Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2464

Search results for: intellectual property rights

2464 A Conceptual Framework of Strategies for Managing Intellectual Property Rights at Different Stages of Product Life Cycle

Authors: Nithyananda K. V.

Abstract:

Organizations follow various strategies for managing their intellectual property rights, either in the form of securing IP rights or using such IP rights through leveraging, monetizing, and commercializing them. It is well known that organizations adopt different intellectual property strategies in response to other organizations within the industry. But within an organization, and within the products that are being manufactured and sold by it, the strategies for managing its intellectual property rights keep changing at different stages of the product life cycle. Organizations could adopt not only different strategies for managing its intellectual property rights, but could also adopt different kinds of business models to leverage, monetize, and commercial the IP rights. This paper analyzes the various strategies that can be adopted by organizations to manage its IP rights at different stages of the product life cycle and the rationale for adopting such strategies. This would be a secondary research, based solely on the literature of strategic management, new product development, resource-based management, and the intellectual property management. This paper synthesizes the literature from these streams to propose a conceptual framework of strategies that can be adopted by organizations for managing its IP rights in conjunction with the life cycle of the products that it manufactures and sells in the market. This framework could be adopted by organizations in implementing strategies for effectively managing their IP rights.

Keywords: intellectual property strategy, management of intellectual property rights, New product development, product life cycle

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2463 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Authors: Jiarong Zhang

Abstract:

Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.

Keywords: copyright, digitization, intangible cultural heritage, intellectual property, Internet platforms

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2462 Management of Intellectual Property Rights: Strategic Patenting

Authors: Waheed Oseni

Abstract:

This article reviews emergent global trends in intellectual property protection and identifies patenting as a strategic initiative. Recent developments in software and method of doing business patenting are fast transforming the e‐business landscape. The article discusses the emergent global regulatory framework concerning intellectual property rights and the strategic value of patenting. Important features of a corporate patenting portfolio are described. Superficially, the e‐commerce landscape appears to be dominated by dotcom start-ups or the “dotcomization” of existing brick and mortar companies. But, in reality, at its very bedrock is intellectual property (IP). In this connection, the recent avalanche of patenting of software and method‐of‐doing‐business (MDB) in the USA is a very significant development with regard to rules governing IP rights and, therefore, e‐commerce. Together with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) IP rules, there is an emerging global regulatory framework for IP rights, an understanding of which is necessary for designing effective e‐commerce strategies.

Keywords: intellectual property, patents, methods, computer software

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2461 Antecedents of Spinouts: Technology Relatedness, Intellectual Property Rights, and Venture Capital

Authors: Sepideh Yeganegi, Andre Laplume, Parshotam Dass, Cam-Loi Huynh

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines organizational and institutional antecedents of entrepreneurial entry. We employ multi-level logistic regression modelling methods on a sub-sample of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s 2011 survey covering 30 countries. The results reveal that employees who have experience with activities unrelated to the core technology of their organizations are more likely to spin out entrepreneurial ventures, whereas those with experiences related to the core technology are less likely to do so. In support of the recent theory, we find that the strength of intellectual property rights and the availability of venture capital have negative and positive effects, respectively, on the likelihood that employees turn into entrepreneurs. These institutional factors also moderate the effect of relatedness to core technology such that entrepreneurial entries by employees with experiences related to core technology are curbed more severely by stronger intellectual property rights protection regimes and lack of venture capital.

Keywords: spinouts, intellectual property rights, venture capital, entrepreneurship, organizational experiences, core technology

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2460 The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Health-Related Intellectual Property Rights in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami

Abstract:

This paper is dedicated to a detailed investigation of the interaction between the agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Australia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chosen research object is complex and requires a thorough examination of a set of factors influencing the problem under investigation. At the moment, to the author’s best knowledge’ there is no academic research that would conceptualize and critically compare the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in these two countries. While there is a substantial amount of information in the literature on certain aspects of the problem, the existing knowledge about certain aspects of the health-related regulatory frameworks in Australia and Saudi Arabia barely explains in detail the specifics of the ways in which the TRIPS agreement interacts with (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights. Therefore, this paper will address an evident research gap by studying an intriguing yet under-researched problem. The paper comprises five subsections. The first subsection provides an overview of the investment climate in Saudi Arabia and Australia with an emphasis on the health care industry. It will cover political, economic, and social factors influencing the investment climate in these countries, the systems of intellectual property rights protection, recent patterns relevant to the investment climate’s development, and key characteristics of the investment climate in the health care industry. The second subsection analyses BITs in Saudi Arabia and Australia in light of the countries’ responsibilities under the TRIPS Agreement. The third subsection provides a critical examination of the interaction between the TRIPS Agreement and BITs in Saudi Arabia on the basis of data collected and analyzed in previous subsections. It will investigate key discrepancies concerning the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia from the position of BITs’ interaction with the TRIPS Agreement and explore the existing procedures for clarifying priorities between them in regulating health-related intellectual property rights. The fourth subsection of the paper provides recommendations concerning the transformation of BITS into a TRIPS+ dimension in regulating health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia. The final subsection provides a summary of differences between the Australian and Saudi BITs from the perspective of the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights under the TRIPS agreement and bilateral investment treaties.

Keywords: Australia, bilateral investment treaties, IP law, public health sector, Saudi Arabia

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2459 Applicable Law to Intellectual and Industrial Property Agreements According to Turkish Private International Law and Rome I Regulation

Authors: Sema Cortoglu Koca

Abstract:

Intellectual and industrial property rules, have a substantial effect on the sustainable development. Intellectual and industrial property rights, as temporary privileges over the products of intellectual activity, determine the supervision of information and technology. The level and scope of intellectual property protection thus influence the flow of technology between developed and developing countries. In addition, intellectual and industrial property rights are based on the notion of balance. Since they are time-limited rights, they reconcile private and public benefits. That is, intellectual and industrial property rights respond to both private interests and public interests by rewarding innovators and by promoting the dissemination of ideas, respectively. Intellectual and industrial property rights can, therefore, be a tool for sustainable development. If countries can balance their private and public interests according to their particular context and circumstances, they can ensure the intellectual and industrial property which promotes innovation and technology transfer relevant for them. People, enterprises and countries who need technology, can transfer developed technology which is acquired by people, enterprises and countries so as to decrease their technological necessity and improve their technology. Because of the significance of intellectual and industrial property rights on the technology transfer law as mentioned above, this paper is confined to intellectual and industrial property agreements especially technology transfer contracts. These are license contract, know-how contract, franchise agreement, joint venture agreement, management agreement, research and development agreement. In Turkey, technology transfer law is still a developing subject. For developing countries, technology transfer regulations are very important for their private international law because these countries do not know which technology transfer law is applicable when conflicts arise. In most technology transfer contracts having international elements, the parties choose a law to govern their contracts. Where the parties do not choose a law, either expressly or impliedly, and matters which is not excluded in party autonomy, the court has to determine the applicable law to contracts in a matter of capacity, material, the formal and essential validity of contracts. For determining the proper law of technology transfer contracts, it is tried to build a rule for applying all technology transfer contracts. This paper is confined to the applicable law to intellectual and industrial property agreements according to ‘5718 Turkish Act on Private International Law and Civil Procedure’ and ‘Regulation (EC) No 593/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I)’. Like these complex contracts, to find a rule can be really difficult. We can arrange technology transfer contracts in groups, and we can determine the rule and connecting factors to these groups. For the contracts which are not included in these groups, we can determine a special rule considering the characteristics of the contract.

Keywords: intellectual and industrial property agreements, Rome I regulation, technology transfer, Turkish act on private international law and civil procedure

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2458 Maximisation of Consumer Welfare in the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in Competition Guidelines: The Malaysian Experience

Authors: Ida Madieha Abdul Ghani Azmi, Heng Gee Lim, Adlan Abdul Razak, Nasaruddin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of competition law is to maximise consumer welfare through the regulation of anti-competitive behaviour that results in the distortion of the market. Intellectual property law also seeks to enhance consumer welfare in the long run by encouraging the development of useful devices and processes. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, the IP owners behave in such a way that makes it difficult for rival companies to sell substitute products and technology in the market. Intellectual property owners may also reach a dominant position in the market such that they are able to dictate unfair terms and conditions on other market players. Among the two major categories of anti-competitive behavior is the use of horizontal and vertical agreement to constrain effective competition and abuse of dominant position. As a result, many countries have regulated the conduct of the IP owners that are considered as anti-competitive including the US, Canada, and Singapore. This paper visits the proposed IP Guidelines recently drafted by the Malaysian Competition Commission and investigates to what extent it resolves most of the anti-competitive behavior of the IP owners. The paper concludes by suggesting some of the rules that could be prescribed by the Competition Commission in order to maintain the relevancy of competition law as the main check against the abuse of rights by the intellectual property owners.

Keywords: abuse of dominant position, consumer welfare, intellectual property rights, vertical and horizontal agreements

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2457 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, E. Grifell-Tatjé, A. Paz

Abstract:

A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: blockchain, decentralization, open innovation, intellectual property, patents, university-industry relationship

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2456 The Regulation of Vaccine-Related Intellectual Property Rights in Light of the Areas of Divergence between the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Investment Treaties in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami

Abstract:

The current research seeks to explore the regulation of vaccine-related IP rights in light of the areas of divergence between the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and investment treaties. The study is conducted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; therefore, it seems natural that a specific chapter is devoted to the examination of vaccine arrangements related to vaccine supplies. The chapter starts with the examination of a typical vaccine from the perspective of IP rights. It presents the distinctive features of vaccines as pharmaceutical products and investments, reviews the basics of their patent protection, reviews vaccines’ components, and discusses IPR protection of different components of vaccines. The subsection that focuses on vaccine development and licensing reviews vaccine development stages investigates differences between vaccine licensing in different countries and presents barriers to vaccine licensing. The third subsection, at the same time, introduces the existing arrangements related to COVID-19 vaccine supplies, including COVAX arrangements, international organizations’ assistance, and direct negotiations between governments and vaccine manufacturers.

Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, COVID-19 vaccine, IP rights, TRIPs agreement

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2455 Enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises Access to Finance: The Opportunities and Challenges of Using Intellectual Property Rights as Collateral in Sri Lanka

Authors: Nihal Chandratilaka Matara Arachchige, Nishantha Sampath Punichihewa

Abstract:

Intellectual property (IP) assets are the ‘crown-jewels’ of innovation-driven businesses in the knowledge-based economy. In that sense, IP rights such as patents, trademarks and copyrights afford enormous economic opportunities to an enterprise, especially Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). As can be gleaned from the latest statistics, the domestic industries in Sri Lanka are predominantly represented by SMEs. Undeniably, in terms of economic contribution, the SME sector is considered to be the backbone of the country’s ‘real economy’. However, the SME sector in Sri Lanka faces number of challenges. One of the nearly-insurmountable-hurdles for small businesses is the access to credit facilities, due to the lack of collateral. In the eyes of law, the collateral is something pledged as security for repayment in the event of default. Even though the intellectual property rights are used as collateral in order to facilitate obtaining credit for businesses in number of Asian jurisdictions, financial institutions in Sri Lanka are extremely reluctant to accept IP rights as collateral for granting financial resources to SMEs. Against this backdrop, this research investigates from a legal perspective reasons for not accepting IP rights as collateral when granting loans for SMEs. Drawing emerging examples from other jurisdiction, it further examines the inadequacies of existing legal framework in relation to the use of IP rights as collateral. The methodology followed in this paper is qualitative research. Empirical research and analysis concerning the core research question are carried out by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, including leading financial institutions in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: intellectual property assets, SMEs, collaterals financial facilities, credits

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2454 The Importance of Intellectual Property for Universities of Technology in South Africa: Challenges Faced and Proposed Way Forward

Authors: Martha E. Ikome, John M. Ikome

Abstract:

Intellectual property should be a day-to-day business decision due to its value, but increasingly, a number of institution are still not aware of the importance. Intellectual Property (IP) and its value are often not adequately appreciated. In the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, IP is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions because new ideas and products appear almost daily in the market, which results in continuous innovation and research. Therefore, this paper will focus on the importance of IP for universities of technology and also further demonstrates how IP can become an economic tool and the challenges faced by these universities in implementing an IP system.

Keywords: intellectual property, institutions, challenges, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2453 Does Indian Intellectual Property Policy Affect the U. S. Pharmaceutical Industry? A Comparative Study of Pfizer and Ranbaxy Laboratories in Regards to Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Authors: Alina Hamid Bari

Abstract:

Intellectual Property (IP) policies of a country have a huge impact on the pharmaceutical industry as this industry is all about patents. Developed countries have used IP protection to boost their economy; developing countries are concerned about access to medicine for poor people. U.S. company, Pfizer had a monopoly for 14 years for Lipitor and it all came to end when Pfizer decided to operate in India. This research will focus at the effects of Indian IP policies on USA by comparing Pfizer & Ranbaxy with regards to Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. For this research inductive approach has been used. Main source of material is Annual reports, theory based on academic books and articles along with rulings of court, policy statements and decisions, websites and newspaper articles. SWOT analysis is done for both Pfizer & Ranbaxy. The main comparison was done by doing ratio analysis and analyses of annual reports for the year 2011-2012 for Pfizer and Ranbaxy to see the impact on their profitability. This research concludes that Indian intellectual laws do affect the profitability of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry which can in turn have an impact on the US economy. These days India is only granting patents on products which it feels are deserving of it. So the U.S. companies operating in India have to defend their invention to get a patent. Thus, to operate in India and maintain monopoly in market, US firms have to come up with different strategies.

Keywords: atorvastatin, India, intellectual property, lipitor, Pfizer, pharmaceutical industry, Ranbaxy, TRIPs, U.S.

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2452 A Doctrinal Research and Review of Hashtag Trademarks

Authors: Hetvi Trivedi

Abstract:

Technological escalation cannot be negated. The same is true for the benefits of technology. However, such escalation has interfered with the traditional theories of protection under Intellectual Property Rights. Out of the many trends that have disrupted the old-school understanding of Intellectual Property Rights, one is hashtags. What began modestly in the year 2007 has now earned a remarkable status, and coupled with the unprecedented rise in social media the hashtag culture has witnessed a monstrous growth. A tiny symbol on the keypad of phones or computers is now a major trend which also serves companies as a critical investment measure in establishing their brand in the market. Due to this a section of the Intellectual Property Rights- Trademarks is undergoing a humungous transformation with hashtags like #icebucket, #tbt or #smilewithacoke, getting trademark protection. So, as the traditional theories of IP take on the modern trends, it is necessary to understand the change and challenge at a theoretical and proportional level and where need be, question the change. Traditionally, Intellectual Property Rights serves the societal need for intellectual productions that ensure its holistic development as well as cultural, economic, social and technological progress. In a two-pronged effort at ensuring continuity of creativity, IPRs recognize the investment of individual efforts that go into creation by way of offering protection. Commonly placed under two major theories- Utilitarian and Natural, IPRs aim to accord protection and recognition to an individual’s creation or invention which serve as an incentive for further creations or inventions, thus fully protecting the creative, inventive or commercial labour invested in the same. In return, the creator by lending the public the access to the creation reaps various benefits. This way Intellectual Property Rights form a ‘social contract’ between the author and society. IPRs are similarly attached to a social function, whereby individual rights must be weighed against competing rights and to the farthest limit possible, both sets of rights must be treated in a balanced manner. To put it differently, both the society and the creator must be put on an equal footing with neither party’s rights subservient to the other. A close look through doctrinal research, at the recent trend of trademark protection, makes the social function of IPRs seem to be moving far from the basic philosophy. Thus, where technology interferes with the philosophies of law, it is important to check and allow such growth only in moderation, for none is superior than the other. The human expansionist nature may need everything under the sky that can be tweaked slightly to be counted and protected as Intellectual Property- like a common parlance word transformed into a hashtag, however IP in order to survive on its philosophies needs to strike a balance. A unanimous global decision on the judicious use of IPR recognition and protection is the need of the hour.

Keywords: hashtag trademarks, intellectual property, social function, technology

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2451 Intellectual Property Protection of CRISPR Related Technologies

Authors: Zheng Miao, Dennis Fernandez

Abstract:

CRISPR research has the potential to completely transform life science, agriculture, live-stock and the health care industry. The Intellectual Property derived from its research has raised significant attention in the academic as well as the biopharmaceutical industry culminating an urgent need for strategic IP protection. We review the rudimentary concepts and key competitors of CRISPR technologies as well as the paramount strategies for intellectual property protection. Further, we elaborate on prosecution issues related to CRISPR patents as well as possible solutions to various patent laws, interferences and litigation. Finally, we address how the bioinformatics of the CRISPR technology begs an inquiry into issues of privacy and a host of ethical concerns.

Keywords: bioinformatics, CRISPR, biotechnology, intellectual property

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2450 How Does the Interaction between Environmental and Intellectual Property Rights Affect Environmental Innovation? A Study of Seven OECD Countries

Authors: Aneeq Sarwar

Abstract:

This study assesses the interaction between environmental and intellectual property policy on the rate of invention of environmental inventions and specifically tests for whether there is a synergy between stricter IP regimes and stronger environmental policies. The empirical analysis uses firm and industry-level data from seven OECD countries from 2009 to 2015. We also introduce a new measure of environmental inventions using a Natural Language Processing Topic Modelling technique. We find that intellectual property policy strictness demonstrates greater effectiveness in encouraging inventiveness in environmental inventions when used in combination with stronger environmental policies. This study contributes to existing literature in two ways. First, it devises a method for better identification of environmental technologies, we demonstrate how our method is more comprehensive than existing methods as we are better able to identify not only environmental inventions, but also major components of said inventions. Second, we test how various policy regimes affect the development of environmental technologies, we are the first study to examine the interaction of the environmental and intellectual property policy on firm level innovation.

Keywords: environmental economics, economics of innovation, environmental policy, firm level

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2449 Regime under Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement 1994 and Its Impacts on Health in Pakistan: A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Patents

Authors: Muhammad Danyal Khan

Abstract:

The standards of patentability are drawing a great impact upon medicine industry of Pakistan which is indirectly troubling the right to health of ordinary citizen. Globalization of intellectual property laws is directly impacting access to medicine for population in Pakistan. Pakistan has enacted Patent Ordinance 2000 to develop the standards of Patent laws in consonance with international commitments. Moreover, Pakistan is signatory to UN Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), and three of them directly put stress upon the health standards. This article will provide a critical brief about implications of TRIPS Agreement on standards of health in Pakistan and will also propose a futuristic approach for the pharmaceutical industry. This paper will define the paradox of globalization and national preparedness on pharmaceutical patents utilizing industry statistics and case laws from Pakistan. Moreover, this work will contribute towards debate on access to medicine at legislative and interpretative levels that will further help development of equilibrium between pharmaceutical patents and right to health.

Keywords: TRIPS (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), patents, compulsory licensing, patent, lifesaving drugs, WTO, infringement

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2448 Notice and Block?

Authors: Althaf Marsoof

Abstract:

The blocking injunction, giving rise to a ‘notice and block’ regime, has become the new approach to curtail the infringement of Intellectual Property rights on the Internet. As such, the blocking injunction is an addition to the arsenal of copyright owners, and more recently has also benefited trademark owners, in their battle against piracy and counterfeiting. Yet, the blocking injunction, notwithstanding the usefulness of its ‘notice and block’ outcome, is not without limitations. In the circumstances, it is argued that ‘notice and takedown’, the approach that has been adopted by right-holders for some years, is still an important remedy against the proliferation of online content that infringe the rights of copyright and trademark owners, which is both viable and effective. Thus, it is suggested that the battle against online piracy and counterfeiting could be won only if both the blocking injunction and the practice of ‘notice and takedown’ are utilised by right-holders as complementary and simultaneous remedies.

Keywords: blocking injunctions, internet intermediaries, notice and takedown, intellectual property

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2447 Intellectual Property Rights and Health Rights: A Feasible Reform Proposal to Facilitate Access to Drugs in Developing Countries

Authors: M. G. Cattaneo

Abstract:

The non-effectiveness of certain codified human rights is particularly apparent with reference to the lack of access to essential drugs in developing countries, which represents a breach of the human right to receive adequate health assistance. This paper underlines the conflict and the legal contradictions between human rights, namely health rights, international Intellectual Property Rights, in particular patent law, as well as international trade law. The paper discusses the crucial links between R&D costs for innovation, patents and new medical drugs, with the goal of reformulating the hierarchies of priorities and of interests at stake in the international intellectual property (IP) law system. Different from what happens today, International patent law should be a legal instrument apt at rebalancing an axiological asymmetry between the (conflicting) needs at stake The core argument in the paper is the proposal of an alternative pathway, namely a feasible proposal for a patent law reform. IP laws tend to balance the benefits deriving from innovation with the costs of the provided monopoly, but since developing countries and industrialized countries are in completely different political and economic situations, it is necessary to (re)modulate such exchange according to the different needs. Based on this critical analysis, the paper puts forward a proposal, called Trading Time for Space (TTS), whereby a longer time for patent exclusive life in western countries (Time) is offered to the patent holder company, in exchange for the latter selling the medical drug at cost price in developing countries (Space). Accordingly, pharmaceutical companies should sell drugs in developing countries at the cost price, or alternatively grant a free license for the sale in such countries, without any royalties or fees. However, such social service shall be duly compensated. Therefore, the consideration for such a service shall be an extension of the temporal duration of the patent’s exclusive in the country of origin that will compensate the reduced profits caused by the supply at the price cost in developing countries.

Keywords: global health, global justice, patent law reform, access to drugs

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2446 Succinct Perspective on the Implications of Intellectual Property Rights and 3rd Generation Partnership Project in the Rapidly Evolving Telecommunication Industry

Authors: Arnesh Vijay

Abstract:

Ever since its early introduction in the late 1980s, the mobile industry has been rapidly evolving with each passing year. The development witnessed is not just in its ability to support diverse applications, but also its extension into diverse technological means to access and offer various services to users. Amongst the various technologies present, radio systems have clearly emerged as a strong contender, due to its fine attributes of accessibility, reachability, interactiveness, and cost efficiency. These advancements have no doubt guaranteed unprecedented ease, utility and sophistication to the cell phone users, but caused uncertainty due to the interdependence of various systems, making it extremely complicated to exactly map concepts on to 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) standards. Although the close interrelation and interdependence of intellectual property rights and mobile standard specifications have been widely acknowledged by the technical and legal community; there, however, is a requirement for clear distinction between the scope and future-proof of inventions to influence standards and its market place adoptability. For this, collaborative work is required between intellectual property professionals, researchers, standardization specialists and country specific legal experts. With the evolution into next generation mobile technology, i.e., to 5G systems, there is a need for further work to be done in this field, which has been felt now more than ever before. Based on these lines, this poster will briefly describe the importance of intellectual property rights in the European market. More specifically, will analyse the role played by intellectual property in various standardization institutes, such as 3GPP (3rd generation partnership project) and ITU (International Telecommunications Union). The main intention: to ensure the scope and purpose is well defined, and concerned parties on all four sides are well informed on the clear significance of good proposals which not only bring economic revenue to the company but those that are capable of improving the technology and offer better services to mankind. The poster will comprise different sections. The first segment begins with a background on the rapidly evolving mobile technology, with a brief insight on the industrial impact of standards and its relation to intellectual property rights. Next, section two will succinctly outline the interplay between patents and standards; explicitly discussing the ever changing and rapidly evolving relationship between the two sectors. Then the remaining sections will examine ITU and its role played in international standards development, touching upon the various standardization process and the common patent policies and related guidelines. Finally, it proposes ways to improve the collaboration amongst various sectors for a more evolved and sophisticated next generation mobile telecommunication system. The sole purpose here is to discuss methods to reduce the gap and enhance the exchange of information between the two sectors to offer advanced technologies and services to mankind.

Keywords: mobile technology, mobile standards, intellectual property rights, 3GPP

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2445 Property Rights and Trade Specialization

Authors: Sarma Binti Aralas

Abstract:

The relationship between property rights and trade specialization is examined for developing and developed countries using panel data analysis. Property rights is measured using the international property rights index while trade specialization is measured using the comparative advantage index. Cross country differences in property rights are hypothesized to lead to differences in trade specialization. Based on the argument that a weak protection of natural resources implies greater trade in resource-intensive goods, developing countries with less defined property rights are hypothesized to have a comparative advantage in resource-based exports while countries with more defined property rights will not have an advantage in resource-intensive goods. Evidence suggests that developing countries with weaker environmental protection index but are rich in natural resources do specialize in the trade of resource-intensive goods. The finding suggests that institutional frameworks to increase the stringency of environmental protection of resources may be needed to diversify exports away from the trade of resource-intensive goods.

Keywords: environmental protection, panel data, renewable resources, trade specialization

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2444 Role of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutical Inventions: An Analysis

Authors: E. Prema

Abstract:

Biotechnology is a study relating to the practical application of living beings in different fields. Generally, it is a study with regard to living organisms in the industrial utilization. It is the technology, which uses living organisms or its parts for specific commercial use. Modification and application of living beings for different practical purposes is possible through biotechnology. Furthermore, today biotechnology is being used in different fields for better results. It is worthwhile to note here that biotechnology is one of the most innovative and intensive industries. It has used the genetically based characteristics in microorganisms, plants and animals to create drugs and to develop drug therapies, which may prevent, cure or alleviate disease and their symptoms. Drugs are basically chemicals and while patenting drugs, the conditions of patentability of chemicals and the types that can be patented are equally applicable to drugs also. Nowadays, the role of biotechnology for manufacturing drugs has assumed much importance because of intellectual property rights. By way using biotechnology, most of the pharmaceutical inventions are getting protection for the period of 20 years as per the Patents Act, 1970 as amended in 2005. There is no doubt that biotechnology is serving the public at large with regard manufacturing drugs and helping the needy people on time.

Keywords: biotechnology, drugs, intellectual property rights, patents

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2443 Economic Neoliberalism: Property Right and Redistribution Policy

Authors: Aleksandar Savanović

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In this paper we will analyze the relationship between the neo-liberal concept of property rights and redistribution policy. This issue is back in the focus of interest due to the crisis 2008. The crisis has reaffirmed the influence of the state on the free-market processes. The interference of the state with property relations re-opened a classical question: is it legitimate to redistribute resources of a man in favor of another man with taxes? The dominant view is that the neoliberal philosophy of natural rights is incompatible with redistributive measures. In principle, this view can be accepted. However, when we look into the details of the theory of natural rights proposed by some coryphaei of neoliberal philosophy, such as Hayek, Nozick, Buchanan and Rothbard, we can see that it is not such an unequivocal view.

Keywords: economic neoliberalism, natural law, property, redistribution

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2442 Intellectual Property Risk Assessment in Planning Market Entry to China

Authors: Qing Cao

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Generally speaking, China has a relatively high level of intellectual property (IP) infringement. Risk assessment is indispensable in the strategic planning process. To complement the current literature in international business, the paper sheds the light on how to assess IP risk for foreign companies in planning market entry to China. Evaluating internal and external IP environment, proposed in the paper, consists of external analysis, internal analysis and further internal analysis. Through position the company’s IP environment, the risk assessment approach enables the foreign companies to either build the corresponding IP strategies or abort the entry plan beforehand to minimize the IP risks.

Keywords: intellectual property, IP environment, risk assessment

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2441 Comparative Analysis between Thailand and the United States of a Wholesale Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Competition law is not a new thing in Thailand. Thailand first passed the first competition law during the Second World War in order to stop business operator monopolizing food and basic living supplies. The competition law in Thailand has been amended several times during the past eighty years in order to make it suitable for the current economic and social condition. In 2017, Thailand enacted the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560, which contain several changes to the regime in order to enhance a prevention of collusive practices and monopolization through both vertical restraints and horizontal restraints. Section 56 of the Act provides exemptions for the vertical relationship; i.e., the arrangement in form of complementary relationship, between business operators, franchising agreements between franchisor and franchisee, and licensing agreement between licensor and licensee. The key is that such agreements must not be excessive, create monopolization or attempt to monopolize, or cause any impacts the consumers regarding price, quality, quantity of the goods. The goal of the paper is to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and its sequential regulations regarding vertical trade restraints in the case intellectual property licensing. The research will be conducted in form of a comparative analysis on exemptions for collusive practices under the United States Antitrust law and the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2560. The United Antitrust law, fairly similar to the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2561, views the intellectual property licensing to have pro-competitive benefits to the market as long as the intellectual property licensing agreement does not harm the competition amongst the business operators that could have or would have been competitors. The United States Antitrust law identifies the relationship between the parties of the agreement whether such agreement is horizontal or vertical or both. Even though the nature of licensing agreements is primarily vertical, the relationship between licensor and licensees can also be horizontal if they could have been potential competitors in the market as well. The United States Antitrust law frowns upon, if not prohibits, the horizontal restraints regarding the intellectual property licensing but does not impose the same restrictions on the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, intellectual property licensing, comparative law

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2440 Determination of Authorship of the Works Created by the Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Vladimir Sharapaev

Abstract:

This paper seeks to address the question of the authorship of copyrighted works created solely by the artificial intelligence or with the use thereof, and proposes possible interpretational or legislative solutions to the problems arising from the plurality of the persons potentially involved in the ultimate creation of the work and division of tasks among such persons. Being based on the commonly accepted assumption that a copyrighted work can only be created by a natural person, the paper does not deal with the issues regarding the creativity of the artificial intelligence per se (or the lack thereof), and instead focuses on the distribution of the intellectual property rights potentially belonging to the creators of the artificial intelligence and/or the creators of the content used for the formation of the copyrighted work. Moreover, the technical development and rapid improvement of the AI-based programmes, which tend to be reaching even greater independence on a human being, give rise to the question whether the initial creators of the artificial intelligence can be entitled to the intellectual property rights to the works created by such AI at all. As the juridical practice of some European courts and legal doctrine tends to incline to the latter opinion, indicating that the works created by the AI may not at all enjoy copyright protection, the questions of authorships appear to be causing great concerns among the investors in the development of the relevant technology. Although the technology companies dispose with further instruments of protection of their investments, the risk of the works in question not being copyrighted caused by the inconsistency of the case law and a certain research gap constitutes a highly important issue. In order to assess the possible interpretations, the author adopted a doctrinal and analytical approach to the research, systematically analysing the European and Czech copyright laws and case law in some EU jurisdictions. This study aims to contribute to greater legal certainty regarding the issues of the authorship of the AI-created works and define possible clues for further research.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, copyright, authorship, copyrighted work, intellectual property

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2439 An Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Throughout the history of Antitrust regimes in Thailand, Thailand has been trying to prevent collusive practices in the market through the amendments of the Trade Competition Act, and Thailand just passed the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560 in 2017 of which several aspects of the law were amended in order to enhance the prevention of collusive outcome through both vertical trade restraints and horizontal trade restraints. An agreement is vertical when it involves arrangements that are in a complementary relationship. In Section 55 of the Act, any agreements to reduce the price, quantity, or quality of the goods, agreements to assign a sole retailer for the goods, and the agreement to impose conditions on the retailers are not allowed. However, Section 56 provides exemptions for the vertical relationship between the business operators, the franchise agreement, and the licensing agreement as long as such agreements do not surpass the necessity to do so, create monopolization, or affect the consumers in terms of price, quality, quantity, or options. The paper aims to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and sequential regulations in terms of the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing, and, at the same time, compare with the exemptions under the European Union competition law, and Singapore competition law. Comparative legal analysis with leading jurisdiction will illustrate the application of the newly enacted Thai Competition Act in terms of its enforcement in the global impact of IP rights, which, by nature are de jure or de facto international protection.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, IP licensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2438 Copyright Infringement for Academic Authorship in Uganda: Implications on Exemptions of Fair Use for Educational Purposes in Universities

Authors: Elisam Magara

Abstract:

Like any other property, Intellectual Property (IP) must be regarded, respected, and remunerated to address the historical, ethical, economical and informational needs of society. Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995, the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (CNR) Act 2006 and CNR Regulations 2010 guide copyright protection in Uganda. However, an unpredictable environment has negatively impact on certain author/intellectual freedoms; and the infringements on academic works that affect the economic rights of authors that limit authors from fully enjoying the benefits of authorship. Notwithstanding the different licensing systems and copyright protection avenues, educational institutions and custodians of copyright works (libraries, archives) have continued to advocate for open access to information resources, under the legal exceptions of fair use for educational purposes. Thus, a study was conducted in educational institutions, libraries and archives in Uganda to assess the state of copyright infringement in Uganda in an increased use of academic authored works. The study attempted to establish the nature and forms of Copyright Infringement, the circumstances for copyright infringement, assessed the opinions from the custodians on strategies for balancing copyright protection for economic and moral gains by authors and increased access to information for educational purposes and fair-use. Through a survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, interviews and physical visits, the study was conducted in higher education institutions, libraries and archives among the officers that manage and keep copyright works. It established that the uncontrolled reproduction of copyright works in educational institutions and information institutions, have contributed copyright infringement robbing authors of their potential economic earnings and limiting their academic innovativeness and creativity. The study also established that lack of consciousness and awareness on copyright issues by lecturers, universities and libraries has made copyright works in Universities highly susceptible to copyright infringement. Thus the increased access to materials without restrictions has resulted in copyright infringement among the educational institutions, libraries and archives. A strategic alliance by the collecting Society (Uganda Reproduction Rights Organisation (URRO), government, Universities and right holders organisations (UTANA) to work together and institute a programme to address copyright protection and access to information is pertinently required.

Keywords: access to information, academic Writing, copyright, copyright infringement, copyright protection, exemptions of fair use, intellectual property rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
2437 Batman Forever: The Economics of Overlapping Rights

Authors: Franziska Kaiser, Alexander Cuntz

Abstract:

When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can be overlapping. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can help advertise across multiple sales channels. In an application to book, movie and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse is affected in situations of overlapping rights, and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries’ of right frameworks are in fact enhancing or decreasing content sales. We use a major U.S. Supreme Court decision as a quasi-natural experiment to apply an IV estimation in our analysis. We find that overlapping rights frameworks negatively affect creative reuses. At large, when copyright-protected comic characters are additionally registered as U.S. trademarks, they are less often reprinted and enter fewer video game productions, while generating less revenue from game sales.

Keywords: copyright, fictional characters, trademark, reuse

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2436 Financial Development, FDI, and Intellectual Property on Economic Growth in Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Fahimifar, Rouhollah Nazari, Seyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini

Abstract:

Achieving an adaptable rate of economic growth has always been at the forefront of Iran development programs. In order to increase welfare level of the people in the society, all economic and social indices should be improved which is possible just in case of country's economic development and growth. While developing countries has realized the gap between developed countries and developing countries in today's world, a massive movement has been emerged in less developed countries to eliminate this economic gap. Hence this study investigates the effect of financial development, foreign direct investment and intellectual property on Iran's economic growth and taking into account other variables on economic growth such as impact of the share of foreign direct investment on GDP, government consumptive expenditure share of GDP has been paid. Period used in this study is related to the years 1974 to 2009. Also, in this research we have used Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to examine relationship between variables. The results of this study indicate a meaningful and negative impact of financial development, the share of government consumptive expenditure to GDP and similarly, the initial GDP on economic growth. Also, the degree of economy openness, foreign direct investment and intellectual property has a meaningful positive impact on economic growth.

Keywords: financial development, FDI, intellectual property, economic growth, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2435 A Critical Review of the Success Model of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Ekta Pandey

Abstract:

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is ranked third largest by volume and fourteenth by value. It thus accounts for 10% of world’s production by volume and 1.5% by value according to Department of Pharmaceuticals, Government of India. The industry has shown phenomenal growth over past few years, moving from US $ 1 billion turnover in 1990 to a turnover of around US $30 billion in 2015. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is ranked seventeenth in terms of export value of active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms to more than 200 countries around the globe. It has shown tremendous changes especially after Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. Recognizing the immense potential for growth and its direct impact on Indian economy, it is important to look up the industrial policies adopted since Indian independence which turnaround the Indian pharmaceutical industry. A systematic review of changes in market structure of Indian pharmaceutical industry due to shift in policy regimes is done from 1850 to 2015 using secondary peer reviewed published research work. The aim is to understand the impact of anti-trust laws, intellectual property rights, industry competition acts and regulations are quite crucial in determining effective economic policy and have overall lasting effects on international trade and ties. The proposed paper examines the position of Indian domestic firms relative to multinational pharmaceutical firms tries to throw some light on the growth curve of Indian pharmaceutical sector.

Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredients, competition act, pharmaceutical industry, TRIPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 130