading, the pile height carpets were measured. The test method was treated according to the Tunisian standard NT 12.165 (corresponds to the standard ISO 2094). The pile height measurements are taken and recorded at intervals up to 1000 impacts (measures of this study were made after 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 impacts). The loss of pile height is calculated using the variation between the initial height and those measured after the number of reported impacts. The experimental results were statistically evaluated using Design Expert Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) software. As regards the deformation, results showed that both of the structure parameters of the pile yarn and the pile height have an influence. The carpet with the higher pile and the less linear density of pile yarn showed the worst performance. Results of a polynomial regression analysis are highlighted. There is a good correlation between the loss of pile height and the impacts number of dynamic loads. These equations are in good agreement with measured data. Because the prediction is reasonably accurate for all samples, these equations can also be taken into account when calculating the theoretical loss of pile height for the considered carpet samples. Statistical evaluations of the experimen¬tal data showed that the pile material and number of impacts have a significant effect on mean thickness and thickness loss variations.

Keywords: Tunisian handmade carpet, loss of pile height, dynamic loads, performance

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1 School Accidents in Educational Establishment in Tunisia: A Five Years Retrospective Survey in the Governorate of Mahdia

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Leila Mrabet, Taoufik Khalfallah


Background and aims: School accidents are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among pupils and students. Indeed, they may induce an elevated number of lost school days, heavy emotional and physical disabilities, and financial costs on the victims and their families. This study aims to evaluate the annual incidence of school accidents in the central Tunisian governorate of Mahdia and to identify the epidemiological profile of victims and risk factors of these accidents. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted over the period of 5 school years, focusing on school accidents that occurred in public educational institutions (primary, basic, secondary and university) in the governorate of Mahdia (area = 2 966 km² and number of inhabitants in 2014 = 410 812). All accidents declared near the only official insurance of this type of injuries (MASU: Mutual School and University Accidents), and initially taken in charge at the University Hospital of Mahdia were included. Data was collected from the MASU reporting forms and the medical records of emergency and other specialized hospital departments. Results: With 3248 identified victims, the annual incidence of school accidents was equal to 0.69 per 100 pupils and students per year. The average age of victims was 14.51 ± 0.059 years and the sex ratio was 1.58. Pupils aged between 12 and 15 years, were concerned by 46.7% of the identified accidents. The practice of sports was the most relevant circumstances of these accidents (76.2 %). In 56.58 % of cases, falls were the leading mechanism. Bruises and fractures were the most frequent lesions (32.43 % and 30.51 %). Serious school accidents were noted in 28% of cases with hospitalization in 2.27 % of them. The average lost school days, was 12.23±1.73 days. Accidents occurring during sports or leisure activities were significantly more serious (p= 0.021). Furthermore, the frequency of hospitalization was significantly higher among boys (2.81% vs. 1.43%; p= 0.035), students ≤11 years (p= 0.008), and following crush trauma (p= 0.000). In addition, the surgical interventions were statistically more frequent among male victims (p=0.00), accidents occurring during physical education sessions (p=0.000); those associated to falls (p=0.000) and to crushes mechanisms (p=0.002), and injuries affecting lower limbs (p=0.000). Following this Multi-varied analysis concluded that the severity of school accident is correlated to the activity practiced during the trauma and the geographical location of the school. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are one of the most vulnerable groups against incidents with the risk of permanent disability, mainly related to the perturbation of the growth process and physiological limitations. Our five-year study, objectified a real elevate incidence of school accident among children and adolescents, with a considerable rate of severe injuries. In any community, the promotion of adolescents and children’s health is an important indicator of the public health level. Thus, it’s important to develop a multidisciplinary prevention strategy of school accident, based on safety and security rules and adapted to the specificity of our context.

Keywords: children and adolescents, children health, injuries and disability, school accident

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