Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4218

Search results for: PSA response

4218 Response Delay Model: Bridging the Gap in Urban Fire Disaster Response System

Authors: Sulaiman Yunus

Abstract:

The need for modeling response to urban fire disaster cannot be over emphasized, as recurrent fire outbreaks have gutted most cities of the world. This necessitated the need for a prompt and efficient response system in order to mitigate the impact of the disaster. Promptness, as a function of time, is seen to be the fundamental determinant for efficiency of a response system and magnitude of a fire disaster. Delay, as a result of several factors, is one of the major determinants of promptgness of a response system and also the magnitude of a fire disaster. Response Delay Model (RDM) intends to bridge the gap in urban fire disaster response system through incorporating and synchronizing the delay moments in measuring the overall efficiency of a response system and determining the magnitude of a fire disaster. The model identified two delay moments (pre-notification and Intra-reflex sequence delay) that can be elastic and collectively plays a significant role in influencing the efficiency of a response system. Due to variation in the elasticity of the delay moments, the model provides for measuring the length of delays in order to arrive at a standard average delay moment for different parts of the world, putting into consideration geographic location, level of preparedness and awareness, technological advancement, socio-economic and environmental factors. It is recommended that participatory researches should be embarked on locally and globally to determine standard average delay moments within each phase of the system so as to enable determining the efficiency of response systems and predicting fire disaster magnitudes.

Keywords: delay moment, fire disaster, reflex sequence, response, response delay moment

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4217 Response Reduction Factor for Earthquake Resistant Design of Special Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Rohan V. Ambekar, Shrirang N. Tande

Abstract:

The present study estimates the seismic response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall using static nonlinear (pushover) analysis. Calculation of response reduction factor (R) is done as per the new formulation of response reduction factor (R) given by Applied Technology Council (ATC)-19 which is the product of strength factor (Rs), ductility factor (Rµ) and redundancy factor (RR). The analysis revealed that these three factors affect the actual value of response reduction factor (R) and therefore they must be taken into consideration while determining the appropriate response reduction factor to be used during the seismic design process. The actual values required for determination of response reduction factor (R) is worked out on the basis of pushover curve which is a plot of base shear verses roof displacement. Finally, the calculated values of response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall are compared with the codal values.

Keywords: response reduction factor, ductility ratio, base shear, special moment resisting frames

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4216 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

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4215 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

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4214 Effect of Mica Content in Sand on Site Response Analyses

Authors: Volkan Isbuga, Joman M. Mahmood, Ali Firat Cabalar

Abstract:

This study presents the site response analysis of mica-sand mixtures available in certain parts of the world including Izmir, a highly populated city and located in a seismically active region in western part of Turkey. We performed site response analyses by employing SHAKE, an equivalent linear approach, for the micaceous soil deposits consisting of layers with different amount of mica contents and thicknesses. Dynamic behavior of micaceous sands such as shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves are input for the ground response analyses. Micaceous sands exhibit a unique dynamic response under a scenario earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=6. Results showed that higher amount of mica caused higher spectral accelerations.

Keywords: micaceous sands, site response, equivalent linear approach, SHAKE

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4213 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

Abstract:

This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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4212 Estimation of Population Mean under Random Non-Response in Two-Phase Successive Sampling

Authors: M. Khalid, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, we have considered the problem of estimation for population mean, on current (second) occasion in the presence of random non response in two-occasion successive sampling under two phase set-up. Modified exponential type estimators have been proposed, and their properties are studied under the assumptions that numbers of sampling units follow a distribution due to random non response situations. The performances of the proposed estimators are compared with linear combinations of two estimators, (a) sample mean estimator for fresh sample and (b) ratio estimator for matched sample under the complete response situations. Results are demonstrated through empirical studies which present the effectiveness of the proposed estimators. Suitable recommendations have been made to the survey practitioners.

Keywords: successive sampling, random non-response, auxiliary variable, bias, mean square error

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4211 Quality Standards for Emergency Response: A Methodological Framework

Authors: Jennifer E. Lynette

Abstract:

This study describes the development process of a methodological framework for quality standards used to measure the efficiency and quality of response efforts of trained personnel at emergency events. This paper describes the techniques used to develop the initial framework and its potential application to professions under the broader field of emergency management. The example described in detail in this paper applies the framework specifically to fire response activities by firefighters. Within the quality standards framework, the fire response process is chronologically mapped. Individual variables within the sequence of events are identified. Through in-person data collection, questionnaires, interviews, and the expansion of the incident reporting system, this study identifies and categorizes previously unrecorded variables involved in the response phase of a fire. Following a data analysis of each variable using a quantitative or qualitative assessment, the variables are ranked pertaining to the magnitude of their impact to the event outcome. Among others, key indicators of quality performance in the analysis involve decision communication, resource utilization, response techniques, and response time. Through the application of this framework and subsequent utilization of quality standards indicators, there is potential to increase efficiency in the response phase of an emergency event; thereby saving additional lives, property, and resources.

Keywords: emergency management, fire, quality standards, response

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4210 Demand Response from Residential Air Conditioning Load Using a Programmable Communication Thermostat

Authors: Saurabh Chanana, Monika Arora

Abstract:

Demand response is getting increased attention these days due to the increase in electricity demand and introduction of renewable resources in the existing power grid. Traditionally demand response programs involve large industrial consumers but with technological advancement, demand response is being implemented for small residential and commercial consumers also. In this paper, demand response program aims to reduce the peak demand as well as overall energy consumption of the residential customers. Air conditioners are the major reason of peak load in residential sector in summer, so a dynamic model of air conditioning load with thermostat action has been considered for applying demand response programs. A programmable communicating thermostat (PCT) is a device that uses real time pricing (RTP) signals to control the thermostat setting. A new model incorporating PCT in air conditioning load has been proposed in this paper. Results show that introduction of PCT in air conditioner is useful in reducing the electricity payments of customers as well as reducing the peak demand.

Keywords: demand response, home energy management, programmable communicating thermostat, thermostatically controlled appliances

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4209 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui

Abstract:

Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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4208 Estimation of Population Mean under Random Non-Response in Two-Occasion Successive Sampling

Authors: M. Khalid, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, we have considered the problems of estimation for the population mean on current (second) occasion in two-occasion successive sampling under random non-response situations. Some modified exponential type estimators have been proposed and their properties are studied under the assumptions that the number of sampling unit follows a discrete distribution due to random non-response situations. The performances of the proposed estimators are compared with linear combinations of two estimators, (a) sample mean estimator for fresh sample and (b) ratio estimator for matched sample under the complete response situations. Results are demonstrated through empirical studies which present the effectiveness of the proposed estimators. Suitable recommendations have been made to the survey practitioners.

Keywords: modified exponential estimator, successive sampling, random non-response, auxiliary variable, bias, mean square error

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4207 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi

Abstract:

In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: response modification factor, base isolation system, pushover analysis, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

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4206 A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

Abstract:

The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and also between earnings growth and ERC; however, there is no significant relation between earnings persistence and ERC. Also, the results show that ERC will be increased by firm size and earnings growth, but there is no relation between earnings persistence and ERC.

Keywords: earnings response coefficient (ERC), return response coefficient (RRC), firm size, earnings growth, earnings persistence

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4205 Analysis of Factors Influencing the Response Time of an Aspirating Gaseous Agent Concentration Detection Method

Authors: Yu Guan, Song Lu, Wei Yuan, Heping Zhang

Abstract:

Gas fire extinguishing system is widely used due to its cleanliness and efficiency, and since its spray will be affected by many factors such as convection and obstacles in jetting region, so in order to evaluate its effectiveness, detecting concentration distribution in the jetting area is indispensable, which is commonly achieved by aspirating concentration detection technique. During the concentration measurement, the response time of detector is a very important parameter, especially for those fire-extinguishing systems with rapid gas dispersion. Long response time will not only underestimate its concentration but also prolong the change of concentration with time. Therefore it is necessary to analyze the factors influencing the response time. In the paper, an aspirating concentration detection method was introduced, which is achieved by using a small critical nozzle and a laminar flowmeter, and because of the response time is mainly related to the gas transport process from sampling site to the sensor, the effects of exhaust pipe size, gas flow rate, and gas concentration on its response time were analyzed. During the research, Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF₃) was used. The effect of the sampling tube was investigated with different length of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m (5mm in pipe diameter) and different pipe diameter of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mm (3m in length). The effect of gas flow rate was analyzed by changing the throat diameter of the critical nozzle with 0.5, 0.682, 0.75, 0.8, 0.84 and 0.88 mm. The effect of gas concentration on response time was studied with the concentration range of 0-25%. The result showed that the response time increased with the increase of both the length and diameter of the sampling pipe, and the effect of length on response time was linear, but for the effect of diameter, it was exponential. It was also found that as the throat diameter of critical nozzle increased, the response time reduced a lot, in other words, gas flow rate has a great influence on response time. For the effect of gas concentration, the response time increased with the increase of the CBrF₃ concentration, and the slope of the curve was reduced.

Keywords: aspirating concentration detection, fire extinguishing, gaseous agent, response time

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4204 Improved Estimation Strategies of Sensitive Characteristics Using Scrambled Response Techniques in Successive Sampling

Authors: S. Suman, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

This research work is an effort to analyse the consequences of scrambled response technique to estimate the current population mean in two-occasion successive sampling when the characteristic of interest is sensitive in nature. The generalized estimation procedures have been proposed using sensitive auxiliary variables under additive and multiplicative scramble models. The properties of resultant estimators have been deeply examined. Simulation, as well as empirical studies, are carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimators with respect to other competent estimators. The results of our studies suggest that the proposed estimation procedures are highly effective under the presence of non-response situation. The result of this study also suggests that additive scrambled response model is a better choice in the perspective of cost of the survey and privacy of the respondents.

Keywords: scrambled response, sensitive characteristic, successive sampling, optimum replacement strategy

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4203 Development of Quality Assessment Tool to Gauge Fire Response Activities of Emergency Personnel in Denmark

Authors: Jennifer E. Lynette

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a nation-wide assessment tool to gauge the quality and efficiency of response activities by emergency personnel to fires in Denmark. Current fire incident reports lack detailed information that can lead to breakthroughs in research and improve emergency response efforts. Information generated from the report database is analyzed and assessed for efficiency and quality. By utilizing information collection gaps in the incident reports, an improved, indepth, and streamlined quality gauging system is developed for use by fire brigades. This study pinpoints previously unrecorded factors involved in the response phases of a fire. Variables are recorded and ranked based on their influence to event outcome. By assessing and measuring these data points, quality standards are developed. These quality standards include details of the response phase previously overlooked which individually and cumulatively impact the overall success of a fire response effort. Through the application of this tool and implementation of associated quality standards at Denmark’s fire brigades, there is potential to increase efficiency and quality in the preparedness and response phases, thereby saving additional lives, property, and resources.

Keywords: emergency management, fire, preparedness, quality standards, response

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4202 Design of Real Time Early Response Systems for Natural Disaster Management Based on Automation and Control Technologies

Authors: C. Pacheco, A. Cipriano

Abstract:

A new concept of response system is proposed for filling the gap that exists in reducing vulnerability during immediate response to natural disasters. Real Time Early Response Systems (RTERSs) incorporate real time information as feedback data for closing control loop and for generating real time situation assessment. A review of the state of the art works that fit the concept of RTERS is presented, and it is found that they are mainly focused on manmade disasters. At the same time, in response phase of natural disaster management many works are involved in creating early warning systems, but just few efforts have been put on deciding what to do once an alarm is activated. In this context a RTERS arises as a useful tool for supporting people in their decision making process during natural disasters after an event is detected, and also as an innovative context for applying well-known automation technologies and automatic control concepts and tools.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency response system, natural disasters, real time

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4201 Analysis of the Relationship between the Unitary Impulse Response for the nth-Volterra Kernel of a Duffing Oscillator System

Authors: Guillermo Manuel Flores Figueroa, Juan Alejandro Vazquez Feijoo, Jose Navarro Antonio

Abstract:

A continuous nonlinear system response may be obtained by an infinite sum of the so-called Volterra operators. Each operator is obtained from multidimensional convolution of nth-order between the nth-order Volterra kernel and the system input. These operators can also be obtained from the Associated Linear Equations (ALEs) that are linear models of subsystems which inputs and outputs are of the same nth-order. Each ALEs produces a particular nth-Volterra operator. As linear models a unitary impulse response can be obtained from them. This work shows the relationship between this unitary impulse responses and the corresponding order Volterra kernel.

Keywords: Volterra series, frequency response functions FRF, associated linear equations ALEs, unitary response function, Voterra kernel

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4200 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

Abstract:

One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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4199 Designing an Agent-Based Model of SMEs to Assess Flood Response Strategies and Resilience

Authors: C. Li, G. Coates, N. Johnson, M. Mc Guinness

Abstract:

In the UK, flooding is responsible for significant losses to the economy due to the impact on businesses, the vast majority of which are Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Businesses of this nature tend to lack formal plans to aid their response to and recovery from disruptive events such as flooding. This paper reports on work on how an agent-based model (ABM) is being developed based on interview data gathered from SMEs at-risk of flooding and/or have direct experience of flooding. The ABM will enable simulations to be performed allowing investigations of different response strategies which SMEs may employ to lessen the impact of flooding, thus strengthening their resilience.

Keywords: ABM, flood response, SMEs, business continuity

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4198 Comparison of Various Response Spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant at Chashma Site

Authors: J. Iqbal, A. Shah, M. Zeeshan

Abstract:

UBC-97, USNRC, chines origin code GB50011-2011 and site response spectrum was used to make comparison between them for Chashma site and most conservative one was selected and the USNRC was the most conservative one. The dynamic analysis of CHASNUPP-2 containment building was performed using SAP-2000 for dead load, live load (crane), pre stressed loads, wind load, temperature load, accidental pressure during LOCA, earthquake loads and the conservative response spectrum. After applying selected response spectrum on model, detail comparison was made against area of steal calculated from the analysis and the actually provided. Then prepared curve of area of steal vs. g value which shows that if the particular site was design on that spectrum that much steel needed for structural integrity.

Keywords: response spectrum, USNRC, LOCA, area of steel, structure integrity

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4197 Natural Frequency Analysis of Small-Scale Arch Structure by Shaking Table Test

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Joo-Won Kang

Abstract:

Structural characteristics of spatial structure are different from that of rahmen structures and it has many factors that are unpredictable experientially. Both horizontal and vertical earthquake should be considered because of seismic behaviour characteristics of spatial structures. This experimental study is conducted about seismic response characteristics of roof structure according to the effect of columns or walls, through scale model of arch structure that has the basic dynamic characteristics of spatial structure. Though remarkable response is not occurred for horizontal direction in the region of higher frequency than the region of frequency that seismic energy is concentrated, relatively large response is occurred in vertical direction. It is proved that seismic response of arch structure with column is varied according to property of column.

Keywords: arch structure, seismic response, shaking table, spatial structure

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4196 Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction in Buildings

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Ankit Kumar Jha, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Since the evolution of computational tools and simulation software, there has been considerable increase in research on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) to decrease the computational time and increase accuracy in the results. To aid the designer with a proper understanding of the response of structure in different soil types, the presented paper compares the deformation, shear stress, acceleration and other parameters of multi-storey building for a specific input ground motion using Response-spectrum Analysis (RSA) method. The response of all the models of different heights have been compared in different soil types. Finite Element Simulation software, ANSYS, has been used for all the computational purposes. Overall, higher response is observed with SSI, while it increases with decreasing stiffness of soil.

Keywords: soil-structure interaction, response spectrum, analysis, finite element method, multi-storey buildings

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4195 Narrative Study to Resilience and Adversity's Response

Authors: Yun Hang Stanley Cheung

Abstract:

In recent years, many educators and entrepreneurs have often suggested that students’ and workers’ ability of the adversity response is very important, it would affect problem-solving strategies and ultimate success in their career or life. The meaning of resilience is discussed as the process of bouncing back and the ability to adapt well in adversity’s response, being resilient does not mean to live without any stress and difficulty, but to grow and thrive under pressure. The purpose of this study is to describe the process of resilience and adversity’s response. The use of the narrative inquiry aims for understanding the experiential process of adversity response, and the problem-solving strategies (such as emotion control, motivation, decisions making process), as well as making the experience become life story, which may be evaluated by its teller and its listeners. The narrative study describes the researcher’s self-experience of adversity’s response to the recovery of the seriously burnt injury from a hill fire at his 12 years old, as well as the adversities and obstacles related to the tragedy after the physical recovery. Sense-Making Theory and McCormack’s Lenses were used for constructive perspective and data analyzing. To conclude, this study has described the life story of fighting the adversities, also, those narratives come out some suggestions, which point out positive thinking is necessary to build up resilience and the ability of immediate adversity response. Also, some problem-solving strategies toward adversities are discussed, which are helpful for resilience education for youth and young adult.

Keywords: adversity response, life story, narrative inquiry, resilience

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4194 Seismic Response of Viscoelastic Dampers for Steel Structures

Authors: Ali Khoshraftar, S. A. Hashemi

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers (VED) to be used as energy-absorbing devices in buildings. The properties of VED are briefly described. The analytical studies of the model structures exhibiting the structural response reduction due to these viscoelastic devices are presented. Computer simulation of the damped response of a multi-storey steel frame structure shows significant reduction in floor displacement levels.

Keywords: dampers, seismic evaluation, steel frames, viscoelastic

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4193 Seismic Investigation on the Effect of Surface Structures and Twin Tunnel on the Site Response in Urban Areas

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Site response has a profound effect on earthquake damages. Seismic interaction of urban tunnels with surface structures could also affect seismic site response. Here, we use FLAC 2D to investigate the interaction of a single tunnel and twin tunnels-surface structures on the site response. Soil stratification and properties are selected based on Line. No 7 of the Tehran subway. The effect of surface structure is considered in two ways: Equivalent surcharge and geometrical modeling of the structure. Comparison of the results shows that consideration of the structure geometry is vital in dynamic analysis and leads to the changes in the magnitude of displacements, accelerations and response spectrum. Therefore it is necessary for the surface structures to be wholly modeled and not just considered as a surcharge in dynamic analysis. The use of twin tunnel also leads to the reduction of dynamic residual settlement.

Keywords: superstructure, tunnel, site response, surcharge, interaction

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4192 Designing Emergency Response Network for Rail Hazmat Shipments

Authors: Ali Vaezi, Jyotirmoy Dalal, Manish Verma

Abstract:

The railroad is one of the primary transportation modes for hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments in North America. Installing an emergency response network capable of providing a commensurate response is one of the primary levers to contain (or mitigate) the adverse consequences from rail hazmat incidents. To this end, we propose a two-stage stochastic program to determine the location of and equipment packages to be stockpiled at each response facility. The raw input data collected from publicly available reports were processed, fed into the proposed optimization program, and then tested on a realistic railroad network in Ontario (Canada). From the resulting analyses, we conclude that the decisions based only on empirical datasets would undermine the effectiveness of the resulting network; coverage can be improved by redistributing equipment in the network, purchasing equipment with higher containment capacity, and making use of a disutility multiplier factor.

Keywords: hazmat, rail network, stochastic programming, emergency response

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4191 Irrelevant Angry Faces, Compared to Happy Faces, Facilitate the Response Inhibition

Authors: Rashmi Gupta

Abstract:

It is unclear whether arousal or valence modulates the response inhibition process. It has been suggested that irrelevant positive emotional information (e.g., happy faces) and negative emotional information (e.g., angry faces) interact with attention differently. In the present study, we used arousal-matched irrelevant happy and angry faces. These faces were used as stop-signals in the stop-signal paradigm. There were two kinds of trials: go-trials and stop-trials. Participants were required to discriminate between the letter X or O by pressing the corresponding keys on go-trials. However, a stop signal was occasionally presented on stop trials, where participants were required to withhold their motor response. A significant main effect of emotion on response inhibition was observed. It indicated that the valence of a stop signal modulates inhibitory control. We found that stop-signal reaction time was faster in response to irrelevant angry faces than happy faces, indicating that irrelevant angry faces facilitate the response inhibition process compared to happy faces. These results shed light on the interaction of emotion with cognitive control functions.

Keywords: attention, emotion, response inhibition, inhibitory control

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4190 Indoor Temperature Estimation with FIR Filter Using R-C Network Model

Authors: Sung Hyun You, Jeong Hoon Kim, Dae Ki Kim, Choon Ki Ahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a new strategy for estimating indoor temperature based on the modified resistance capacitance (R–C) network thermal dynamic model. Using minimum variance finite impulse response (FIR) filter, accurate indoor temperature estimation can be achieved. Our study is clarified by the experimental validation of the proposed indoor temperature estimation method. This experiment scenario environment is composed of a demand response (DR) server and home energy management system (HEMS) in a test bed.

Keywords: energy consumption, resistance-capacitance network model, demand response, finite impulse response filter

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4189 Study of Demographic, Hematological Profile and Risk Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

Authors: Rajandeep Kaur, Rajeev Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the most common leukaemia in India. The annual incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia in India was originally reported to be 0.8 to 2.2 per 1,00,000 population. CML is a clonal disorder that is usually easily diagnosed because the leukemic cells of more than 95% of patients have a distinctive cytogenetic abnormality, the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1). The approval of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which target BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, has significantly reduced the mortality rate associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and revolutionized treatment. Material and Methods: 80 diagnosed cases of CML were taken. Investigations were done. Bone marrow and molecular studies were also done and with EUTOS, patients were stratified into low and high-risk groups and then treatment with Imatinib was given to all patients and the molecular response was evaluated at 6 months and 12 months follow up with BCR-ABL by RT-PCR quantitative assay. Results: In the study population, out of 80 patients in the study population, 40 were females and 40 were males, with M: F is 1:1. Out of total 80 patients’ maximum patients (54) were in 31-60 years age group. Our study showed a most common symptom of presentation is abdominal discomfort followed by fever. Out of the total 80 patients, 25 (31.3%) patients had high EUTOS scores and 55 (68.8%) patients had low EUTOS scores. On 6 months follow up 36.3% of patients had Complete Molecular Response, 16.3% of patients had Major Molecular Response and 47.5% of patients had No Molecular Response but on 12 months follow up 71.3% of patients had Complete Molecular Response, 16.25% of patients had Major Molecular Response and 12.5% patients had No Molecular Response. Conclusion: In this study, we found a significant correlation between EUTOS score and Molecular response at 6 months and 12 months follow up after Imatinib therapy.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, European treatment and outcome study score, hematological response, molecular response, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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