Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3512

Search results for: pressure drop

3512 [Keynote Speech]: Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-in-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow

Authors: S. S. Dol, M. S. Chan, S. F. Wong, J. S. Lim

Abstract:

Emulsion formation is unavoidable and can be detrimental to an oil field production. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion and pipeline pressure drop. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constrictions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. Lower constriction ratio cases cause larger pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constrictions, an optimum design of constriction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.

Keywords: constriction, pressure drop, turbulence, water-in-oil emulsions

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
3511 Effect of Number of Baffles on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri, M. Mosavi Navaei

Abstract:

In this paper for a given heat duty, study of number of baffles on pressure drop and heat transfer is considered in a STHX (Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger) with single segmental baffles. The effect of number of baffles from 9 to 52 baffles (baffle spacing variations from 4 to 24 inches) over OHTC (Overall Heat Hransfer Coefficient) to pressure drop ratio (U/Δp ratio). The results show that U/Δp ratio is low when baffle spacing is minimum (4 inches) because pressure drop is high; however, heat transfer coefficient is very significant. Then, with the increase of baffle spacing, pressure drop rapidly decreases and OHTC also decreases, but the decrease of OHTC is lower than pressure drop, so (U/Δp) ratio increases. After increasing baffles more than 12 inches, variation in pressure drop is gradual and approximately constant and OHTC decreases; Consequently, U/Δp ratio decreases again. If baffle spacing reaches to 24 inches, STHX will have minimum pressure drop, but OHTC decreases, so required heat transfer surface increases and U/Δp ratio decreases. After baffle spacing more than 12 inches, variation of shell side pressure drop is negligible. So optimum baffle spacing is suggested between 8 to 12 inches (43 to 63 percent of inside shell diameter) for a sufficient heat duty and low pressure drop.

Keywords: shell and tube heat exchanger, single segmental baffle, overall heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3510 Development and Comparative Analysis of a New C-H Split and Recombine Micromixer

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte

Abstract:

In the present study, a new passive micromixer based on SAR principle, combining the operation concepts of known Chain and H mixers, called C-H micromixer, is developed and studied. The efficiency and the pressure drop of the C-H mixer along with two known SAR passive mixers named Chain and Tear-drop were investigated numerically at Reynolds numbers up to 100, taking into account species transport. At the same time experimental tests of the Chain and Tear-drop mixers were carried out at low Reynolds number, in the 0.1≤Re≤4.2 range. Numerical and experimental results coincide considerably, which validate the numerical simulation approach. Results show that mixing efficiency of the Tear-drop mixer is good except at the middle range of Reynolds number but pressure drop is too high; conversely the Chain mixer has moderate pressure drop but relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle Re numbers. Whereas, the C-H mixer gives excellent mixing efficiency at all range of Re numbers. In addition, the C-H mixer shows respectively about 3 and 2 times lower pressure drop than the Tear-drop mixer and the Chain mixer.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3509 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3508 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler (heat exchanger) depends on the rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper, for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (fin per inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on two parameters mentioned above is considered in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ software are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, rating, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI (fin per inch) steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI = 12 (for circular fins about 47% and for hexagonal fins about 69%) and then decreased gradually to FPI = 15 (for circular fins about 5% and for hexagonal fins about 8%), and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI = 12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI).

Keywords: air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3507 Pressure Drop Study in Moving and Stationary Beds with Lateral Gas Injection

Authors: Vinci Mojamdar, Govind S. Gupta

Abstract:

Moving beds in the presence of gas flow are widely used in metallurgical and chemical industries like blast furnaces, catalyst reforming, drying, etc. Pressure drop studies in co- and counter – current conditions have been done by a few researchers. However, to the best of authours knowledge, proper pressure drop study with lateral gas injection lacks especially in the presence of cavity and nozzle protrusion inside the packed bed. The latter study is more useful for metallurgical industries for the processes such as blast furnaces, shaft reduction and, COREX. In this experimental work, a two dimensional cold model with slot type nozzle for lateral gas injection along with the plastic beads as packing material and dry air as gas have been used. The variation of pressure drop is recorded at various horizontal and vertical directions in the presence of cavity and nozzle protrusion. The study has been performed in both moving and stationary beds. Also, the experiments have been carried out in both increasing as well as decreasing gas flow conditions. Experiments have been performed at various gas flow rates and packed bed heights. Some interesting results have been reported such as there is no pressure variation in the moving bed for both the increasing and decreasing gas flow condition that is different from the stationary bed. Pressure hysteresis loop has been observed in a stationary bed.

Keywords: lateral gas injection, moving bed, pressure drop, pressure hysteresis, stationary bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3506 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer

Abstract:

The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3505 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
3504 Condensation Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of R-134a Flowing inside Dimpled Tubes

Authors: Kanit Aroonrat, Somchai Wongwises

Abstract:

A heat exchanger is one of the vital parts in a wide variety of applications. The tube with surface modification is generally referred to as an enhanced tube. With this, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is improved. A dimpled tube is one of many kinds of enhanced tube. The heat transfer and pressure drop of two-phase flow inside dimpled tubes have received little attention in the literature, despite of having an important role in the development of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. As a result, the main aim of this study is to investigate the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant-134a flowing inside dimpled tubes. The test section is a counter-flow double-tube heat exchanger, which the refrigerant flows in the inner tube and water flows in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and three dimpled tubes with different helical pitches. All test tubes are made from copper with an inside diameter of 8.1 mm and length of 1500 mm. The experiments are conducted over mass fluxes ranging from 300 to 500 kg/m²s, heat flux ranging from 10 to 20 kW/m², and condensing temperature ranging from 40 to 50 ˚C. The results show that all dimpled tubes provide higher heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop compared to the smooth tube. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop increase with decreasing of helical pitch. It can be observed that the dimpled tube with lowest helical pitch yields the heat transfer enhancement in the range of 60-89% with the frictional pressure drop increase of 289-674% in comparison to the smooth tube.

Keywords: condensation, dimpled tube, heat transfer, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3503 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Serpentine Channel Water Cooler Heat Sink

Authors: Hao Xiaohong, Wu Zongxiang, Chen Xuefeng

Abstract:

With the high power density and high integration of electronic devices, their heat flux has been increasing rapidly. Therefore, an effective cooling technology is essential for the reliability and efficient operation of electronic devices. Liquid cooling is studied increasingly widely for its higher heat transfer efficiency. Serpentine channels are superior in the augmentation of single-phase convective heat transfer because of their better channel velocity distribution. In this paper, eight different frame sizes water-cooled serpentine channel heat sinks are designed to study the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. With water as the working fluid, experiment setup is established and the results showed the effect of different channel width, fin thickness and number of channels on thermal resistance and pressure drop.

Keywords: heat transfer, experiment, serpentine heat sink, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3502 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte

Abstract:

Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
3501 Numerical Analysis of a Strainer Using Porous Media Technique

Authors: Ji-Hoon Byeon, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Strainer filter serves to block the inflow of impurities while mixed fluid is entering or exiting the piping. The filter of the strainer has a perforated structure, so that the pressure drop and the velocity change necessarily occur when the mixed fluid passes through the filter. It is possible to predict the pressure drop and velocity change of the strainer by numerical analysis by implementing all the perforated plates. However, if the size of the perforated plate exceeds a certain size, it is difficult to perform the numerical analysis, and sometimes we cannot guarantee its accuracy. In this study, we tried to predict the pressure drop and velocity change by using the porous media technique to obtain the equivalent resistance without actual implementation of the perforation shape of the strainer. Ansys-CFX, a commercial software, is used to perform the numerical analysis. The analysis procedure is as follows. Firstly, the unit pattern of the perforated plate is modeled, and the pressure drop is analyzed by varying the velocity by symmetry of the wall surface. Secondly, since the equation for obtaining resistance is a quadratic equation of pressure having unknown velocity, the viscous resistance and the inertia resistance of the perforated plate are obtained from the relationship between pressure and speed. Thirdly, by using the calculated resistance values, the values are substituted into the flat plate implemented as a two-dimensional porous media, and the accuracy is verified by comparing the pressure drop and the velocity change. Fourthly, the pressure drop and velocity change in the whole strainer are analyzed by using the resistance values obtained on the perforated plate in the actual whole strainer model. Using the porous media technique, it is found that pressure drop and velocity change can be predicted in relatively short time without modeling the overall shape of the filter. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Valve Center from the Regional Innovation Center(RIC) Program of Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE).

Keywords: strainer, porous media, CFD, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3500 Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators

Authors: Feyza Eda Akyurek, Bayram Sahin, Kadir Gelis, Eyuphan Manay, Murat Ceylan

Abstract:

Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.

Keywords: turbulators, heat exchanger, nanofluids, heat transfer enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3499 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik

Abstract:

Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: desulphurization, absorption, flue gas, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3498 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
3497 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3496 CFD Modeling and Optimization of Gas Cyclone Separator for Performance Improvement

Authors: N. Beit Saeid

Abstract:

Cyclones are used in the field of air industrial gases pollution and control the pollution with centrifugal forces that is generated with spatial geometry of the cyclone. Their simple design, low capital and maintenance costs and adaptability to a wide range of operating conditions have made cyclones one of the most widely used industrial dust collectors. Their cost of operation is proportional to the fan energy required to overcome their pressure drop. Optimized geometry of outlet diffuser of the cyclones potentially could reduce exit pressure losses without affecting collection efficiency. Three rectangular outlets and a radial outlet with a variable opening had been analyzed on two cyclones. Pressure drop was investigated for inlet velocities from about 10 to 20 m s−1. The radial outlet reduced cyclone pressure drop by between 8.7 and 11.9 percent when its exit area was equal to the flow area of the cyclone vortex finder or gas exit. A simple payback based on avoided energy costs was estimated to be between 3600 and 5000 h, not including installation cost.

Keywords: cyclone, CFD, optimization, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
3495 CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil

Authors: Pakawhat Khumkhreung, Yottana Khunatorn

Abstract:

The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.

Keywords: airfoil, average pitot tube, combustion air, CFD, pressure drop, rectangular duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3494 Reducing Pressure Drop in Microscale Channel Using Constructal Theory

Authors: K. X. Cheng, A. L. Goh, K. T. Ooi

Abstract:

The effectiveness of microchannels in enhancing heat transfer has been demonstrated in the semiconductor industry. In order to tap the microscale heat transfer effects into macro geometries, overcoming the cost and technological constraints, microscale passages were created in macro geometries machined using conventional fabrication methods. A cylindrical insert was placed within a pipe, and geometrical profiles were created on the outer surface of the insert to enhance heat transfer under steady-state single-phase liquid flow conditions. However, while heat transfer coefficient values of above 10 kW/m2·K were achieved, the heat transfer enhancement was accompanied by undesirable pressure drop increment. Therefore, this study aims to address the high pressure drop issue using Constructal theory, a universal design law for both animate and inanimate systems. Two designs based on Constructal theory were developed to study the effectiveness of Constructal features in reducing the pressure drop increment as compared to parallel channels, which are commonly found in microchannel fabrication. The hydrodynamic and heat transfer performance for the Tree insert and Constructal fin (Cfin) insert were studied using experimental methods, and the underlying mechanisms were substantiated by numerical results. In technical terms, the objective is to achieve at least comparable increment in both heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, if not higher increment in the former parameter. Results show that the Tree insert improved the heat transfer performance by more than 16 percent at low flow rates, as compared to the Tree-parallel insert. However, the heat transfer enhancement reduced to less than 5 percent at high Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the pressure drop increment stayed almost constant at 20 percent. This suggests that the Tree insert has better heat transfer performance in the low Reynolds number region. More importantly, the Cfin insert displayed improved heat transfer performance along with favourable hydrodynamic performance, as compared to Cfinparallel insert, at all flow rates in this study. At 2 L/min, the enhancement of heat transfer was more than 30 percent, with 20 percent pressure drop increment, as compared to Cfin-parallel insert. Furthermore, comparable increment in both heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop was observed at 8 L/min. In other words, the Cfin insert successfully achieved the objective of this study. Analysis of the results suggests that bifurcation of flows is effective in reducing the increment in pressure drop relative to heat transfer enhancement. Optimising the geometries of the Constructal fins is therefore the potential future study in achieving a bigger stride in energy efficiency at much lower costs.

Keywords: constructal theory, enhanced heat transfer, microchannel, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3493 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: catalytic muffler, perforated inlet cone, catalysts, perforated pipe, flow uniformity, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3492 Numerical Study of Off-Design Performance of a Highly Loaded Low Pressure Turbine Cascade

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehdi Habibnia, Rouzbeh Riazi, Masoud Mohammadi, Mohammad H. Sabour

Abstract:

The flow field passing through a highly loaded low pressure (LP) turbine cascade is numerically investigated at design and off-design conditions. The Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) platform is used as the computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. Firstly, the influences of grid resolution on the results of k-ε, k-ω, and LES turbulence models are investigated and compared with those of experimental measurements. A numerical pressure under-shoot is appeared near the end of blade pressure surface which is sensitive to grid resolution and flow turbulence modeling. The LES model is able to resolve separation on a coarse and fine grid resolutions. Secondly, the off-design flow condition is modeled by negative and positive inflow incidence angles. The numerical experiments show that a separation bubble generated on blade pressure side is predicted by LES. The total pressure drop is also been calculated at incidence angle between -20◦ and +8◦. The minimum total pressure drop is obtained by k-ω and LES at the design point.

Keywords: low pressure turbine, off-design performance, openFOAM, turbulence modeling, flow separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3491 Variation of Airfoil Pressure Profile Due to Confined Air Streams: Application in Gas-Oil Separators

Authors: Amir Hossein Haji, Nabeel Al-Rawahi, Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad

Abstract:

An innovative design has been examined for a gas-oil separator based on pressure reduction over an airfoil surface. The primary motivations are to shorten the release trajectory of the bubbles by minimizing the thickness of the oil layer as well as improving uniform pressure reduction zones. Restricted airflow over an airfoil is investigated for its effect on the pressure drop enhancement and the maximum attainable attack angle prior to the stall condition. Aerodynamic separation is delayed based on numerical simulation of Wortmann FX 63137 Airfoil in a confined domain using FLUENT 6.3.26. The proposed set up results in higher pressure drop compared with the free stream case. With the aim of optimum power consumption we have pursued further restriction to an air jet case over the airfoil. Then, a curved strip model is suggested for the air jet which can be applied as an analysis/design tool for the best performance conditions. Pressure reduction is shown to be inversely proportional to the curvature of the upper airfoil profile. This reduction occurs within the tracking zones where the air jet is effectively attached to the airfoil surface. The zero slope condition is suggested to estimate the onset of these zones after which the minimum curvature should be searched. The corresponding zero slope curvature is applied for estimation of the maximum pressure drop which shows satisfactory agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: airfoil, air jet, curved fluid flow, gas-oil separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3490 Performance Investigation of Silica Gel Fluidized Bed

Authors: Sih-Li Chen, Chih-Hao Chen, Chi-Tong Chan

Abstract:

Poor ventilation and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations lead to the formation of sick buildings. This problem cannot simply be resolved by introducing fresh air from outdoor environments because this creates extra loads on indoor air-conditioning systems. Desiccants are widely used in air conditioning systems in tropical and subtropical regions with high humidity to reduce the latent heat load from fresh air. Desiccants are usually used as a packed-bed type, which is low cost, to combine with air-conditioning systems. Nevertheless, the pressure drop of a packed bed is too high, and the heat of adsorption caused by the adsorption process lets the temperature of the outlet air increase, bringing about an extra heat load, so the high pressure drop and the increased temperature of the outlet air are energy consumption sources needing to be resolved. For this reason, the gas-solid fluidised beds that have high heat and mass transfer rates, uniform properties and low pressure drops are very suitable for use in air-conditioning systems.This study experimentally investigates the performance of silica gel fluidized bed device which applying to an air conditioning system. In the experiments, commercial silica gel particles were filled in the two beds and to form a fixed packed bed and a fluidized bed. The results indicated that compared to the fixed packed bed device, the total adsorption and desorption by amounts of fluidized bed for 40 minutes increased 20.6% and 19.9% respectively when the bed height was 10 cm and superficial velocity was set to 2 m/s. In addition, under this condition, the pressure drop and outlet air temperature raise were reduced by 36.0% and 30.0%. Given the above results, application of the silica gel fluidized bed to air conditioning systems has great energy-saving potential.

Keywords: fluidized bed, packed bed, silica gel, adsorption, desorption, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
3489 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop in Core Annular Horizontal Pipe Flow

Authors: John Abish, Bibin John

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid flow in horizontal pipe is investigated in order to reveal the flow patterns arising from the co-existed flow of oil and water. The main focus of the study is to identify the feasibility of reducing the pumping power requirements of petroleum transportation lines by having an annular flow of water around the thick oil core. This idea makes oil transportation cheaper and easier. The present study uses computational fluid dynamics techniques to model oil-water flows with liquids of similar density and varying viscosity. The simulation of the flow is conducted using commercial package Ansys Fluent. Flow domain modeling and grid generation accomplished through ICEM CFD. The horizontal pipe is modeled with two different inlets and meshed with O-Grid mesh. The standard k-ε turbulence scheme along with the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase modeling method is used to simulate the oil-water flow. Transient flow simulations carried out for a total period of 30s showed significant reduction in pressure drop while employing core annular flow concept. This study also reveals the effect of viscosity ratio, mass flow rates of individual fluids and ration of superficial velocities on the pressure drop across the pipe length. Contours of velocity and volume fractions are employed along with pressure predictions to assess the effectiveness of this proposed concept quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The outcome of the present study is found to be very relevant for the petrochemical industries.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, core-annular flows, frictional flow resistance, oil transportation, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3488 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani

Abstract:

Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
3487 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Misaligned Duct under a Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Mengqi Zhu, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

This study numerically investigates three-dimensional liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a misaligned duct under a uniform magnetic field. The duct consists of two misaligned horizontal channels (one is inflow channel, the other is outflow channel) and one central vertical channel. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to predict the behavior of the MHD flows, using commercial code CFX. In the current study, a case with Hartmann number 1000 is considered. The electromagnetic features of LM MHD flows are elucidated to examine the interdependency of the flow velocity, current density, electric potential, pressure drop and Lorentz force. The results show that pressure decreases linearly along the main flow direction.

Keywords: CFX, liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows, misaligned duct, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3486 Experimental Studies and CFD Predictions on Hydrodynamics of Gas-Solid Flow in an ICFB with a Draft Tube

Authors: Ravi Gujjula, Chinna Eranna, Narasimha Mangadoddy

Abstract:

Hydrodynamic study of gas and solid flow in an internally circulating fluidized bed with draft tube is made in this paper using high speed camera and pressure probes for the laboratory ICFB test rig 3.0 m X 2.7 m column having a draft tube located in the center of ICFB. Experiments were conducted using different sized sand particles with varying particle size distribution. At each experimental run the standard pressure-flow curves for both draft tube and annular region beds measured and the same time downward particles velocity in the annular bed region were also measured. The effect of superficial gas velocity, static bed height (40, 50 & 60 cm) and the draft tube gap height (10.5 & 14.5 cm) on pressure drop profiles, solid circulation pattern, and gas bypassing dynamics for the ICFB investigated extensively. The mechanism of governing solid recirculation and the pressure losses in an ICFB has been eluded based on gas and solid dynamics obtained from the experimental data. 3D ICFB CFD simulation runs conducted and extracted data validated with ICFB experimental data.

Keywords: icfb, cfd, pressure drop, solids recirculation, bed height, draft tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
3485 Numerical Studies on the Performance of the Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: S. P. Praveen Kumar, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc. Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper, numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables, maximizing the temperature difference and minimizing the pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. In this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.

Keywords: heat exchanger, fluid analysis, heat transfer, design of experiment, analysis of variance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
3484 Heat Transfer Analysis of Corrugated Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Ketankumar Gandabhai Patel, Jalpit Balvantkumar Prajapati

Abstract:

Plate type heat exchangers has many thin plates that are slightly apart and have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages that are good for heat transfer. This can be a more effective heat exchanger than the tube or shell heat exchanger due to advances in brazing and gasket technology that have made this plate exchanger more practical. Plate type heat exchangers are most widely used in food processing industries and dairy industries. Mostly fouling occurs in plate type heat exchanger due to deposits create an insulating layer over the surface of the heat exchanger, that decreases the heat transfer between fluids and increases the pressure drop. The pressure drop increases as a result of the narrowing of the flow area, which increases the gap velocity. Therefore, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger decreases with time, resulting in an undersized heat exchanger and causing the process efficiency to be reduced. Heat exchangers are often over sized by 70 to 80%, of which 30 % to 50% is assigned to fouling. The fouling can be reduced by varying some geometric parameters and flow parameters. Based on the study, a correlation will estimate for Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and chevron angle.

Keywords: heat transfer coefficient, single phase flow, mass flow rate, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3483 Freezing Characteristics and Texture Variation of Apple Fruits after Dehydrofreezing Assisted by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Treatment

Authors: Leila Ben Haj Said, Sihem Bellagha, Karim Allaf

Abstract:

The present study deals with the dehydrofreezing assisted by instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) treatment of apple fruits. Samples previously dehydrated until different water contents (200, 100, and 30% dry basis (db)) and DIC treated were frozen at two different freezing velocities (V+ and V-), depending on the thermal resistance established between the freezing airflow and the sample surface. The effects of sample water content (W) and freezing velocity (V) on freezing curves and characteristics, exudate water (EW) and texture variation were examined. Lower sample water content implied higher freezing rates, lower initial freezing points (IFP), lower practical freezing time (PFT), and lower specific freezing time (SFT). EW (expressed in g exudate water/100 g water in the product) of 200% and 100% db apple samples was approximately 3%, at low freezing velocity (V-). Whereas, it was lower than 0.5% for apple samples with 30% db water content. Moreover, the impact of freezing velocity on EW was significant and very important only for high water content samples. For samples whose water content was lower than 100% db, firmness (maximum puncture force) was as higher as the water content was lower, without any insignificant impact of freezing velocity.

Keywords: dehydrofreezing, instant controlled pressure drop DIC, freezing time, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 287