Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: hydrodynamics

81 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cases of Fluid Flow Using Modified Dynamic Boundary Condition (mDBC) in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models

Authors: Exa Heydemans, Jessica Sjah, Dwinanti Rika Marthanty


This paper presents numerical simulations using an open boundary algorithm with modified dynamic boundary condition (mDBC) for weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics models from particle-based code Dualsphysics. The problems of piping erosion in dams and dikes are aimed for studying the algorithm. The case 2D model of unsteady fluid flow past around a fixed cylinder is simulated, where various values of Reynold’s numbers (Re40, Re60, Re80, and Re100) and different model’s resolution are considered. A constant velocity with different values of viscosity for generating various Reynold’s numbers and different numbers of particles over a cylinder for the resolution are modeled. The interaction between solid particles of the cylinder and fluid particles is concerned. The cylinder is affected by the hydrodynamics force caused by the flow of fluid particles. The solid particles of the cylinder are the observation points to obtain force and pressure due to the hydrodynamics forces. As results of the simulation, which is to show the capability to model 2D unsteady with various Reynold’s numbers, the pressure coefficient, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, and Strouhal number are compared to the previous work from literature.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, internal erosion, dualsphysics, viscous fluid flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
80 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee


The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
79 Assessment of Fluid Flow Hydrodynamics for Cylindrical and Conical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: N. G. Thangan, A. B. Deoghare, P. M. Padole


Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aids in modeling the prototype of a real world processes. CFD approach is useful in predicting the fluid flow, heat transfer mass transfer and other flow related phenomenon. In present study, hydrodynamic characteristics of gas-solid cylindrical fluidized bed is compared with conical fluidized beds. A 2D fluidized bed consists of different configurations of particle size of iron oxide, bed height and superficial velocities of nitrogen. Simulations are performed to capture the complex physics associated with it. The Eulerian multiphase model is prepared in ANSYS FLUENT v.14 which is used to simulate fluidization process. It is analyzed with nitrogen as primary phase and iron oxide as secondary phase. The bed hydrodynamics is assessed prominently to examine effect on fluidization time, pressure drop, minimum fluidization velocity, and gas holdup in the system.

Keywords: fluidized bed, bed hydrodynamics, Eulerian multiphase approach, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
78 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi


Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
77 Investigations of Bergy Bits and Ship Interactions in Extreme Waves Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Mohammed Islam, Jungyong Wang, Dong Cheol Seo


The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is a novel, meshless, and Lagrangian technique based numerical method that has shown promises to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of water and structure interactions in violent flow conditions. The main goal of this study is to build confidence on the versatility of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based tool, to use it as a complementary tool to the physical model testing capabilities and support research need for the performance evaluation of ships and offshore platforms exposed to an extreme and harsh environment. In the current endeavor, an open-sourced SPH-based tool was used and validated for modeling and predictions of the hydrodynamic interactions of a 6-DOF ship and bergy bits. The study involved the modeling of a modern generic drillship and simplified bergy bits in floating and towing scenarios and in regular and irregular wave conditions. The predictions were validated using the model-scale measurements on a moored ship towed at multiple oblique angles approaching a floating bergy bit in waves. Overall, this study results in a thorough comparison between the model scale measurements and the prediction outcomes from the SPH tool for performance and accuracy. The SPH predicted ship motions and forces were primarily within ±5% of the measurements. The velocity and pressure distribution and wave characteristics over the free surface depicts realistic interactions of the wave, ship, and the bergy bit. This work identifies and presents several challenges in preparing the input file, particularly while defining the mass properties of complex geometry, the computational requirements, and the post-processing of the outcomes.

Keywords: SPH, ship and bergy bit, hydrodynamic interactions, model validation, physical model testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
76 Hydrodynamics of Selected Ethiopian Rift Lakes

Authors: Kassaye Bewketu Zellelew


The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes suffer from water level fluctuations due to several natural and anthropocentric factors. Lakes located at terminal positions are highly affected by the fluctuations. These fluctuations are disturbing the stability of ecosystems, putting very serious impacts on the lives of many animals and plants around the lakes. Hence, studying the hydrodynamics of the lakes was found to be very essential. The main purpose of this study is to find the most significant factors that contribute to the water level fluctuations and also to quantify the fluctuations so as to identify lakes that need special attention. The research method included correlations, least squares regressions, multi-temporal satellite image analysis and land use change assessment. The results of the study revealed that much of the fluctuations, specially, in Central Ethiopian Rift are caused by human activities. Lakes Abiyata, Chamo, Ziway and Langano are declining while Abaya and Hawassa are rising. Among the studied lakes, Abiyata is drastically reduced in size (about 28% of its area in 1986) due to both human activities (most dominant ones) and natural factors. The other seriously affected lake is Chamo with about 11% reduction in its area between 1986 and 2010. Lake Abaya was found to be relatively stable during this period (showed only a 0.8% increase in its area). Concerned bodies should pay special attention to and take appropriate measures on lakes Abiyata, Chamo and Hawassa.

Keywords: correlations, hydrodynamics, lake level fluctuation, landsat satellite images

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
75 Hydrodynamics Study on Planing Hull with and without Step Using Numerical Solution

Authors: Koe Han Beng, Khoo Boo Cheong


The rising interest of stepped hull design has been led by the demand of more efficient high-speed boat. At the same time, the need of accurate prediction method for stepped planing hull is getting more important. By understanding the flow at high Froude number is the key in designing a practical step hull, the study surrounding stepped hull has been done mainly in the towing tank which is time-consuming and costly for initial design phase. Here the feasibility of predicting hydrodynamics of high-speed planing hull both with and without step using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the volume of fluid (VOF) methodology is studied in this work. First the flow around the prismatic body is analyzed, the force generated and its center of pressure are compared with available experimental and empirical data from the literature. The wake behind the transom on the keel line as well as the quarter beam buttock line are then compared with the available data, this is important since the afterbody flow of stepped hull is subjected from the wake of the forebody. Finally the calm water performance prediction of a conventional planing hull and its stepped version is then analyzed. Overset mesh methodology is employed in solving the dynamic equilibrium of the hull. The resistance, trim, and heave are then compared with the experimental data. The resistance is found to be predicted well and the dynamic equilibrium solved by the numerical method is deemed to be acceptable. This means that computational fluid dynamics will be very useful in further study on the complex flow around stepped hull and its potential usage in the design phase.

Keywords: planing hulls, stepped hulls, wake shape, numerical simulation, hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
74 3D CFD Model of Hydrodynamics in Lowland Dam Reservoir in Poland

Authors: Aleksandra Zieminska-Stolarska, Ireneusz Zbicinski


Introduction: The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a 3D CFD numerical model for simulating flow through 17 kilometers long dam reservoir of a complex bathymetry. In contrast to flowing waters, dam reservoirs were not emphasized in the early years of water quality modeling, as this issue has never been the major focus of urban development. Starting in the 1970s, however, it was recognized that natural and man-made lakes are equal, if not more important than estuaries and rivers from a recreational standpoint. The Sulejow Reservoir (Central Poland) was selected as the study area as representative of many lowland dam reservoirs and due availability of a large database of the ecological, hydrological and morphological parameters of the lake. Method: 3D, 2-phase and 1-phase CFD models were analysed to determine hydrodynamics in the Sulejow Reservoir. Development of 3D, 2-phase CFD model of flow requires a construction of mesh with millions of elements and overcome serious convergence problems. As 1-phase CFD model of flow in relation to 2-phase CFD model excludes from the simulations the dynamics of waves only, which should not change significantly water flow pattern for the case of lowland, dam reservoirs. In 1-phase CFD model, the phases (water-air) are separated by a plate which allows calculations of one phase (water) flow only. As the wind affects velocity of flow, to take into account the effect of the wind on hydrodynamics in 1-phase CFD model, the plate must move with speed and direction equal to the speed and direction of the upper water layer. To determine the velocity at which the plate will move on the water surface and interacts with the underlying layers of water and apply this value in 1-phase CFD model, the 2D, 2-phase model was elaborated. Result: Model was verified on the basis of the extensive flow measurements (StreamPro ADCP, USA). Excellent agreement (an average error less than 10%) between computed and measured velocity profiles was found. As a result of work, the following main conclusions can be presented: •The results indicate that the flow field in the Sulejow Reservoir is transient in nature, with swirl flows in the lower part of the lake. Recirculating zones, with the size of even half kilometer, may increase water retention time in this region •The results of simulations confirm the pronounced effect of the wind on the development of the water circulation zones in the reservoir which might affect the accumulation of nutrients in the epilimnion layer and result e.g. in the algae bloom. Conclusion: The resulting model is accurate and the methodology develop in the frame of this work can be applied to all types of storage reservoir configurations, characteristics, and hydrodynamics conditions. Large recirculating zones in the lake which increase water retention time and might affect the accumulation of nutrients were detected. Accurate CFD model of hydrodynamics in large water body could help in the development of forecast of water quality, especially in terms of eutrophication and water management of the big water bodies.

Keywords: CFD, mathematical modelling, dam reservoirs, hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
73 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar


A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, heat transfer, minichannel, microchannel, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
72 Numerical and Experimental Study on Bed-Wall Heat Transfer in Conical Fluidized Bed Combustor

Authors: Ik–Tae Im, H. M. Abdelmotalib, M. A. Youssef, S. B. Young


In this study the flow characteristics and bed-to-wall heat transfer in a gas-solid conical fluidized bed combustor were investigated using both experimental and numerical methods. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were carried out using a commercial software, Fluent V6.3. A two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian model was applied in order to simulate the gas–solid flow and heat transfer in a conical sand-air bed with 30o con angle and 22 cm static bed height. Effect of different fluidizing number varying in the range of 1.5 - 2.3, drag models namely (Syamlal-O’Brien and Gidaspow), and friction viscosity on flow and bed-to-wall heat transfer were analyzed. Both bed pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing inlet gas velocity. The Gidaspow drag model showed a better agreement with experimental results than other drag model. The friction viscosity had no clear effect on both hydrodynamics and heat transfer.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer coefficient, hydrodynamics, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
71 Impact of Marine Hydrodynamics and Coastal Morphology on Changes in Mangrove Forests (Case Study: West of Strait of Hormuz, Iran)

Authors: Fatemeh Parhizkar, Mojtaba Yamani, Abdolla Behboodi, Masoomeh Hashemi


The mangrove forests are natural and valuable gifts that exist in some parts of the world, including Iran. Regarding the threats faced by these forests and the declining area of them all over the world, as well as in Iran, it is very necessary to manage and monitor them. The current study aimed to investigate the changes in mangrove forests and the relationship between these changes and the marine hydrodynamics and coastal morphology in the area between qeshm island and the west coast of the Hormozgan province (i.e. the coastline between Mehran river and Bandar-e Pol port) in the 49-year period. After preprocessing and classifying satellite images using the SVM, MLC, and ANN classifiers and evaluating the accuracy of the maps, the SVM approach with the highest accuracy (the Kappa coefficient of 0.97 and overall accuracy of 98) was selected for preparing the classification map of all images. The results indicate that from 1972 to 1987, the area of these forests have had experienced a declining trend, and in the next years, their expansion was initiated. These forests include the mangrove forests of Khurkhuran wetland, Muriz Deraz Estuary, Haft Baram Estuary, the mangrove forest in the south of the Laft Port, and the mangrove forests between the Tabl Pier, Maleki Village, and Gevarzin Village. The marine hydrodynamic and geomorphological characteristics of the region, such as average intertidal zone, sediment data, the freshwater inlet of Mehran river, wave stability and calmness, topography and slope, as well as mangrove conservation projects make the further expansion of mangrove forests in this area possible. By providing significant and up-to-date information on the development and decline of mangrove forests in different parts of the coast, this study can significantly contribute to taking measures for the conservation and restoration of mangrove forests.

Keywords: mangrove forests, marine hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, west of strait of Hormuz, Iran

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70 Hydrodynamics of Periphyton Biofilters in Recirculating Aquaculture

Authors: Adam N. Bell, Sarina J. Ergas, Michael Nystrom, Nathan P. Brennan, Kevan L. Main


Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture systems (IMTA) have the potential to improve the sustainability of seafood production, generate organic fertilizer and feed, remove waste discharges and reduce energy use. IMTA can include periphyton biofilters where algae and microbes grow on surfaces, along with caught detritus and amphipods. Periphyton biofilters provide many advantages: nitrification, denitrification, primary production and ecological diversity. The goal of this study was to determine how biofilter hydraulic residence time (τ) effects periphyton biomass production, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient removal. A pilot scale recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was designed, constructed and operated at different hydraulic residence times (τ= 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours per tank). For each τ, a conservative tracer study was conducted to investigate system hydrodynamics. Data on periphyton weights, pH, nitrogen species, phosphorus, temperature and DO were collected. The tracer study for τ =1 hour revealed that the normalized time < τ, indicating short-circuiting. Periphyton biomass production rate was relatively unaffected by τ (R_e<1 for all τ). Average ammonia nitrogen removal was > 75% for all trials. Nitrate and nitrite did not accumulate in the RAS for τ≥4 hours due to enhanced denitrification in anoxic zones. For τ≥4 hours DO concentration was at a maximum of 4 mg L-1 after 14:00, and decreased to 0 mg L-1 during nighttime. At τ=1 hour, the RAS stayed > 2 mg L-1 and DO was more evenly distributed. For the validation trial, the culture tank was stocked with Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and the system was operated at τ= 1 hr. Preliminary results showed that a RAS with an integrated periphyton biofilter could support fish health with low nutrient concentrations DO > 6 mg L-1.

Keywords: sustainable aquaculture, resource recovery, nitrogen, microalgae, hydrodynamics, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
69 Hydrodynamics of Dual Hybrid Impeller of Stirred Reactor Using Radiotracer

Authors: Noraishah Othman, Siti K. Kamarudin, Norinsan K. Othman, Mohd S. Takriff, Masli I. Rosli, Engku M. Fahmi, Mior A. Khusaini


The present work describes hydrodynamics of mixing characteristics of two dual hybrid impeller consisting of, radial and axial impeller using radiotracer technique. Type A mixer, a Rushton turbine is mounted above a Pitched Blade Turbine (PBT) at common shaft and Type B mixer, a Rushton turbine is mounted below PBT. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the residence time distribution (RTD) of two hybrid mixers and to represent the respective mixers by RTD model. Each type of mixer will experience five radiotracer experiments using Tc99m as source of tracer and scintillation detectors NaI(Tl) are used for tracer detection. The results showed that mixer in parallel model and mixers in series with exchange can represent the flow model in mixer A whereas only mixer in parallel model can represent Type B mixer well than other models. In conclusion, Type A impeller, Rushton impeller above PBT, reduced the presence of dead zone in the mixer significantly rather than Type B.

Keywords: hybrid impeller, residence time distribution (RTD), radiotracer experiments, RTD model

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
68 Helical Motions Dynamics and Hydraulics of River Channel Confluences

Authors: Ali Aghazadegan, Ali Shokria, Julia Mullarneya, Jon Tunnicliffe


River channel confluences are dynamic systems with branching structures that exhibit a high degree of complexity both in natural and man-made open channel networks. Recent and past fields and modeling have investigated the river dynamics modeling of confluent based on a series of over-simplified assumptions (i.e. straight tributary channel with a bend with a 90° junction angle). Accurate assessment of such systems is important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and river engineering processes. Despite their importance, there has been little study of the hydrodynamics characteristics of river confluences, and the link between flow hydrodynamics and confluence morphodynamics in the confluence is still incompletely understood. This paper studies flow structures in confluences, morphodynamics and deposition patterns in 30 and 90 degrees confluences with different flow conditions. The results show that the junction angle is primarily the key factor for the determination of the confluence bed morphology and sediment pattern, while the discharge ratio is a secondary factor. It also shows that super elevation created by mixing flows is a key function of the morphodynamics patterns.

Keywords: helical flow, river confluence, bed morphology , secondary flows, shear layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
67 Hydrodynamics of Undulating Ribbon-fin and Its Application in Bionic Underwater Robot

Authors: Zhang Jun, Zhai Shucheng, Bai Yaqiang, Zhang Guoping


The Gymnarchus Niioticus fish(GNF) cruises generally with high efficiency by undulating ribbon-fin propulsion while keeping its body for straight line. The swing amplitude of GNF fins is usually in 60° to 90°, and in normal state the amplitude is close to 90°, only in the control of hovering or swimming at very low speed, the amplitude is smaller (about 60°). It provides inspiration for underwater robot design. In the paper, the unsteady flow of undulating ribbon-fin propulsion is numerical simulated by the dynamic grid technique including spring-based smoothing model and local grid remeshing to adapt to the fin surface significantly deforming, and the swing amplitude of fin ray reaches 850. The numerical simulation method is validated by thrust experiments. The spatial vortex structure and its evolution with phase angle is analyzed. The propulsion mechanism is investigated by comprehensive analysis of the hydrodynamics, vortex structure, and pressure distribution on the fin surface. The numerical results indicates that there are mainly three kinds of vortexes, i.e. streamwise vortex, crescent vortex and toroidal vortex. The intensity of streamwise vortex is the strongest among all kinds of vortexes. Streamwise vortexes and crescent vortexes all alternately distribute on the two sides of mid-sagittal plane. Inside the crescent vortexes is high-speed flow, while outside is low-speed flow. The crescent vortexes mainly induce high-speed axial jet, which produces the primary thrust. This is hydrodynamic mechanism undulating ribbon-fin propulsion. The streamwise vortexes mainly induce the vertical jet, which generates the primary heave force. The effect on hydrodynamics of main geometry and movement parameters including wave length, amplitude and advanced coefficients is investigated. A bionic underwater robot with bilateral undulating ribbon-fins is designed, and its navigation performance and maneuverability are measured.

Keywords: bionic propulsion, mobile robot, underwater robot, undulating ribbon-fins

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
66 Comparative Numerical Simulations of Reaction-Coupled Annular and Free-Bubbling Fluidized Beds Performance

Authors: Adefarati Oloruntoba, Yongmin Zhang, Hongliang Xiao


An annular fluidized bed (AFB) is gaining extensive application in the process industry due to its efficient gas-solids contacting. But a direct evaluation of its reaction performance is still lacking. In this paper, comparative 3D Euler–Lagrange multiphase-particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) computations are performed to assess the reaction performance of AFB relative to a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) in an FCC regeneration process. By using the energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) drag model with a suitable heterogeneity index, the MP-PIC simulation predicts the typical fountain region in AFB and solids holdup of BFB, which is consistent with an experiment. Coke combustion rate, flue gas and temperature profile are utilized as the performance indicators, while related bed hydrodynamics are explored to account for the different performance under varying superficial gas velocities (0.5 m/s, 0.6 m/s, and 0.7 m/s). Simulation results indicate that the burning rates of coke and its species are relatively the same in both beds, albeit marginal increase in BFB. Similarly, the shape and evolution time of flue gas (CO, CO₂, H₂O and O₂) curves are indistinguishable but match the coke combustion rates. However, AFB has high proclivity to high temperature-gradient as higher gas and solids temperatures are predicted in the freeboard. Moreover, for both beds, the effect of superficial gas velocity is only conspicuous on the temperature but negligible on combustion efficiency and effluent gas emissions due to constant gas volumetric flow rate and bed loading criteria. Cross-flow of solids from the annulus to the spout region as well as the high primary gas in the AFB directly assume the underlying mechanisms for its unique gas-solids hydrodynamics (pressure, solids holdup, velocity, mass flux) and local spatial homogeneity, which in turn influence the reactor performance. Overall, the study portrays AFB as a cheap alternative reactor to BFB for catalyst regeneration.

Keywords: annular fluidized bed, bubbling fluidized bed, coke combustion, flue gas, fountaining, CFD, MP-PIC, hydrodynamics, FCC regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
65 The Physical Impact of Nano-Layer Due to Dispersions of Carbon Nano-Tubes through an Absorbent Channel: A Numerical Nano-Fluid Flow Model

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Akbar Qureshi, Abdul Bari Farooq


The intention of the current study to analyze the significance of nano-layer in incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Newtonian nano-fluid consisting of carbon nano-materials has been considered through an absorbent channel with moving porous walls. Using applicable similarity transforms, the governing equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved by using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta technique together with shooting methodology. The phenomena of nano-layer have also been modeled mathematically. The inspiration behind this segment is to reveal the behavior of involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles. A detailed table is presented in which the effects of involved parameters on shear stress and heat transfer rate are discussed. Specially presented the impact of the thickness of the nano-layer and radius of the particle on the temperature profile. We observed that due to an increase in the thickness of the nano-layer, the heat transfer rate increases rapidly. The consequences of this research may be advantageous to the applications of biotechnology and industrial motive.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, magneto-hydrodynamics, nano-layer, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
64 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho


In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
63 Investigation of Mangrove Area Effects on Hydrodynamic Conditions of a Tidal Dominant Strait Near the Strait of Hormuz

Authors: Maryam Hajibaba, Mohsen Soltanpour, Mehrnoosh Abbasian, S. Abbas Haghshenas


This paper aims to evaluate the main role of mangroves forests on the unique hydrodynamic characteristics of the Khuran Strait (KS) in the Persian Gulf. Investigation of hydrodynamic conditions of KS is vital to predict and estimate sedimentation and erosion all over the protected areas north of Qeshm Island. KS (or Tang-e-Khuran) is located between Qeshm Island and the Iranian mother land and has a minimum width of approximately two kilometers. Hydrodynamics of the strait is dominated by strong tidal currents of up to 2 m/s. The bathymetry of the area is dynamic and complicated as 1) strong currents do exist in the area which lead to seemingly sand dune movements in the middle and southern parts of the strait, and 2) existence a vast area with mangrove coverage next to the narrowest part of the strait. This is why ordinary modeling schemes with normal mesh resolutions are not capable for high accuracy estimations of current fields in the KS. A comprehensive set of measurements were carried out with several components, to investigate the hydrodynamics and morpho-dynamics of the study area, including 1) vertical current profiling at six stations, 2) directional wave measurements at four stations, 3) water level measurements at six stations, 4) wind measurements at one station, and 5) sediment grab sampling at 100 locations. Additionally, a set of periodic hydrographic surveys was included in the program. The numerical simulation was carried out by using Delft3D – Flow Module. Model calibration was done by comparing water levels and depth averaged velocity of currents against available observational data. The results clearly indicate that observed data and simulations only fit together if a realistic perspective of the mangrove area is well captured by the model bathymetry data. Generating unstructured grid by using RGFGRID and QUICKIN, the flow model was driven with water level time-series at open boundaries. Adopting the available field data, the key role of mangrove area on the hydrodynamics of the study area can be studied. The results show that including the accurate geometry of the mangrove area and consideration of its sponge-like behavior are the key aspects through which a realistic current field can be simulated in the KS.

Keywords: Khuran Strait, Persian Gulf, tide, current, Delft3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
62 Numerical Study on the Flow around a Steadily Rotating Spring: Understanding the Propulsion of a Bacterial Flagellum

Authors: Won Yeol Choi, Sangmo Kang


The propulsion of a bacterial flagellum in a viscous fluid has attracted many interests in the field of biological hydrodynamics, but remains yet fully understood and thus still a challenging problem. In this study, therefore, we have numerically investigated the flow around a steadily rotating micro-sized spring to further understand such bacterial flagellum propulsion. Note that a bacterium gains thrust (propulsive force) by rotating the flagellum connected to the body through a bio motor to move forward. For the investigation, we convert the spring model from the micro scale to the macro scale using a similitude law (scale law) and perform simulations on the converted macro-scale model using a commercial software package, CFX v13 (ANSYS). To scrutinize the propulsion characteristics of the flagellum through the simulations, we make parameter studies by changing some flow parameters, such as the pitch, helical radius and rotational speed of the spring and the Reynolds number (or fluid viscosity), expected to affect the thrust force experienced by the rotating spring. Results show that the propulsion characteristics depend strongly on the parameters mentioned above. It is observed that the forward thrust increases in a linear fashion with either of the rotational speed or the fluid viscosity. In addition, the thrust is directly proportional to square of the helical radius and but the thrust force is increased and then decreased based on the peak value to the pitch. Finally, we also present the appropriate flow and pressure fields visualized to support the observations.

Keywords: fluid viscosity, hydrodynamics, similitude, propulsive force

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
61 Hydrodynamics in Wetlands of Brazilian Savanna: Electrical Tomography and Geoprocessing

Authors: Lucas M. Furlan, Cesar A. Moreira, Jepherson F. Sales, Guilherme T. Bueno, Manuel E. Ferreira, Carla V. S. Coelho, Vania Rosolen


Located in the western part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the study area consists of a savanna environment, represented by sedimentary plateau and a soil cover composed by lateritic and hydromorphic soils - in the latter, occurring the deferruginization and concentration of high-alumina clays, exploited as refractory material. In the hydromorphic topographic depressions (wetlands) the hydropedogical relationships are little known, but it is observed that in times of rainfall, the depressed region behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir - which suggests that the wetlands on the surface of the plateau are places of recharge of the aquifer. The aquifer recharge areas are extremely important for the sustainable social, economic and environmental development of societies. The understanding of hydrodynamics in relation to the functioning of the ferruginous and hydromorphic lateritic soils system in the savanna environment is a subject rarely explored in the literature, especially its understanding through the joint application of geoprocessing by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and electrical tomography. The objective of this work is to understand the hydrogeological dynamics in a wetland (with an area of 426.064 m²), in the Brazilian savanna,as well as the understanding of the subsurface architecture of hydromorphic depressions in relation to the recharge of aquifers. The wetland was compartmentalized in three different regions, according to the geoprocessing. Hydraulic conductivity studies were performed in each of these three portions. Electrical tomography was performed on 9 lines of 80 meters in length and spaced 10 meters apart (direction N45), and a line with 80 meters perpendicular to all others. With the data, it was possible to generate a 3D cube. The integrated analysis showed that the area behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir in the months of greater precipitation (December – 289mm; January – 277,9mm; February – 213,2mm), because the hydraulic conductivity is very low in all areas. In the aerial images, geotag correction of the images was performed, that is, the correction of the coordinates of the images by means of the corrected coordinates of the Positioning by Precision Point of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE-PPP). Later, the orthomosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were generated, which with specific geoprocessing generated the volume of water that the wetland can contain - 780,922m³ in total, 265,205m³ in the region with intermediate flooding and 49,140m³ in the central region, where a greater accumulation of water was observed. Through the electrical tomography it was possible to identify that up to the depth of 6 meters the water infiltrates vertically in the central region. From the 8 meters depth, the water encounters a more resistive layer and the infiltration begins to occur horizontally - tending to concentrate the recharge of the aquifer to the northeast and southwest of the wetland. The hydrodynamics of the area is complex and has many challenges in its understanding. The next step is to relate hydrodynamics to the evolution of the landscape, with the enrichment of high-alumina clays, and to propose a management model for the seasonal reservoir.

Keywords: electrical tomography, hydropedology, unmanned aerial vehicle, water resources management

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60 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang


Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluidized bed, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, slip flow, minimum fluidization velocity

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59 CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method

Authors: Rahim Jafari, Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt


The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble compared with the available experimental data in the literature.

Keywords: microchannel, boiling, Cahn-Hilliard method, simulation

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58 Impact of Fluid Flow Patterns on Metastable Zone Width of Borax in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer at Different Impeller Spacings

Authors: A. Čelan, M. Ćosić, D. Rušić, N. Kuzmanić


Conducting crystallization in an agitated vessel requires a proper selection of mixing parameters that would result in a production of crystals of specific properties. In dual impeller systems, which are characterized by a more complex hydrodynamics due to the possible fluid flow interactions, revealing a clear link between mixing parameters and crystallization kinetics is still an open issue. The aim of this work is to establish this connection by investigating how fluid flow patterns, generated by two impellers mounted on the same shaft, reflect on metastable zone width of borax decahydrate, one of the most important parameters of the crystallization process. Investigation was carried out in a 15-dm3 bench scale batch cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) equal to 1.3. For this reason, two radial straight blade turbines (4-SBT) were used for agitation. Experiments were conducted at different impeller spacings at the state of complete suspension. During the process of an unseeded batch cooling crystallization, solution temperature and supersaturation were continuously monitored what enabled a determination of the metastable zone width. Hydrodynamic conditions in the vessel achieved at different impeller spacings investigated were analyzed in detail. This was done firstly by measuring the mixing time required to attain the desired level of homogeneity. Secondly, fluid flow patterns generated in a described dual impeller system were both photographed and simulated by VisiMix Turbulent software. Also, a comparison of these two visualization methods was performed. Experimentally obtained results showed that metastable zone width is definitely affected by the hydrodynamics in the crystallizer. This means that this crystallization parameter can be controlled not only by adjusting the saturation temperature or cooling rate, as is usually done, but also by choosing a suitable impeller spacing that will result in a formation of crystals of wanted size distribution.

Keywords: dual impeller crystallizer, fluid flow pattern, metastable zone width, mixing time, radial impeller

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57 Virtual Approach to Simulating Geotechnical Problems under Both Static and Dynamic Conditions

Authors: Varvara Roubtsova, Mohamed Chekired


Recent studies on the numerical simulation of geotechnical problems show the importance of considering the soil micro-structure. At this scale, soil is a discrete particle medium where the particles can interact with each other and with water flow under external forces, structure loads or natural events. This paper presents research conducted in a virtual laboratory named SiGran, developed at IREQ (Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Quebec) for the purpose of investigating a broad range of problems encountered in geotechnics. Using Discrete Element Method (DEM), SiGran simulated granular materials directly by applying Newton’s laws to each particle. The water flow was simulated by using Marker and Cell method (MAC) to solve the full form of Navier-Stokes’s equation for non-compressible viscous liquid. In this paper, examples of numerical simulation and their comparisons with real experiments have been selected to show the complexity of geotechnical research at the micro level. These examples describe transient flows into a porous medium, interaction of particles in a viscous flow, compacting of saturated and unsaturated soils and the phenomenon of liquefaction under seismic load. They also provide an opportunity to present SiGran’s capacity to compute the distribution and evolution of energy by type (particle kinetic energy, particle internal elastic energy, energy dissipated by friction or as a result of viscous interaction into flow, and so on). This work also includes the first attempts to apply micro discrete results on a macro continuum level where the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was used to resolve the system of governing equations. The material behavior equation is based on the results of simulations carried out at a micro level. The possibility of combining three methods (DEM, MAC and SPH) is discussed.

Keywords: discrete element method, marker and cell method, numerical simulation, multi-scale simulations, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

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56 Combining Laws of Mechanics and Hydrostatics in Non Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: M. Blokh


Method of combined teaching laws of classical mechanics and hydrostatics in non-inertial reference frames for undergraduate students is proposed. Pressure distribution in a liquid (or gas) moving with acceleration is considered. Combined effect of hydrostatic force and force of inertia on a body immersed in a liquid can lead to paradoxical results, in a motion of pendulum in particular. The body motion under Stokes force influence and forces in rotating reference frames are investigated as well. Problems and difficulties in student perceptions are analyzed.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, mechanics, non-inertial reference frames, teaching

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55 Convective Interactions and Heat Transfer in a Czochralski Melt with a Model Phase Boundary of Two Different Shapes

Authors: R. Faiez, M. Mashhoudi, F. Najafi


Implicit in most large-scale numerical analyses of the crystal growth from the melt is the assumption that the shape and position of the phase boundary are determined by the transport phenomena coupled strongly to the melt hydrodynamics. In the present numerical study, the interface shape-effect on the convective interactions in a Czochralski oxide melt is described. It was demonstrated that thermos-capillary flow affects inversely the phase boundaries of distinct shapes. The in homogenity of heat flux and the location of the stagnation point at the crystallization front were investigated. The forced convection effect on the point displacement at the boundary found to be much stronger for the flat plate interface compared to the cone-shaped one with and without the Marangoni flow.

Keywords: computer simulation, fluid flow, interface shape, thermos-capillary effect

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54 Quantom Magnetic Effects of P-B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices

Authors: M. Habibi


The feasibility of proton-boron fusion in plasmoids caused by magneto hydrodynamics instabilities in plasma focus devices is studied analytically. In plasmoids, fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss (W/Pb=5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus device will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect, W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, the effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhance the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss. Therefore self-sustained p-11B fusion reactions would be possible and it could be said that p-11B fuelled plasma focus device is a clean and efficient source of energy.

Keywords: plasmoids, p11B fuel, ion viscous heating, quantum magnetic field, plasma focus device

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53 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani


Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

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52 Far-Field Noise Prediction of Tandem Cylinders Using Incompressible Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Francesc Xavier Trias, Asensi Oliva


A three-dimensional incompressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed to compute the hydrodynamic field around a pair of tandem cylinders. Symmetry-preserving schemes will be used during this simulation in conjunction with Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain the hydrodynamic field around the selected geometry. A set of results consisting of pressure and velocity and the combination of them will be stored at different surfaces near the cylinders as the initial input for the second part of the study. A post-processing of the obtained results based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation with a Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources will be used to compute noise at several probes located far away from the region where the hydrodynamics are computed. Directivities as well as spectral profile of the obtained acoustic field will be analyzed.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, long-span bodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 258