Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22289

Search results for: response surface method

22289 Evaluation of a Surrogate Based Method for Global Optimization

Authors: David Lindström


We evaluate the performance of a numerical method for global optimization of expensive functions. The method is using a response surface to guide the search for the global optimum. This metamodel could be based on radial basis functions, kriging, or a combination of different models. We discuss how to set the cycling parameters of the optimization method to get a balance between local and global search. We also discuss the eventual problem with Runge oscillations in the response surface.

Keywords: expensive function, infill sampling criterion, kriging, global optimization, response surface, Runge phenomenon

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
22288 Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Qasim Idrees, Gao Liangtian, Liu Bo, Miao Yiran


In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of five dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the Chinese Classification Society (CCS) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two-order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.

Keywords: parameterization, response surface, structure optimization, pressure hull

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22287 Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of Arch Dam Based on Response Surface Method

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong


Earthquake is one of the main loads threatening dam safety. Once the dam is damaged, it will bring huge losses of life and property to the country and people. Therefore, it is very important to research the seismic safety of the dam. Due to the complex foundation conditions, high fortification intensity, and high scientific and technological content, it is necessary to adopt reasonable methods to evaluate the seismic safety performance of concrete arch dams built and under construction in strong earthquake areas. Structural seismic vulnerability analysis can predict the probability of structural failure at all levels under different intensity earthquakes, which can provide a scientific basis for reasonable seismic safety evaluation and decision-making. In this paper, the response surface method (RSM) is applied to the seismic vulnerability analysis of arch dams, which improves the efficiency of vulnerability analysis. Based on the central composite test design method, the material-seismic intensity samples are established. The response surface model (RSM) with arch crown displacement as performance index is obtained by finite element (FE) calculation of the samples, and then the accuracy of the response surface model (RSM) is verified. To obtain the seismic vulnerability curves, the seismic intensity measure ??(?1) is chosen to be 0.1~1.2g, with an interval of 0.1g and a total of 12 intensity levels. For each seismic intensity level, the arch crown displacement corresponding to 100 sets of different material samples can be calculated by algebraic operation of the response surface model (RSM), which avoids 1200 times of nonlinear dynamic calculation of arch dam; thus, the efficiency of vulnerability analysis is improved greatly.

Keywords: high concrete arch dam, performance index, response surface method, seismic vulnerability analysis, vector-valued intensity measure

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22286 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj, Sudhir Kumar


This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, drilling, optimization, step drill, surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error

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22285 Seismic Investigation on the Effect of Surface Structures and Twin Tunnel on the Site Response in Urban Areas

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Site response has a profound effect on earthquake damages. Seismic interaction of urban tunnels with surface structures could also affect seismic site response. Here, we use FLAC 2D to investigate the interaction of a single tunnel and twin tunnels-surface structures on the site response. Soil stratification and properties are selected based on Line. No 7 of the Tehran subway. The effect of surface structure is considered in two ways: Equivalent surcharge and geometrical modeling of the structure. Comparison of the results shows that consideration of the structure geometry is vital in dynamic analysis and leads to the changes in the magnitude of displacements, accelerations and response spectrum. Therefore it is necessary for the surface structures to be wholly modeled and not just considered as a surcharge in dynamic analysis. The use of twin tunnel also leads to the reduction of dynamic residual settlement.

Keywords: superstructure, tunnel, site response, surcharge, interaction

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22284 Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N., Gayatri Jadhav


Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: Fluoride, Response Surface Methodology, Dosage, banana peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
22283 Modeling of Austenitic Stainless Steel during Face Milling Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: A. A. Selaimia, H. Bensouilah, M. A. Yallese, I. Meddour, S. Belhadi, T. Mabrouki


The objective of this work is to model the output responses namely; surface roughness (Ra), cutting force (Fc), during the face milling of the austenitic stainless steel X2CrNi18-9 with coated carbide tools (GC4040). For raison, response surface methodology (RMS) is used to determine the influence of each technological parameter. A full factorial design (L27) is chosen for the experiments, and the ANOVA is used in order to evaluate the influence of the technological cutting parameters namely; cutting speed (Vc), feed per tooth, and depth of cut (ap) on the out-put responses. The results reveal that (Ra) is mostly influenced by (fz) and (Fc) is found considerably affected by (ap).

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, ANOVA, coated carbide, response surface methodology (RSM)

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22282 Mecano-Reliability Coupled of Reinforced Concrete Structure and Vulnerability Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Kernou Nassim


The current study presents a vulnerability and a reliability-mechanical approach that focuses on evaluating the seismic performance of reinforced concrete structures to determine the probability of failure. In this case, the performance function reflecting the non-linear behavior of the structure is modeled by a response surface to establish an analytical relationship between the random variables (strength of concrete and yield strength of steel) and mechanical responses of the structure (inter-floor displacement) obtained by the pushover results of finite element simulations. The push over-analysis is executed by software SAP2000. The results acquired prove that properly designed frames will perform well under seismic loads. It is a comparative study of the behavior of the existing structure before and after reinforcement using the pushover method. The coupling indirect mechanical reliability by response surface avoids prohibitive calculation times. Finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with Monte Carlo Simulation. The comparative study shows that the structure is more reliable after the introduction of new shear walls.

Keywords: finite element method, surface response, reliability, reliability mechanical coupling, vulnerability

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22281 Novel Technique for calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors

Authors: Sudip Sudhir Godbole


In transmission line surface potential gradient is a critical design parameter for planning overhead line, as it determines the level of corona loss (CL), radio interference (RI) and audible noise (AN).With increase of transmission line voltage level bulk power transfer is possible, using bundle conductor configuration used, it is more complex to find accurate surface stress in bundle configuration. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculations are based on analytical methods which restrict their application in simulating complex surface geometry. This paper proposes a novel technique which utilizes both analytical and numerical procedure to predict the surface gradient. One of 400 kV transmission line configurations has been selected as an example to compare the results for different methods. The different strand shapes are a key variable in determining.

Keywords: surface gradient, Maxwell potential coefficient method, market and Mengele’s method, successive images method, charge simulation method, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
22280 Photo-Fenton Decolorization of Methylene Blue Adsolubilized on Co2+ -Embedded Alumina Surface: Comparison of Process Modeling through Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Prateeksha Mahamallik, Anjali Pal


In the present study, Co(II)-adsolubilized surfactant modified alumina (SMA) was prepared, and methylene blue (MB) degradation was carried out on Co-SMA surface by visible light photo-Fenton process. The entire reaction proceeded on solid surface as MB was embedded on Co-SMA surface. The reaction followed zero order kinetics. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used for modeling the decolorization of MB by photo-Fenton process as a function of dose of Co-SMA (10, 20 and 30 g/L), initial concentration of MB (10, 20 and 30 mg/L), concentration of H2O2 (174.4, 348.8 and 523.2 mM) and reaction time (30, 45 and 60 min). The prediction capabilities of both the methodologies (RSM and ANN) were compared on the basis of correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of prediction (SEP), relative percent deviation (RPD). Due to lower value of RMSE (1.27), SEP (2.06) and RPD (1.17) and higher value of R2 (0.9966), ANN was proved to be more accurate than RSM in order to predict decolorization efficiency.

Keywords: adsolubilization, artificial neural network, methylene blue, photo-fenton process, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
22279 Optimization Analysis of a Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger with Field Synergy Principle

Authors: M. C. Lin, C. W. Su


The paper investigates the optimization analysis to the heat exchanger design, mainly with response surface method and genetic algorithm to explore the relationship between optimal fluid flow velocity and temperature of the heat exchanger using field synergy principle. First, finite volume method is proposed to calculate the flow temperature and flow rate distribution for numerical analysis. We identify the most suitable simulation equations by response surface methodology. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm approach is applied to optimize the relationship between fluid flow velocity and flow temperature of the heat exchanger. The results show that the field synergy angle plays vital role in the performance of a true heat exchanger.

Keywords: optimization analysis, field synergy, heat exchanger, genetic algorithm

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22278 Multi-Response Optimization of CNC Milling Parameters Using Taguchi Based Grey Relational Analysis for AA6061 T6 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Varsha Singh, Kishan Fuse


This paper presents a study of the grey-Taguchi method to optimize CNC milling parameters of AA6061 T6 aluminium alloy. Grey-Taguchi method combines Taguchi method based design of experiments (DOE) with grey relational analysis (GRA). Multi-response optimization of different quality characteristics as surface roughness, material removal rate, cutting forces is done using grey relational analysis (GRA). The milling parameters considered for experiments include cutting speed, feed per tooth, and depth of cut. Each parameter with three levels is selected. A grey relational grade is used to estimate overall quality characteristics performance. The Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is used for design of experiments. MINITAB 17 software is used for optimization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to identify most influencing parameter. The experimental results show that grey relational analysis is effective method for optimizing multi-response characteristics. Optimum results are finally validated by performing confirmation test.

Keywords: ANOVA, CNC milling, grey relational analysis, multi-response optimization

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22277 Optimization of Wear during Dry Sliding Wear of AISI 1042 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Sukant Mehra, Parth Gupta, Varun Arora, Sarvoday Singh, Amit Kohli


The study was emphasised on dry sliding wear behavior of AISI 1042 steel. Dry sliding wear tests were performed using pin-on-disk apparatus under normal loads of 5, 7.5 and 10 kgf and at speeds 600, 750 and 900 rpm. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for finding optimal values of process parameter and experiment was based on rotatable, central composite design (CCD). It was found that the wear followed linear pattern with the load and rpm. The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirmation experiments.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), optimization, response surface methodology (RSM), wear

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22276 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness and near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.


In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor Hobson Talysurf tester, micro Vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.

Keywords: hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness

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22275 Non-Destructive Evaluation for Physical State Monitoring of an Angle Section Thin-Walled Curved Beam

Authors: Palash Dey, Sudip Talukdar


In this work, a cross-breed approach is presented for obtaining both the amount of the damage intensity and location of damage existing in thin-walled members. This cross-breed approach is developed based on response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA). Theoretical finite element (FE) model of cracked angle section thin walled curved beam has been linked to the developed approach to carry out trial experiments to generate response surface functions (RSFs) of free, forced and heterogeneous dynamic response data. Subsequently, the error between the computed response surface functions and measured dynamic response data has been minimized using GA to find out the optimum damage parameters (amount of the damage intensity and location). A single crack of varying location and depth has been considered in this study. The presented approach has been found to reveal good accuracy in prediction of crack parameters and possess great potential in crack detection as it requires only the current response of a cracked beam.

Keywords: damage parameters, finite element, genetic algorithm, response surface methodology, thin walled curved beam

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22274 Optimization of Surface Roughness by Taguchi’s Method for Turning Process

Authors: Ashish Ankus Yerunkar, Ravi Terkar


Study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy requirements of both quality as well as productivity with special emphasis on reduction of cutting tool flank wear, because reduction in flank wear ensures increase in tool life. The predicted optimal setting ensured minimization of surface roughness. Purpose of this paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. Design for the experiment was done using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The results are analyzed using ANOVA method. Taguchi method has depicted that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The vibrations of the machine tool, tool chattering are the other factors which may contribute poor surface roughness to the results and such factors ignored for analyses. The inferences by this method will be useful to other researches for similar type of study and may be vital for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc.

Keywords: surface roughness (ra), machining, dry turning, taguchi method, turning process, anova method, mahr perthometer

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22273 Effect of Process Variables of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Surface Roughness for AA-6063 by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Deepak


WEDM is an amazingly potential electro-wire process for machining of hard metal compounds and metal grid composites without making contact. Wire electrical machining is a developing noncustomary machining process for machining hard to machine materials that are electrically conductive. It is an exceptionally exact, precise, and one of the most famous machining forms in nontraditional machining. WEDM has turned into the fundamental piece of many assembling process ventures, which require precision, variety, and accuracy. In the present examination, AA-6063 is utilized as a workpiece, and execution investigation is done to discover the critical control factors. Impact of different parameters like a pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, water pressure, wire tension, wire feed upon surface hardness has been researched while machining on AA-6063. RSM has been utilized to advance the yield variable. A variety of execution measures with input factors was demonstrated by utilizing the response surface methodology.

Keywords: AA-6063, response surface methodology, WEDM, surface roughness

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22272 Interaction between Trapezoidal Hill and Subsurface Cavity under SH Wave Incidence

Authors: Yuanrui Xu, Zailin Yang, Yunqiu Song, Guanxixi Jiang


It is an important subject of seismology on the influence of local topography on ground motion during earthquake. In mountainous areas with complex terrain, the construction of the tunnel is often the most effective transportation scheme. In these projects, the local terrain can be simplified into hills with different shapes, and the underground tunnel structure can be regarded as a subsurface cavity. The presence of the subsurface cavity affects the strength of the rock mass and changes the deformation and failure characteristics. Moreover, the scattering of the elastic waves by underground structures usually interacts with local terrains, which leads to a significant influence on the surface displacement of the terrains. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the surface displacement of local terrains with underground tunnels in earthquake engineering and seismology. In this work, the region is divided into three regions by the method of region matching. By using the fractional Bessel function and Hankel function, the complex function method, and the wave function expansion method, the wavefield expression of SH waves is introduced. With the help of a constitutive relation between the displacement and the stress components, the hoop stress and radial stress is obtained subsequently. Then, utilizing the continuous condition at different region boundaries, the undetermined coefficients in wave fields are solved by the Fourier series expansion and truncation of the finite term. Finally, the validity of the method is verified, and the surface displacement amplitude is calculated. The surface displacement amplitude curve is discussed in the numerical results. The results show that different parameters, such as radius and buried depth of the tunnel, wave number, and incident angle of the SH wave, have a significant influence on the amplitude of surface displacement. For the underground tunnel, the increase of buried depth will make the response of surface displacement amplitude increases at first and then decreases. However, the increase of radius leads the response of surface displacement amplitude to appear an opposite phenomenon. The increase of SH wave number can enlarge the amplitude of surface displacement, and the change of incident angle can obviously affect the amplitude fluctuation.

Keywords: method of region matching, scattering of SH wave, subsurface cavity, trapezoidal hill

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22271 Dynamic Response Analysis of Structure with Random Parameters

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


In this paper, we propose a method for the dynamic response of multi-storey structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example of three-storey structures. This equation is integrated numerically using Newmark’s method. The numerical results are obtained by the proposed method. The simulation accounting the interval analysis method results are compared with a probabilistic approach results. The interval analysis method provides a mean curve that is between an upper and lower bound obtained from the probabilistic approach.

Keywords: multi-storey structure, dynamic response, interval analysis method, random parameters

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22270 Appraisal of the Impact Strength on Mild Steel Cladding Weld Metal Geometry

Authors: Chukwuemeka Daniel Ezeliora, Chukwuebuka Lawrence Ezeliora


The research focused on the appraisal of impact strength on mild steel cladding weld metal geometry. Over the years, poor welding has resulted in failures in engineering components, poor material quality, the collapse of welded materials, and failures in material strength. This is as a result of poor selection and combination of welding input process parameters. The application of the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding method with weld specimen of length 60; width 40, and thickness of 10 was used for the experiment. A butt joint method was prepared for the welding, and tungsten inert gas welding process was used to perform the twenty (20) experimental runs. A response surface methodology was used to model and to analyze the system. For an adequate polynomial approximation, the experimental design was used to collect the data. The key parameters considered in this work are welding current, gas flow rate, welding speed, and voltage. The range of the input process parameters was selected from the literature and the design. The steps followed to achieve the experimental design and results is the use of response surface method (RSM) implemented in central composite design (CCD) to generate the design matrix, to obtain quadratic model, and evaluate the interactions in the factors as well as optimizing the factors and the response. The result expresses that the best impact strength of the mild steel cladding weld metal geometry is 115.419 Joules. However, it was observed that the result of the input factors is; current 180.4 amp, voltage 23.99 volt, welding speed 142.7 mm.s and gas flow rate 10.8 lit/min as the optimum of the input process parameters. The optimal solution gives a guide for optimal impact strength of the weldment when welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) under study.

Keywords: mild steel, impact strength, response surface, bead geometry, welding

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22269 Vibration Analysis and Optimization Design of Ultrasonic Horn

Authors: Kuen Ming Shu, Ren Kai Ho


Ultrasonic horn has the functions of amplifying amplitude and reducing resonant impedance in ultrasonic system. Its primary function is to amplify deformation or velocity during vibration and focus ultrasonic energy on the small area. It is a crucial component in design of ultrasonic vibration system. There are five common design methods for ultrasonic horns: analytical method, equivalent circuit method, equal mechanical impedance, transfer matrix method, finite element method. In addition, the general optimization design process is to change the geometric parameters to improve a single performance. Therefore, in the general optimization design process, we couldn't find the relation of parameter and objective. However, a good optimization design must be able to establish the relationship between input parameters and output parameters so that the designer can choose between parameters according to different performance objectives and obtain the results of the optimization design. In this study, an ultrasonic horn provided by Maxwide Ultrasonic co., Ltd. was used as the contrast of optimized ultrasonic horn. The ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA) software was used to simulate the distribution of the horn amplitudes and the natural frequency value. The results showed that the frequency for the simulation values and actual measurement values were similar, verifying the accuracy of the simulation values. The ANSYS DesignXplorer was used to perform Response Surface optimization, which could shows the relation of parameter and objective. Therefore, this method can be used to substitute the traditional experience method or the trial-and-error method for design to reduce material costs and design cycles.

Keywords: horn, natural frequency, response surface optimization, ultrasonic vibration

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22268 Estimating the Properties of Polymer Concrete Using the Response Surface Method

Authors: Oguz Ugurkan Akkaya, Alpaslan Sipahi, Ozgur Firat Pamukcu, Murat Yasar, Tolga Guler, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir


With the increase in human population, expansion, and renovation of cities, infrastructure systems today need to be manufactured to be more durable and long-lasting. The most cost-effective and durable manufacturing of components is a general problem of all engineering disciplines. Therefore, it is important to determine the most optimal components. This study mainly focuses on the most optimal component design of the polymer concrete. For this purpose, the lower and upper limits of the three main components of the polymer concrete are determined. The effects of these three principal components on the compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit price of polymer concrete are estimated using the response surface method. Box-Behnken Design is used in designing the experiments. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit prices are successfully estimated with variance ratios (R²) of 0.82, 0.92, and 0.90, respectively, and the optimum mixture quantity is determined.

Keywords: Box-Behnken Design, compressive strength, mechanical tests, polymer concrete, tensile strength

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22267 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood


Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime

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22266 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar


In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor, sol-gel method

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22265 Effect of Rainflow Cycle Number on Fatigue Lifetime of an Arm of Vehicle Suspension System

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Mohamed Bouazara, Fouad Erchiqui


Fatigue, is considered as one of the main cause of mechanical properties degradation of mechanical parts. Probability and reliability methods are appropriate for fatigue analysis using uncertainties that exist in fatigue material or process parameters. Current work deals with the study of the effect of the number and counting Rainflow cycle on fatigue lifetime (cumulative damage) of an upper arm of the vehicle suspension system. The major part of the fatigue damage induced in suspension arm is caused by two main classes of parameters. The first is related to the materials properties and the second is the road excitation or the applied force of the passenger’s number. Therefore, Young's modulus and road excitation are selected as input parameters to conduct repetitive simulations by Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Latin hypercube sampling method is used to generate these parameters. Response surface method is established according to fatigue lifetime of each combination of input parameters according to strain-life method. A PYTHON script was developed to automatize finite element simulations of the upper arm according to a design of experiments.

Keywords: fatigue, monte carlo, rainflow cycle, response surface, suspension system

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22264 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat


This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

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22263 Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness and Tool Life Using (RSM) in Face Milling

Authors: Mohieddine Benghersallah, Lakhdar Boulanouar, Salim Belhadi


Currently, higher production rate with required quality and low cost is the basic principle in the competitive manufacturing industry. This is mainly achieved by using high cutting speed and feed rates. Elevated temperatures in the cutting zone under these conditions shorten tool life and adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and surface integrity of component. Thus it is necessary to find optimum cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, machining environment, tool material and geometry) that can produce components in accordance with the project and having a relatively high production rate. Response surface methodology is a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques that are useful for modelling and analysis of problems in which a response of interest is influenced by several variables and the objective is to optimize this response. The work presented in this paper examines the effects of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on to the surface roughness through the mathematical model developed by using the data gathered from a series of milling experiments performed.

Keywords: Statistical analysis (RSM), Bearing steel, Coating inserts, Tool life, Surface Roughness, End milling.

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22262 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang


One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

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22261 Statistical Optimization of Vanillin Production by Pycnoporus Cinnabarinus 1181

Authors: Swarali Hingse, Shraddha Digole, Uday Annapure


The present study investigates the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and its optimization using one-factor-at-a-time method as well as statistical approach. Effect of various physicochemical parameters and medium components was studied using one-factor-at-a-time method. Screening of the significant factors was carried out using L25 Taguchi orthogonal array and then these selected significant factors were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Significant media components obtained using Taguchi L25 orthogonal array were glucose, KH2PO4 and yeast extract. Further, a Box Behnken design was used to investigate the interactive effects of the three most significant media components. The final medium obtained after optimization using RSM containing glucose (34.89 g/L), diammonium tartrate (1 g/L), yeast extract (1.47 g/L), MgSO4•7H2O (0.5 g/L), KH2PO4 (0.15 g/L), and CaCl2•2H2O (20 mg/L) resulted in amplification of vanillin production from 30.88 mg/L to 187.63 mg/L.

Keywords: ferulic acid, pycnoporus cinnabarinus, response surface methodology, vanillin

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22260 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert


The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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