Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: lasers

74 Scope of Lasers in Periodontics

Authors: Atmaja Patel

Abstract:

Since the development of lasers in 1951, the first medical application was reported by Goldman in 1962. In 1960, T.H. Maiman produced the first Ruby laser and was used in cardiovascular surgery by McGuff in 1963. After a long time of investigations and new developments in laser technology first clinical applications were performed by Choy and Ginsburg in 1983. Introduction of the first true dental laser was in 1989. This paper is to highlight the various treatments and prevention of periodontal diseases. Lasers have become more predictable and effective form of treatment for periodontal diseases. The advantages of lasers include reduced use of anaesthesia, coagulation that yields a dry surgical field and hence better visibility, reduced need of sutures, minimal swelling and scarring, less pain and medication, faster healing and increased patient acceptance.

Keywords: lasers, periodontal surgery, diode laser, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
73 Relative Intensity Noise of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Subject to Variable Polarization-Optical Feedback

Authors: Salam Nazhan Ahmed

Abstract:

Influence of variable polarization angle (θp) of optical feedback on the Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) has been experimentally investigated. The RIN is a minimum at θp = 0° for the dominant polarization mode (XP), and at θp = 90° for the suppressed polarization mode (YP) of VCSEL. Furthermore, the RIN of the XP mode increases rapidly with increasing θp, while for the YP mode, it increases slightly to θp = 45° and decreases for angles greater than 45°.

Keywords: lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical switching, optical polarization feedback, relative intensity noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
72 Influence of Strong Optical Feedback on Frequency Chirp and Lineshape Broadening in High-Speed Semiconductor Laser

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

Directly-modulated semiconductor lasers, including edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, have received considerable interest recently for use in data transmitters in cost-effective high-speed data centers, metro, and access networks. Optical feedback has been proved as an efficient technique to boost the modulation bandwidth and enhance the speed of the semiconductor laser. However, both the laser linewidth and frequency chirping in directly-modulated lasers are sensitive to both intensity modulation and optical feedback. These effects along width fiber dispersion affect the transmission bit rate and distance in single-mode fiber links. In this work, we continue our recent research on directly-modulated semiconductor lasers with modulation bandwidth in the millimeter-wave band by introducing simultaneous modeling and simulations on both the frequency chirping and lineshape broadening. The lasers are operating under strong optical feedback. The model takes into account the multiple reflections of laser reflections of laser radiation in the external cavity. The analyses are given in terms of the chirp-to-modulated power ratio, and the results are shown for the possible dynamic states of continuous wave, period-1 oscillation, and chaos.

Keywords: chirp, linewidth, optical feedback, semiconductor laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
71 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
70 Temperature-Stable High-Speed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with Strong Carrier Confinement

Authors: Yun Sun, Meng Xun, Jingtao Zhou, Ming Li, Qiang Kan, Zhi Jin, Xinyu Liu, Dexin Wu

Abstract:

Higher speed short-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) working at high temperature are required for future optical interconnects. In this work, the high-speed 850 nm VCSELs are designed, fabricated and characterized. The temperature dependent static and dynamic performance of devices are investigated by using current-power-voltage and small signal modulation measurements. Temperature-stable high-speed properties are obtained by employing highly strained multiple quantum wells and short cavity length of half wavelength. The temperature dependent photon lifetimes and carrier radiative times are determined from damping factor and resonance frequency obtained by fitting the intrinsic optical bandwidth with the two-pole transfer function. In addition, an analytical theoretical model including the strain effect is development based on model-solid theory. The calculation results indicate that the better high temperature performance of VCSELs can be attributed to the strong confinement of holes in the quantum wells leading to enhancement of the carrier transit time.

Keywords: vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, high speed modulation, optical interconnects, semiconductor lasers

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
69 A Low Cost Gain-Coupled Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Periodic Surface p-Contacts

Authors: Yongyi Chen, Li Qin, Peng Jia, Yongqiang Ning, Yun Liu, Lijun Wang

Abstract:

The distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are indispensable in optical phase array (OPA) used for light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques, laser communication systems and integrated optics, thanks to their stable single longitudinal mode and narrow linewidth properties. Traditional index-coupled (IC) DFB lasers with uniform gratings have an inherent problem of lasing two degenerated modes. Phase shifts are usually required to eliminate the mode degeneration, making the grating structure complex and expensive. High-quality antireflection (AR) coatings on both lasing facets are also essential owing to the random facet phases introduced by the chip cleavage process, which means half of the lasing energy is wasted. Gain-coupled DFB (GC-DFB) lasers based on the periodic gain (or loss) are announced to have single longitudinal mode as well as capable of the unsymmetrical coating to increase lasing power and efficiency thanks to facet immunity. However, expensive and time-consuming technologies such as epitaxial regrowth and nanoscale grating processing are still required just as IC-DFB lasers, preventing them from practical applications and commercial markets. In this research, we propose a low-cost, single-mode regrowth-free GC-DFB laser based on periodic surface p-contacts. The gain coupling effect is achieved simply by periodic current distribution in the quantum well caused by periodic surface p-contacts, introducing very little index-coupling effect that can be omitted. It is prepared by i-line lithography, without nanoscale grating fabrication or secondary epitaxy. Due to easy fabrication techniques, it provides a method to fabricate practical low cost GC-DFB lasers for widespread practical applications.

Keywords: DFB laser, gain-coupled, low cost, periodic p-contacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
68 Comparison of Yb and Tm-Fiber Laser Cutting Processes of Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Authors: Oktay Celenk, Ugur Karanfil, Iskender Demir, Samir Lamrini, Jorg Neumann, Arif Demir

Abstract:

Due to its favourable material characteristics, fiber reinforced plastics are amongst the main topics of all actual lightweight construction megatrends. Especially in transportation trends ranging from aeronautics over the automotive industry to naval transportation (yachts, cruise liners) the expected economic and environmental impact is huge. In naval transportation components like yacht bodies, antenna masts, decorative structures like deck lamps, light houses and pool areas represent cheap and robust solutions. Commercially available laser tools like carbon dioxide gas lasers (CO₂), frequency tripled solid state UV lasers, and Neodymium-YAG (Nd:YAG) lasers can be used. These tools have emission wavelengths of 10 µm, 0.355 µm, and 1.064 µm, respectively. The scientific goal is first of all the generation of a parameter matrix for laser processing of each used material for a Tm-fiber laser system (wavelength 2 µm). These parameters are the heat affected zone, process gas pressure, work piece feed velocity, intensity, irradiation time etc. The results are compared with results obtained with well-known material processing lasers, such as a Yb-fiber lasers (wavelength 1 µm). Compared to the CO₂-laser, the Tm-laser offers essential advantages for future laser processes like cutting, welding, ablating for repair and drilling in composite part manufacturing (components of cruise liners, marine pipelines). Some of these are the possibility of beam delivery in a standard fused silica fiber which enables hand guided processing, eye safety which results from the wavelength, excellent beam quality and brilliance due to the fiber nature. There is one more feature that is economically absolutely important for boat, automotive and military projects manufacturing that the wavelength of 2 µm is highly absorbed by the plastic matrix and thus enables selective removal of it for repair procedures.

Keywords: Thulium (Tm) fiber laser, laser processing of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), composite, heat affected zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
67 Effect of Control Lasers Polarization on Absorption Coefficient and Refractive Index of a W-Type 4- Level Cylindrical Quantum Dot in the Presence Of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (ETI)

Authors: Marziehossadat Moezzi

Abstract:

In this paper, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) with a parabolic confinement potential. We study the effect of control lasers polarization on absorption coefficient, refractive index and also on the generation of the double transparency windows in this system. Considering an effective mass method, the time-independent Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the energy structure of the QD. Also, we study the effect of structural characteristics of the QD on refraction and absorption of the QD in the presence of EIT.

Keywords: electromagnetically induced transparency, cylindrical quantum dot, absorption coefficient, refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
66 Increasing of Gain in Unstable Thin Disk Resonator

Authors: M. Asl. Dehghan, M. H. Daemi, S. Radmard, S. H. Nabavi

Abstract:

Thin disk lasers are engineered for efficient thermal cooling and exhibit superior performance for this task. However the disk thickness and large pumped area make the use of this gain format in a resonator difficult when constructing a single-mode laser. Choosing an unstable resonator design is beneficial for this purpose. On the other hand, the low gain medium restricts the application of unstable resonators to low magnifications and therefore to a poor beam quality. A promising idea to enable the application of unstable resonators to wide aperture, low gain lasers is to couple a fraction of the out coupled radiation back into the resonator. The output coupling gets dependent on the ratio of the back reflection and can be adjusted independently from the magnification. The excitation of the converging wave can be done by the use of an external reflector. The resonator performance is numerically predicted. First of all the threshold condition of linear, V and 2V shape resonator is investigated. Results show that the maximum magnification is 1.066 that is very low for high quality purposes. Inserting an additional reflector covers the low gain. The reflectivity and the related magnification of a 350 micron Yb:YAG disk are calculated. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically by the Fox and Li algorithm. Results show that with back reflection mechanism in combination with increasing the number of beam incidents on disk, high gain and high magnification can occur.

Keywords: unstable resonators, thin disk lasers, gain, external reflector

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
65 Investigation of the Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Electrically Active Defects in InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots Laser Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Al Huwayz, A. Salhi, S. Alhassan, S. Alotaibi, A. Almalki, M.Almunyif, A. Alhassni, M. Henini

Abstract:

Recently, there has been much research carried out to investigate quantum dots (QDs) lasers with the aim to increase the gain of quantum well lasers. However, one of the difficulties with these structures is that electrically active defects can lead to serious issues in the performance of these devices. It is therefore essential to fully understand the types of defects introduced during the growth and/or the fabrication process. In this study, the effects of Gamma radiation on the electrically active defects in p-i-n InAs/InGaAsQDs laser structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique on GaAs substrates were investigated. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed to explore these effects on the electrical properties of these QDs lasers. I-V measurements showed that as-grown sample had better electrical properties than the irradiated sample. However, DLTS and Laplace DLTS measurements at different reverse biases revealed that the defects in the-region of the p-i-n structures were decreased in the irradiated sample. In both samples, a trap with an activation energy of ~ 0.21 eV was assigned to the well-known defect M1 in GaAs layers

Keywords: quantum dots laser structures, gamma radiation, DLTS, defects, nAs/IngaAs

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
64 Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

Abstract:

In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.

Keywords: eye, heat-transfer, keratoplasty laser, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
63 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-Silicon Raman Laser, FTTH, GE-PON, Quasi-Phase-Matched Structure, resonator

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
62 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: current density, high-speed VCSELs, modulation bandwidth, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
61 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
60 Selective and Highly Sensitive Measurement of ¹⁵NH₃ Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Environmental Applications

Authors: Emily Awuor, Helga Huszar, Zoltan Bozoki

Abstract:

Isotope analysis has found numerous applications in the environmental science discipline, most common being the tracing of environmental contaminants on both regional and global scales. Many environmental contaminants contain ammonia (NH₃) since it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and its largest sources are from agricultural and industrial activities. NH₃ isotopes (¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃) are therefore important and can be used in the traceability studies of these atmospheric pollutants. The goal of the project is the construction of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system that is capable of measuring ¹⁵NH₃ isotope selectively in terms of its concentration. A further objective is for the system to be robust, easy-to-use, and automated. This is provided by using two telecommunication type near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers and a laser coupler as the light source in the photoacoustic measurement system. The central wavelength of the lasers in use was 1532 nm, with the tuning range of ± 1 nm. In this range, strong absorption lines can be found for both ¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃. For the selective measurement of ¹⁵NH₃, wavelengths were chosen where the cross effect of ¹⁴NH₃ and water vapor is negligible. We completed the calibration of the photoacoustic system, and as a result, the lowest detectable concentration was 3.32 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁵NH₃ and 0.44 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁴NH₃. The results are most useful in the environmental pollution measurement and analysis.

Keywords: ammonia isotope, near-infrared DFB diode laser, photoacoustic spectroscopy, environmental monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
59 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim

Abstract:

Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: depigmentation, lentigine, quality switched ruby laser, skin color

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
58 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachaï

Abstract:

Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: InGaAsP, laser, quantum well, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
57 Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser

Authors: Marilou Cadatal-Raduban, Minh Hong Pham, Duong Van Pham, Tu Nguyen Xuan, Mui Viet Luong, Kohei Yamanoi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Nobuhiko Sarukura, Hung Dai Nguyen

Abstract:

There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.

Keywords: rare-earth-doped fluoride gain medium, transient cavity, ultrashort laser, ultraviolet laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
56 Passively Q-Switched 914 nm Microchip Laser for LIDAR Systems

Authors: Marco Naegele, Klaus Stoppel, Thomas Dekorsy

Abstract:

Passively Q-switched microchip lasers enable the great potential for sophisticated LiDAR systems due to their compact overall system design, excellent beam quality, and scalable pulse energies. However, many near-infrared solid-state lasers show emitting wavelengths > 1000 nm, which are not compatible with state-of-the-art silicon detectors. Here we demonstrate a passively Q-switched microchip laser operating at 914 nm. The microchip laser consists of a 3 mm long Nd:YVO₄ crystal as a gain medium, while Cr⁴⁺:YAG with an initial transmission of 98% is used as a saturable absorber. Quasi-continuous pumping enables single pulse operation, and low duty cycles ensure low overall heat generation and power consumption. Thus, thermally induced instabilities are minimized, and operation without active cooling is possible while ambient temperature changes are compensated by adjustment of the pump laser current only. Single-emitter diode pumping at 808 nm leads to a compact overall system design and robust setup. Utilization of a microchip cavity approach ensures single-longitudinal mode operation with spectral bandwidths in the picometer regime and results in short laser pulses with pulse durations below 10 ns. Beam quality measurements reveal an almost diffraction-limited beam and enable conclusions concerning the thermal lens, which is essential to stabilize the plane-plane resonator. A 7% output coupler transmissivity is used to generate pulses with energies in the microjoule regime and peak powers of more than 600 W. Long-term pulse duration, pulse energy, central wavelength, and spectral bandwidth measurements emphasize the excellent system stability and facilitate the utilization of this laser in the context of a LiDAR system.

Keywords: diode-pumping, LiDAR system, microchip laser, Nd:YVO4 laser, passively Q-switched

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
55 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-de Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez

Abstract:

In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interesting case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulated by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: chaotic laser, network, star topology, synchronization

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54 Study of Quantum Lasers of Random Trimer Barrier AlxGa1-xAs Superlattices

Authors: Bentata Samir, Bendahma Fatima

Abstract:

We have numerically studied the random trimer barrier AlxGa1-xAs superlattices (RTBSL). Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that the barriers of one kind appear in triply. An explicit formula is given for evaluating the transmission coefficient of superlattices (SL's) in intentional correlated disorder. We have specially investigated the effect of aluminum concentration on the laser wavelength. We discuss the impact of the aluminum concentration associated with the structure profile on the laser wavelengths.

Keywords: superlattices, transfer matrix method, transmission coefficient, quantum laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
53 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
52 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

Abstract:

A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
51 Successful Excision of Lower Lip Mucocele Using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG Laser

Authors: Lubna M. Al-Otaibi

Abstract:

Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of the oral cavity and the most common after fibroma. The lesion develops as a result of retention or extravasation of mucous material from minor salivary glands. Extravasation type of mucocele results from trauma and mostly occurs in the lower lip of young patients. The various treatment options available for the treatment of mucocele are associated with a relatively high incidence of recurrence making surgical intervention necessary for a permanent cure. The conventional surgical procedure, however, arouses apprehension in the patient and is associated with bleeding and postoperative pain. Recently, treatment of mucocele with lasers has become a viable treatment option. Various types of lasers are being used and are preferable over the conventional surgical procedure as they provide good hemostasis, reduced postoperative swelling and pain, reduced bacterial population, lesser need for suturing, faster healing and low recurrence rates. Er,Cr:YSGG is a solid-state laser with great affinity to water molecule. Its hydrokinetic cutting action allows it to work effectively on hydrated tissues without any thermal damage. However, up to date, only a few studies have reported its use in the removal of lip mucocele, especially in children. In this case, a 6 year old female patient with history of trauma to the lower lip presented with a soft, sessile, whitish-bluish 4 mm papule. The lesion was present for approximately four months and was fluctuant in size. The child developed a habit of biting the lesion causing injury, bleeding and discomfort. Surgical excision under local anaesthesia was performed using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG Laser (WaterLase iPlus, Irvine, CA) with a Gold handpiece and MZ6 tip (3.5w, 50 Hz, 20% H2O, 20% Air, S mode). The tip was first applied in contact mode with focused beam using the Circumferential Incision Technique (CIT) to excise the tissue followed by the removal of the underlying causative minor salivary gland. Bleeding was stopped using Laser Dry Bandage setting (0.5w, 50 Hz, 1% H2O, 20% Air, S mode) and no suturing was needed. Safety goggles were worn and high-speed suction was used for smoke evacuation. Mucocele excision using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG laser was rapid, easy to perform with excellent precision and allowed for histopathological examination of the excised tissue. The patient was comfortable and there were minimum bleeding and no sutures, postoperative pain, scarring or recurrence. Laser assisted mucocele excision appears to have efficient and reliable benefits in young patients and should be considered as an alternative to conventional surgical and non-surgical techniques.

Keywords: Erbium, excision, laser, lip, mucocele

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
50 Gaussian Operations with a Single Trapped Ion

Authors: Bruna G. M. Araújo, Pedro M. M. Q. Cruz

Abstract:

In this letter, we review the literature of the major concepts that govern Gaussian quantum information. As we work with quantum information and computation with continuous variables, Gaussian states are needed to better describe these systems. Analyzing a single ion locked in a Paul trap we use the interaction picture to obtain a toolbox of Gaussian operations with the ion-laser interaction Hamiltionian. This is achieved exciting the ion through the combination of two lasers of distinct frequencies corresponding to different sidebands of the external degrees of freedom. First we study the case of a trap with 1 mode and then the case with 2 modes. In this way, we achieve different continuous variables gates just by changing the external degrees of freedom of the trap and combining the Hamiltonians of blue and red sidebands.

Keywords: Paul trap, ion-laser interaction, Gaussian operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
49 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement

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48 Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Overgrowth on the Bragg Grating for Gallium Nitride Based Distributed Feedback Laser

Authors: Junze Li, M. Li

Abstract:

Laser diodes fabricated from the III-nitride material system are emerging solutions for the next generation telecommunication systems and optical clocks based on Ca at 397nm, Rb at 420.2nm and Yb at 398.9nm combined 556 nm. Most of the applications require single longitudinal optical mode lasers, with very narrow linewidth and compact size, such as communication systems and laser cooling. In this case, the GaN based distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode is one of the most effective candidates with gratings are known to operate with narrow spectra as well as high power and efficiency. Given the wavelength range, the period of the first-order diffraction grating is under 100 nm, and the realization of such gratings is technically difficult due to the narrow line width and the high quality nitride overgrowth based on the Bragg grating. Some groups have reported GaN DFB lasers with high order distributed feedback surface gratings, which avoids the overgrowth. However, generally the strength of coupling is lower than that with Bragg grating embedded into the waveguide within the GaN laser structure by two-step-epitaxy. Therefore, the overgrowth on the grating technology need to be studied and optimized. Here we propose to fabricate the fine step shape structure of first-order grating by the nanoimprint combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching, then carry out overgrowth high quality AlGaN film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Then a series of gratings with different period, depths and duty ratios are designed and fabricated to study the influence of grating structure to the nano-heteroepitaxy. Moreover, we observe the nucleation and growth process by step-by-step growth to study the growth mode for nitride overgrowth on grating, under the condition that the grating period is larger than the mental migration length on the surface. The AFM images demonstrate that a smooth surface of AlGaN film is achieved with an average roughness of 0.20 nm over 3 × 3 μm2. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of the (002) reflections in the XRD rocking curves are 278 arcsec for the AlGaN film, and the component of the Al within the film is 8% according to the XRD mapping measurement, which is in accordance with design values. By observing the samples with growth time changing from 200s, 400s to 600s, the growth model is summarized as the follow steps: initially, the nucleation is evenly distributed on the grating structure, as the migration length of Al atoms is low; then, AlGaN growth alone with the grating top surface; finally, the AlGaN film formed by lateral growth. This work contributed to carrying out GaN DFB laser by fabricating grating and overgrowth on the nano-grating patterned substrate by wafer scale, moreover, growth dynamics had been analyzed as well.

Keywords: DFB laser, MOCVD, nanoepitaxy, III-niitride

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47 Synthesis of CeF3:Sm3+ Nanophosphor for Biological Applications

Authors: Mayuri Gandhi, Nayan Agrawal, Harshita Bhatia

Abstract:

In the present work, cerium fluoride (CeF3) was selected as the host material because of its high density, fast response and high radiation resistance, efficient absorption and energy transfer by host (to activator). For the synthesis of CeF3 nanoparticles doped with Sm3+ ion, co-precipitation route was employed. Thus for optimum results, concentration dependent studies of the fluorescence of Sm3+ was carried out. The photoluminescence gave emissions in both visible as well as the NIR region and therefore it can have its application in solar cells, where it can absorb a large spectrum of energy. CeF3:Sm3+ nanoparticles were carefully incorporated in a suitable polymer matrix in order to demonstrate a variety of applications to improve the performance of the polymer materials and use it to develop high grade optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, security labelling, lasers, displays, biological imaging, etc.

Keywords: bioimaging, cerium fluoride, NIR emission, samarium

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46 Performance Analysis of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser and Distributed Feedback Laser for Community Access Television

Authors: Ashima Rai

Abstract:

CATV transmission systems have altered from old cable based one-way analog video transmission to two ways hybrid fiber transmission. The use of optical fiber reduces the RF amplifiers in the transmission, high transmission power or lower fiber transmission losses are required to increase system capability. This paper evaluates and compares Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) for CATV transmission. The simulation results exhibit the better performer among both lasers taking into consideration the parameters chosen for evaluation.

Keywords: Distributed Feedback (DFB), Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL), Community Access Television (CATV), Composite Second Order (CSO), Composite Triple Beat (CTB), RF

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
45 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical

Procedia PDF Downloads 225