Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: RANS

68 A Computational Analysis of Flow and Acoustics around a Car Wing Mirror

Authors: Aidan J. Bowes, Reaz Hasan


The automotive industry is continually aiming to develop the aerodynamics of car body design. This may be for a variety of beneficial reasons such as to increase speed or fuel efficiency by reducing drag. However recently there has been a greater amount of focus on wind noise produced while driving. Designers in this industry seek a combination of both simplicity of approach and overall effectiveness. This combined with the growing availability of commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) packages is likely to lead to an increase in the use of RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) based CFD methods. This is due to these methods often being simpler than other CFD methods, having a lower demand on time and computing power. In this investigation the effectiveness of turbulent flow and acoustic noise prediction using RANS based methods has been assessed for different wing mirror geometries. Three different RANS based models were used, standard k-ε, realizable k-ε and k-ω SST. The merits and limitations of these methods are then discussed, by comparing with both experimental and numerical results found in literature. In general, flow prediction is fairly comparable to more complex LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based methods; in particular for the k-ω SST model. However acoustic noise prediction still leaves opportunities for more improvement using RANS based methods.

Keywords: acoustics, aerodynamics, RANS models, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
67 Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM

Authors: Zhuoneng Li, Zeeshan A. Rana, Karl W. Jenkins


In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.

Keywords: mesh sensitivity, turbulence models, OpenFOAM, RANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
66 Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction

Authors: Mikhail Gritskevich, Sebastian Hohenstein


The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.

Keywords: discrete holes film cooling, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), Reynolds stress tensor anisotropy, turbulent heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
65 RANS Simulation of Viscous Flow around Hull of Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, F. Behrouzi, A. Tarmizi


The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.

Keywords: RANS simulation, multipurpose amphibious vehicle, viscous flow structure, mechatronic

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
64 Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller

Authors: K. Boumediene, S. E. Belhenniche


This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.

Keywords: propeller flow, CFD simulation, RANS, hydrodynamic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
63 OpenFOAM Based Simulation of High Reynolds Number Separated Flows Using Bridging Method of Turbulence

Authors: Sagar Saroha, Sawan S. Sinha, Sunil Lakshmipathy


Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is the popular computational tool for prediction of turbulent flows. Being computationally less expensive as compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS), RANS has received wide acceptance in industry and research community as well. However, for high Reynolds number flows, the traditional RANS approach based on the Boussinesq hypothesis is incapacitated to capture all the essential flow characteristics, and thus, its performance is restricted in high Reynolds number flows of practical interest. RANS performance turns out to be inadequate in regimes like flow over curved surfaces, flows with rapid changes in the mean strain rate, duct flows involving secondary streamlines and three-dimensional separated flows. In the recent decade, partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) methodology has gained acceptability among seamless bridging methods of turbulence- placed between DNS and RANS. PANS methodology, being a scale resolving bridging method, is inherently more suitable than RANS for simulating turbulent flows. The superior ability of PANS method has been demonstrated for some cases like swirling flows, high-speed mixing environment, and high Reynolds number turbulent flows. In our work, we intend to evaluate PANS in case of separated turbulent flows past bluff bodies -which is of broad aerodynamic research and industrial application. PANS equations, being derived from base RANS, continue to inherit the inadequacies from the parent RANS model based on linear eddy-viscosity model (LEVM) closure. To enhance PANS’ capabilities for simulating separated flows, the shortcomings of the LEVM closure need to be addressed. Inabilities of the LEVMs have inspired the development of non-linear eddy viscosity models (NLEVM). To explore the potential improvement in PANS performance, in our study we evaluate the PANS behavior in conjugation with NLEVM. Our work can be categorized into three significant steps: (i) Extraction of PANS version of NLEVM from RANS model, (ii) testing the model in the homogeneous turbulence environment and (iii) application and evaluation of the model in the canonical case of separated non-homogeneous flow field (flow past prismatic bodies and bodies of revolution at high Reynolds number). PANS version of NLEVM shall be derived and implemented in OpenFOAM -an open source solver. Homogeneous flows evaluation will comprise the study of the influence of the PANS’ filter-width control parameter on the turbulent stresses; the homogeneous analysis performed over typical velocity fields and asymptotic analysis of Reynolds stress tensor. Non-homogeneous flow case will include the study of mean integrated quantities and various instantaneous flow field features including wake structures. Performance of PANS + NLEVM shall be compared against the LEVM based PANS and LEVM based RANS. This assessment will contribute to significant improvement of the predictive ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools in massively separated turbulent flows past bluff bodies.

Keywords: bridging methods of turbulence, high Re-CFD, non-linear PANS, separated turbulent flows

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62 Simulations of a Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


In this paper we explore the use of a second-order unstructured-grid, finite-volume code for direct noise prediction. We consider a Mach 1.5 jet impinging on a perpendicular flat plate. Hybrid LES-RANS simulations are used to calculate directly both the flow field and the radiated sound. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code is utilized for the calculations. The acoustic field is obtained directly from the simulations and is compared with the integral approach of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH). Results indicate the existence of a preferred radiation angle. The spectrum obtained is in good agreement with observations. This points out to the possibility of handling the effects of complicated geometries on noise radiation by using unstructured second-orders codes.

Keywords: CFD, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH), imping jet, ANSYS fluent commercial code, hybrid LES-RANS simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
61 Hydrodynamic Analysis on the Body of a Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle by Numerical Method

Authors: Mohammad Moonesun, Ehsan Asadi Asrami, Julia Bodnarchuk


In the case of Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, which uses photovoltaic panels to provide its required power, due to limitation of energy, accurate estimation of resistance and energy has major sensitivity. In this work, hydrodynamic calculations by numerical method for a solar autonomous underwater vehicle equipped by two 50 W photovoltaic panels has been studied. To evaluate the required power and energy, hull hydrodynamic resistance in several velocities should be taken into account. To do this assessment, the ANSYS FLUENT 18 applied as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool that solves Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) equations around AUV hull, and K-ω SST is used as turbulence model. To validate of solution method and modeling approach, the model of Myring submarine that it’s experimental data was available, is simulated. There is good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Also, these results showed that the K-ω SST Turbulence model is an ideal method to simulate the AUV motion in low velocities.

Keywords: underwater vehicle, hydrodynamic resistance, numerical modelling, CFD, RANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
60 CFD Analysis of a Two-Sided Windcatcher Inlet/Outlet Ducts’ Height in Ventilation Flow through a Three Dimensional Room

Authors: Amirreza Niktash, B. P. Huynh


A windcatcher is a structure fitted on the roof of a building for providing natural ventilation by using wind power; it exhausts the inside stale air to the outside and supplies the outside fresh air into the interior space of the building working by pressure difference between outside and inside of the building and using ventilation principles of passive stacks and wind tower, respectively. In this paper, the effect of different heights of inlet/outlets’ ducts of a two-sided windcatcher on the flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern through a three-dimensional room fitted with the windcatcher are investigated and analysed by using RANS CFD technique and applying standard K-ε turbulence model via a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The achieved results show that the inlet/outlet ducts height strongly affects flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern especially in the living area of the room when the wind velocity is not too low. The results are confirmed by the experimental test for constructed scaled model in the laboratory and it develops the two-sided windcatcher’s performance in ventilation applications.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, ventilation, windcatcher

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59 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao


Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, turbulent flow, RANS model, large Eddy simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
58 A Hybrid LES-RANS Approach to Analyse Coupled Heat Transfer and Vortex Structures in Separated and Reattached Turbulent Flows

Authors: C. D. Ellis, H. Xia, X. Chen


Experimental and computational studies investigating heat transfer in separated flows have been of increasing importance over the last 60 years, as efforts are being made to understand and improve the efficiency of components such as combustors, turbines, heat exchangers, nuclear reactors and cooling channels. Understanding of not only the time-mean heat transfer properties but also the unsteady properties is vital for design of these components. As computational power increases, more sophisticated methods of modelling these flows become available for use. The hybrid LES-RANS approach has been applied to a blunt leading edge flat plate, utilising a structured grid at a moderate Reynolds number of 20300 based on the plate thickness. In the region close to the wall, the RANS method is implemented for two turbulence models; the one equation Spalart-Allmaras model and Menter’s two equation SST k-ω model. The LES region occupies the flow away from the wall and is formulated without any explicit subgrid scale LES modelling. Hybridisation is achieved between the two methods by the blending of the nearest wall distance. Validation of the flow was obtained by assessing the mean velocity profiles in comparison to similar studies. Identifying the vortex structures of the flow was obtained by utilising the λ2 criterion to identify vortex cores. The qualitative structure of the flow compared with experiments of similar Reynolds number. This identified the 2D roll up of the shear layer, breaking down via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Through this instability the flow progressed into hairpin like structures, elongating as they advanced downstream. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis has been performed on the full flow field and upon the surface temperature of the plate. As expected, the breakdown of POD modes for the full field revealed a relatively slow decay compared to the surface temperature field. Both POD fields identified the most energetic fluctuations occurred in the separated and recirculation region of the flow. Latter modes of the surface temperature identified these levels of fluctuations to dominate the time-mean region of maximum heat transfer and flow reattachment. In addition to the current research, work will be conducted in tracking the movement of the vortex cores and the location and magnitude of temperature hot spots upon the plate. This information will support the POD and statistical analysis performed to further identify qualitative relationships between the vortex dynamics and the response of the surface heat transfer.

Keywords: heat transfer, hybrid LES-RANS, separated and reattached flow, vortex dynamics

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57 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu


Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
56 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Airflow Inside Car Cabin

Authors: Mokhtar Djeddou, Amine Mehel, Georges Fokoua, Anne Tanière, Patrick Chevrier


Commuters' exposure to air pollution, particularly to particle matter, inside vehicles is a significant health issue. Assessing particles concentrations and characterizing their distribution is an important first step to understand and propose solutions to improve car cabin air quality. It is known that particles dynamics is intimately driven by particles-turbulence interactions. In order to analyze and model pollutants distribution inside the car the cabin, it is crucialto examine first the single-phase flow topology and turbulence characteristics. Within this context, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to model airflow inside a full-scale car cabin using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)approach combined with the first order Realizable k- εmodel to close the RANS equations. To validate the numerical model, a campaign of velocity field measurements at different locations in the front and back of the car cabin has been carried out using hot-wire anemometry technique. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement of velocity profiles. Additionally, visualization of streamlines shows the formation of jet flow developing out of the dashboard air vents and the formation of large vortex structures, particularly in the back seats compartment. These vortex structures could play a key role in the accumulation and clustering of particles in a turbulent flow

Keywords: car cabin, CFD, hot wire anemometry, vortical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
55 Non-Reacting Numerical Simulation of Axisymmetric and Single Cavity Trapped Vortex Combustors

Authors: Heval Serhat Uluk, Sam M. Dakka


In this study, non-reacting simulations of axisymmetric and single cavity trapped vortex combustors were simulated to investigate the pressure drop and drag for various cavity aspect ratios and air mass flow rates. Models were validated by using experimental papers that are already available in the literature. Numerical study of axisymmetric trapped vortex combustor was carried out by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational domains, whereas single cavity trapped vortex combustor will only be simulated for the three-dimensional computational domain. A grid independence study will be conducted for each model. A comparison study was conducted between Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) k-ε Realizable with enhanced wall treatment and RANS k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) models to find the most suitable turbulence model, and it was found that the k-ω Shear Stress Transport model gives relatively close results to experimental outcomes. The two-dimensional model has already proven that simulation results are relatively close to the experimental results. Pressure drop rises with increasing air mass flow rate, and the lowest pressure drop was observed at 0.6 forebody/cavity aspect ratio for various air mass flow rates, which is similar to experimental outcomes. At the end of this study, it is expected to conclude the effect of air mass flow rate and cavity aspect ratio on the aerodynamics of vortex inside the cavity and find the lowest pressure drop and drag for both experimental setups. Moreover, it will also help to choose which turbulence model to use for two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational domains.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, aerodynamic, aerospace, propulsion

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54 RANS Simulation of the LNG Ship Squat in Shallow Water

Authors: Mehdi Nakisa, Adi Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, Fatemeh Behrouzi


Squat is the reduction in under-keel clearance between a vessel at-rest and underway due to the increased flow of water past the moving body. The forward motion of the ship induces a relative velocity between the ship and the surrounding water that causes a water level depression in which the ship sinks. The problem of ship squat is one among the crucial factors affecting the navigation of ships in restricted waters. This article investigates the LNG ship squat, its effects on flow streamlines around the ship hull and ship behavior and motion using computational fluid dynamics which is applied by Ansys-Fluent.

Keywords: ship squat, CFD, confined, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
53 Development of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall-pressure Fluctuations Power Spectrum Model Using a Stepwise Regression Algorithm

Authors: Zachary Huffman, Joana Rocha


Wall-pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developed over aircraft are a significant source of aircraft cabin noise. Since the power spectral density (PSD) of these pressure fluctuations is directly correlated with the amount of sound radiated into the cabin, the development of accurate empirical models that predict the PSD has been an important ongoing research topic. The sound emitted can be represented from the pressure fluctuations term in the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Therefore, early TBL empirical models (including those from Lowson, Robertson, Chase, and Howe) were primarily derived by simplifying and solving the RANS for pressure fluctuation and adding appropriate scales. Most subsequent models (including Goody, Efimtsov, Laganelli, Smol’yakov, and Rackl and Weston models) were derived by making modifications to these early models or by physical principles. Overall, these models have had varying levels of accuracy, but, in general, they are most accurate under the specific Reynolds and Mach numbers they were developed for, while being less accurate under other flow conditions. Despite this, recent research into the possibility of using alternative methods for deriving the models has been rather limited. More recent studies have demonstrated that an artificial neural network model was more accurate than traditional models and could be applied more generally, but the accuracy of other machine learning techniques has not been explored. In the current study, an original model is derived using a stepwise regression algorithm in the statistical programming language R, and TBL wall-pressure fluctuations PSD data gathered at the Carleton University wind tunnel. The theoretical advantage of a stepwise regression approach is that it will automatically filter out redundant or uncorrelated input variables (through the process of feature selection), and it is computationally faster than machine learning. The main disadvantage is the potential risk of overfitting. The accuracy of the developed model is assessed by comparing it to independently sourced datasets.

Keywords: aircraft noise, machine learning, power spectral density models, regression models, turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
52 Numerical Flow Simulation around HSP Propeller in Open Water and behind a Vessel Wake Using RANS CFD Code

Authors: Kadda Boumediene, Mohamed Bouzit


The prediction of the flow around marine propellers and vessel hulls propeller interaction is one of the challenges of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD has emerged as a potential tool in recent years and has promising applications. The objective of the current study is to predict the hydrodynamic performances of HSP marine propeller in open water and behind a vessel. The unsteady 3-D flow was modeled numerically along with respectively the K-ω standard and K-ω SST turbulence models for steady and unsteady cases. The hydrodynamic performances such us a torque and thrust coefficients and efficiency show good agreement with the experiment results.

Keywords: seiun maru propeller, steady, unstead, CFD, HSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
51 Turbulent Flow in Corrugated Pipes with Helical Grooves

Authors: P. Mendes, H. Stel, R. E. M. Morales


This article presents a numerical and experimental study of turbulent flow in corrugated pipes with helically “d-type" grooves, for Reynolds numbers between 7500 and 100,000. The ANSYS-CFX software is used to solve the RANS equations with the BSL two equation turbulence model, through the element-based finite-volume method approach. Different groove widths and helix angles are considered. Numerical results are validated with experimental pressure drop measurements for the friction factor. A correlation for the friction factor is also proposed considering the geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers evaluated.

Keywords: turbulent flow, corrugated pipe, helical, numerical, experimental, friction factor, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
50 Numerical Prediction of Wall Eroded Area by Cavitation

Authors: Ridha Zgolli, Ahmed Belhaj, Maroua Ennouri


This study presents a new method to predict cavitation area that may be eroded. It is based on the post-treatment of URANS simulations in cavitant flows. The most RANS calculations with incompressible consideration are based on cavitation model using mixture fluid with density (ρm) calculated as a function of liquid density (ρliq), vapour or gas density (ρvap) and vapour or gas volume fraction α (ρm = αρvap + (1-α) ρliq). The calculations are performed on hydrofoil geometries and compared with experimental works concerning flows characteristics (size of pocket, pressure, velocity). We present here the used cavitation model and the approach followed to evaluate the value of α fixing the shape of pocket around wall before collapsing.

Keywords: flows, CFD, cavitation, erosion

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49 Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Torque in a Small Gap Taylor-Couette Flow with Smooth and Grooved Surface

Authors: L. Joseph, B. Farid, F. Ravelet


Fundamental studies were performed on bifurcation, instabilities and turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow and applied to many engineering applications like astrophysics models in the accretion disks, shrouded fans, and electric motors. Such rotating machinery performances need to have a better understanding of the fluid flow distribution to quantify the power losses and the heat transfer distribution. The present investigation is focused on high gap ratio of Taylor-Couette flow with high rotational speeds, for smooth and grooved surfaces. So far, few works has been done in a very narrow gap and with very high rotation rates and, to the best of our knowledge, not with this combination with grooved surface. We study numerically the turbulent flow between two coaxial cylinders where R1 and R2 are the inner and outer radii respectively, where only the inner is rotating. The gap between the rotor and the stator varies between 0.5 and 2 mm, which corresponds to a radius ratio η = R1/R2 between 0.96 and 0.99 and an aspect ratio Γ= L/d between 50 and 200, where L is the length of the rotor and d being the gap between the two cylinders. The scaling of the torque with the Reynolds number is determined at different gaps for different smooth and grooved surfaces (and also with different number of grooves). The fluid in the gap is air. Re varies between 8000 and 30000. Another dimensionless parameter that plays an important role in the distinction of the regime of the flow is the Taylor number that corresponds to the ratio between the centrifugal forces and the viscous forces (from 6.7 X 105 to 4.2 X 107). The torque will be first evaluated with RANS and U-RANS models, and compared to empirical models and experimental results. A mesh convergence study has been done for each rotor-stator combination. The results of the torque are compared to different meshes in 2D dimensions. For the smooth surfaces, the models used overestimate the torque compared to the empirical equations that exist in the bibliography. The closest models to the empirical models are those solving the equations near to the wall. The greatest torque achieved with grooved surface. The tangential velocity in the gap was always higher in between the rotor and the stator and not on the wall of rotor. Also the greater one was in the groove in the recirculation zones. In order to avoid endwall effects, long cylinders are used in our setup (100 mm), torque is measured by a co-rotating torquemeter. The rotor is driven by an air turbine of an automotive turbo-compressor for high angular velocities. The results of the experimental measurements are at rotational speed of up to 50 000 rpm. The first experimental results are in agreement with numerical ones. Currently, quantitative study is performed on grooved surface, to determine the effect of number of grooves on the torque, experimentally and numerically.

Keywords: Taylor-Couette flow, high gap ratio, grooved surface, high speed

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48 CFD Simulation for Development of Cooling System in a Cooking Oven

Authors: V. Jagadish, Mathiyalagan V.


Prediction of Door Touch temperature of a Cooking Oven using CFD Simulation. Self-Clean cycle is carried out in Cooking ovens to convert food spilling into ashes which makes cleaning easy. During this cycle cavity of oven is exposed to high temperature around 460 C. At this operating point the user may prone to touch the Door surfaces, Side Shield, Control Panel. To prevent heat experienced by user, cooling system is built in oven. The most effective cooling system is developed with existing design constraints through CFD Simulations. Cross Flow fan is used for Cooling system due to its cost effectiveness and it can give more air flow with low pressure drop.

Keywords: CFD, MRF, RBM, RANS, new product development, simulation, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
47 CFD Effect of the Tidal Grating in Opposite Directions

Authors: N. M. Thao, I. Dolguntseva, M. Leijon


Flow blockages referring to the increase in flow are considered as a vital equipment for marine current energy conversion. However, the shape of these devices will result in extracted energy under the operation. The present work investigates the effect of two configurations of a grating, convergent and divergent that located upstream, to the water flow velocity. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation studies the flow characteristics by using the ANSYS Fluent solver for these specified arrangements of the grating. The results indicate that distinct features of flow velocity between “convergent” and “divergent” grating placements are up to in confined conditions. Furthermore, the velocity in case of granting is higher than that of the divergent grating.

Keywords: marine current energy, converter, turbine granting, RANS simulation, water flow velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
46 Numerical Investigation of Flow Past in a Staggered Tube Bundle

Authors: Kerkouri Abdelkadir


Numerical calculations of turbulent flows are one of the most prominent modern interests in various engineering applications. Due to the difficulty of predicting, following up and studying this flow for computational fluid dynamic (CFD), in this paper, we simulated numerical study of a flow past in a staggered tube bundle, using CFD Code ANSYS FLUENT with several models of turbulence following: k-ε, k-ω and SST approaches. The flow is modeled based on the experimental studies. The predictions of mean velocities are in very good agreement with detailed LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements performed in 8 stations along the depth of the array. The sizes of the recirculation zones behind the cylinders are also predicted. The simulations are conducted for Reynolds numbers of 12858. The Reynolds number is set to depend experimental results.

Keywords: flow, tube bundle, ANSYS Fluent, CFD, turbulence, LDA, RANS (k-ε, k-ω, SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
45 Towards Accurate Velocity Profile Models in Turbulent Open-Channel Flows: Improved Eddy Viscosity Formulation

Authors: W. Meron Mebrahtu, R. Absi


Velocity distribution in turbulent open-channel flows is organized in a complex manner. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability of fluid motion resulting from the free-surface turbulent flow condition. This phenomenon is complicated further due to the complex geometry of channels and the presence of solids transported. Thus, several efforts were made to understand the phenomenon and obtain accurate mathematical models that are suitable for engineering applications. However, predictions are inaccurate because oversimplified assumptions are involved in modeling this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study velocity distribution profiles and obtain simple, more accurate, and predictive mathematical models. Particular focus will be made on the acceptable simplification of the general transport equations and an accurate representation of eddy viscosity. Wide rectangular open-channel seems suitable to begin the study; other assumptions are smooth-wall, and sediment-free flow under steady and uniform flow conditions. These assumptions will allow examining the effect of the bottom wall and the free surface only, which is a necessary step before dealing with more complex flow scenarios. For this flow condition, two ordinary differential equations are obtained for velocity profiles; from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation and equilibrium consideration between turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and dissipation. Then different analytic models for eddy viscosity, TKE, and mixing length were assessed. Computation results for velocity profiles were compared to experimental data for different flow conditions and the well-known linear, log, and log-wake laws. Results show that the model based on the RANS equation provides more accurate velocity profiles. In the viscous sublayer and buffer layer, the method based on Prandtl’s eddy viscosity model and Van Driest mixing length give a more precise result. For the log layer and outer region, a mixing length equation derived from Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis provides the best agreement with measured data except near the free surface where an additional correction based on a damping function for eddy viscosity is used. This method allows more accurate velocity profiles with the same value of the damping coefficient that is valid under different flow conditions. This work continues with investigating narrow channels, complex geometries, and the effect of solids transported in sewers.

Keywords: accuracy, eddy viscosity, sewers, velocity profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
44 Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft

Authors: Lokeswara Rao P., Naga Venkata Rakesh N., V. Anantha Subramanian


It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.

Keywords: CFD, planing hull, porpoising, Savitsky method

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43 Utilization of Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model for Simulation of Cavitation Inception and Super Cavitation

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Azadeh Yazdi, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi


In this study, the Reynolds-Stress-Navier-Stokes framework is utilized to investigate the flow inside the diesel injector nozzle. The flow is assumed to be multiphase as the formation of vapor by pressure drop is visualized. For pressure and velocity linkage, the coupled algorithm is used. Since the cavitation phenomenon inherently is unsteady, the quasi-steady approach is utilized for saving time and resources in the current study. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used, which was capable of predicting flow behavior both at the initial and final steps of the cavitation process. Two different turbulent models were used in this study to clarify which one is more capable in predicting cavitation inception and super-cavitation. It was found that K-ε was more compatible with the Shnerr-Sauer cavitation model; therefore, the mentioned model is used for the rest of this study.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, cavitation, fuel, injector

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42 Numerical Investigation the Effect of Adjustable Guide Vane for Improving the Airflow Rate in Axial Fans

Authors: Behzad Shahizare, N. Nik-Ghazali, Kannan M. Munisamy, Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia


The main objective of this study is to clarify the effect of the adjustable outlet guide vane (OGV) on the axial fan. Three-dimensional Numerical study was performed to analyze the effect of adjustable guide vane for improving the airflow rate in axial fans. Grid independence test was done between five different meshes in order to choose the reliable mesh. In flow analyses, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was solved using three types of turbulence models named k-ɛ, k-ω and k-ω SST. The aerodynamic performances of the fan and guide vane were evaluated. Numerical method was validated by comparing with experimental test according to AMECA 210 standard. Results showed that, by using the adjustable guide vane the airflow rate is increased around 3% to 6 %. The maximum enhancement of the airflow rate was achieved when pressure was 374pa.

Keywords: axial fan, adjustable guide vane, CFD, turbo machinery

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41 The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics

Authors: P. Lauk, K. E. Seegel, T. Tähemaa


The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.

Keywords: L/D ratio, miniflaps, mini-TED, supercritical airfoil

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40 Numerical Investigation of Incompressible Turbulent Flows by Method of Characteristics

Authors: Ali Atashbar Orang, Carlo Massimo Casciola


A novel numerical approach for the steady incompressible turbulent flows is presented in this paper. The artificial compressibility method (ACM) is applied to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. A new Characteristic-Based Turbulent (CBT) scheme is developed for the convective fluxes. The well-known Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to check the effectiveness of this new scheme. Comparing the proposed scheme with previous studies, it is found that the present CBT scheme demonstrates accurate results, high stability and faster convergence. In addition, the local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing are applied as the convergence acceleration techniques. The turbulent flows past a backward facing step, circular cylinder, and NACA0012 hydrofoil are studied as benchmarks. Results compare favorably with those of other available schemes.

Keywords: incompressible turbulent flow, method of characteristics, finite volume, Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model

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39 Numerical Analysis of NOₓ Emission in Staged Combustion for the Optimization of Once-Through-Steam-Generators

Authors: Adrien Chatel, Ehsan Askari Mahvelati, Laurent Fitschy


Once-Through-Steam-Generators are commonly used in the oil-sand industry in the heavy fuel oil extraction process. They are composed of three main parts: the burner, the radiant and convective sections. Natural gas is burned through staged diffusive flames stabilized by the burner. The heat generated by the combustion is transferred to the water flowing through the piping system in the radiant and convective sections. The steam produced within the pipes is then directed to the ground to reduce the oil viscosity and allow its pumping. With the rapid development of the oil-sand industry, the number of OTSG in operation has increased as well as the associated emissions of environmental pollutants, especially the Nitrous Oxides (NOₓ). To limit the environmental degradation, various international environmental agencies have established regulations on the pollutant discharge and pushed to reduce the NOₓ release. To meet these constraints, OTSG constructors have to rely on more and more advanced tools to study and predict the NOₓ emission. With the increase of the computational resources, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a flexible tool to analyze the combustion and pollutant formation process. Moreover, to optimize the burner operating condition regarding the NOx emission, field characterization and measurements are usually accomplished. However, these kinds of experimental campaigns are particularly time-consuming and sometimes even impossible for industrial plants with strict operation schedule constraints. Therefore, the application of CFD seems to be more adequate in order to provide guidelines on the NOₓ emission and reduction problem. In the present work, two different software are employed to simulate the combustion process in an OTSG, namely the commercial software ANSYS Fluent and the open source software OpenFOAM. RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes) equations combined with the Eddy Dissipation Concept to model the combustion and closed by the k-epsilon model are solved. A mesh sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the independence of the solution on the mesh. In the first part, the results given by the two software are compared and confronted with experimental data as a mean to assess the numerical modelling. Flame temperatures and chemical composition are used as reference fields to perform this validation. Results show a fair agreement between experimental and numerical data. In the last part, OpenFOAM is employed to simulate several operating conditions, and an Emission Characteristic Map of the combustion system is generated. The sources of high NOₓ production inside the OTSG are pointed and correlated to the physics of the flow. CFD is, therefore, a useful tool for providing an insight into the NOₓ emission phenomena in OTSG. Sources of high NOₓ production can be identified, and operating conditions can be adjusted accordingly. With the help of RANS simulations, an Emission Characteristics Map can be produced and then be used as a guide for a field tune-up.

Keywords: combustion, computational fluid dynamics, nitrous oxides emission, once-through-steam-generators

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