Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Gambusia affinis

8 Chronic Toxicity of Halofenozide on a Larvivorous Fish, Gambusia affinis: Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-transferase Activities and Glutathione

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

Abstract:

The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: biomarkers, chronic toxicity, insecticide, halofenozide, Gambusia affinis, pollution

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7 Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of a Fungicide (Propiconazole) in Freshwater Fish Gambusia Affinis Using Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet Essay)

Authors: Bourenane Bouhafs Naziha

Abstract:

ARTEA330EC is a fungicide used to inhibit the growth of many types of fungi on and cereals and rice, it is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in our area (Northeast Algerian). The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of fugicides in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by propiconazole in freshwater fish Gambusia affinis by comet assays was investigated. The LC(50)- 96 h of the fungicide was estimated for the fish in a semi-static system. On this basis of LC(50) value sublethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined (25; 50; 75; and 100 ppm). The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA in comet tails of fishes exposed to above concentrations the fungicide. In general,non significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish compared with the controls. However It was found that the highest DNA damage was observed at the highest concentration and the longest time of exposure (day 12). The study indicated comet assay to be sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of propiconasol and other pesticides in fishes.

Keywords: genotoxicity, fungicide, propiconazole, freshwater, Gambusia affinis, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis

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6 Impact of Two Xenobiotics in Mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis: Several Approaches

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

Abstract:

The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of two xenobiotics (a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide and heavy metals: cadmium, more toxic and widespread in the region) in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Several approaches were examined: Acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: The acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide was examined in juvenile and adult males and females of G. affinis at different concentrations, cadmium causes mortality of the species studied with a relation dose-response. In laboratory conditions, the impact of cadmium was determined on two biomarkers of environmental stress: glutathione and acetylcholinesterase. The results show that the juvenile followed by adult males are more susceptible than adult females, while the halofenozide does not have any effect on the mortality of juvenile and adult males and females of G.affinis. Chronic toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: both xenobiotics were added to the water fish raising at different doses tested in juveniles and adults males and females during two months of experience. Growth and metric indices; results show that halofenozide added to the water juveniles of G. affinis has no effect on their growth (length and weight). On the other side, the cadmium at the dose 5 µg/L shows a higher toxicity against juvenile, where he appears to reduce significantly their linear growth and weight. In females, the both xenobiotics have significant effects on metric indices, but these effects are more important on the hepatosomatic index that the gonadosomatic index and the coefficient of condition. Biomarkers; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: gambusia affinis, insecticide, heavy metal, morphology, biomarkers, chronic toxicity, acute toxicity, pollution

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5 Surface Sterilization of Aquatic Plant, Cryptopcoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas

Abstract:

This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant, Cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for Clorox and mercury chloride was 10 min and 60 sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, the result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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4 Surface Sterilization Of Aquatic Plant, Cryptocoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas

Abstract:

This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as a reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant and cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for clorox and mercury chloride was 10min and 60sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, The result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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3 Relationship between Monthly Shrimp Catch Rates and the Oceanography-Related Variables

Authors: Hussain M. Al-foudari, Weizhong Chen, James M. Bishop

Abstract:

Correlations between oceanographic variables and monthly catch rates of total shrimp and those of each of the major species (Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera) showed significant differences for particular conditions. Catches of P. semisulcatus were basically positively correlated with temperature, i.e., the higher the temperature, the higher the catch rate, while those of M. affinis and P. stylifera were negatively correlated with temperature, i.e., high catch rates occurred in the low temperature waters. Thus, during the months January and April, P. semisulcatus preferred waters with high temperature, usually the offshore and southern areas, while M. affinis and P. stylifera preferred waters with low temperature, usually inshore and northern areas. The relationships between the catch rate of P. semisulcatus and salinity were not so clear. Results indicated that although salinity was one of the factors affecting the distribution of P. semisulcatus, it was not the principal factor, and impacts from other variables, such as temperature, might overshadow the correlation between the catch rates of P. semisulcatus and salinity. The relationship between shrimp catch rates and dissolved oxygen (DO) also showed mixed results. The catch rates of M. affinis increased with a decrease of surface DO in November 2013, but decreased with lower bottom DO in December. These results indicated that DO might be a factor affecting distributions of the shrimp; however; the true correlation between catch rate and DO might be easily overshadowed by other environmental variables. Catch rates of P. semisulcatus did not show any relationship with depth. P. semisulcatus is a migratory species and widely distributed in Kuwait's waters.During the shrimp season from July through December, P. semisulcatus occurs in almost all areas in Kuwait's waters irrespective of water depth. The catch rates of M. affinis and P. stylifera, however, showed clear relationships with depth. Both species had significantly higher catch rates in shallower waters, indicative of their restricted distribution.

Keywords: Kuwait, Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Arabian gulf

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2 Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress

Authors: W. Khati, Y. Guasmi

Abstract:

The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p<0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p<0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.

Keywords: biomarkers, bioindicator, environmenlal health, metals

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1 A Review on Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf

Abstract:

The share of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the global burden of infectious diseases is almost 17%. The advent of new drugs and latest research in medical science helped mankind to compete with these lethal diseases but still diseases transmitted by different mosquito species, including filariasis, malaria, viral encephalitis and dengue are serious threats for people living in disease endemic areas. Injudicious and repeated use of pesticides posed selection pressure on mosquitoes leading to development of resistance. Hence biological control agents are under serious consideration of scientific community to be used in vector control programmes. Fish have a history of predating immature stages of different aquatic insects including mosquitoes. The noteworthy examples in Africa and Asia includes, Aphanius discolour and a fish in the Panchax group. Moreover, common mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis predates mostly on temporary water mosquitoes like anopheline as compared to permanent water breeders like culicines. Mosquitoes belonging to genus Toxorhynchites have a worldwide distribution and are mostly associated with the predation of other mosquito larvae habituating with them in natural and artificial water containers. These species are harmless to humans as their adults do not suck human blood but feeds on floral nectar. However, their activity is mostly temperature dependent as Toxorhynchites brevipalpis consume 359 Aedes aegypti larvae at 30-32 ºC in contrast to 154 larvae at 20-26 ºC. Although many bacterial species were isolated from mosquito cadavers but those belonging to genus Bacillus are found highly pathogenic against them. The successful species of this genus include Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus. The prime targets of B. thuringiensis are mostly the immatures of genus Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Psorophora while B. sphaericus is specifically toxic against species of Culex, Psorophora and Culiseta. The entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to family, mermithidae are also pathogenic to different mosquito species. Eighty different species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Aedes and Culex proved to be highly vulnerable to the attack of two mermithid species, Romanomermis culicivorax and R. iyengari. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus was the first described pathogenic virus, isolated from the cadavers of mosquito specie, Culex tarsalis. Other viruses which are pathogenic to culicine includes, iridoviruses, cytopolyhedrosis viruses, entomopoxviruses and parvoviruses. Protozoa species belonging to division microsporidia are the common pathogenic protozoans in mosquito populations which kill their host by the chronic effects of parasitism. Moreover, due to their wide prevalence in anopheline mosquitoes and transversal and horizontal transmission from infected to healthy host, microsporidia of the genera Nosema and Amblyospora have received much attention in various mosquito control programmes. Fungal based mycopesticides are used in biological control of insect pests with 47 species reported virulent against different stages of mosquitoes. These include both aquatic fungi i.e. species of Coelomomyces, Lagenidium giganteum and Culicinomyces clavosporus, and the terrestrial fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Hence, it was concluded that the integrated use of all these biological control agents can be a healthy contribution in mosquito control programmes and become a dire need of the time to avoid repeated use of pesticides.

Keywords: entomopathogenic nematodes, protozoa, Toxorhynchites, vector-borne

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