Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: homeless

35 The Mediation Effect of PTSD and Aggression on the Relationship of Childhood Physical Abuse and Suicidal Behavior in Homeless People

Authors: Jina Hong, Seongeun Ryu, Sungeun You


Suicide rate among homeless people are much higher than one in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of PTSD and aggression in the relationship between childhood physical abuse and suicidal behavior among homeless people. One hundred one homeless were recruited from street and shelters in Korea. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by master’s level graduate students or facility employees of shelters. All participants completed the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Life History of Aggression Questionnaire (LHAQ), Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD), and Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). The average age of homeless people participated in the study was 55.2 years (SD = 10.7) with the age range of 30 to 87. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms and aggression fully mediated the relationship between childhood physical abuse and suicidal behavior among the homeless. These findings suggest the need for trauma-informed care for the homeless, and warrant the need for psychological services for PTSD and aggression in order to reduce suicide risk among homeless people.

Keywords: aggression, homeless, PTSD, suicidal behavior

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34 Homelessness and Disaster Mitigation: An Exploratory Study into How Casualties Can Be Reduced with the Homeless

Authors: Blythe Maltby


Homeless populations are one of the sections of society most vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. Channels of communication to these populations are limited as they lack access to mainstream modes of emergency notification, often being the last to know about state emergencies. This study aims to answer if there is a way that cities and policies be designed to help reduce casualty rates to the homeless during state emergencies, such as earthquake and tsunami preparations. The study used a qualitative research approach, namely by speaking to levels of government, homelessness charities and workers and others about preparations and their experiences with the response of state emergencies. The proposed paper may help countries identify the gaps in their preparations to help facilitate better resources to look after these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: accessibility, disaster mitigation, homeless, Vancouver

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33 Reducing the Stigma of Homelessness through Community Engagement and Reciprocity

Authors: Jessica Federman


The current research offers a longitudinal and qualitative study design to examine how reciprocity improves relations between the homeless and various stakeholders within a community. The study examines a homeless shelter that sought to establish a facility within a community of Los Angeles, that was initially met with strong resistance and opposition from a variety of organizations due to deeply entrenched views about the negative impact of having homeless individuals within the community. The project tested an intervention model that targets the reduction of stigmatization of homeless individuals and promotes synergistic exchanges between conflicted organizational entities in communities. Years later, the data show that there has been a remarkable reversal in the perception of the agency by the very forces that initially prevented it from being established. This reversal was achieved by a few key strategic decisions. Community engagement was the first step toward changing people’s minds and demonstrating how the homeless shelter was helping to alleviate the problem of homelessness instead of contributing to it. Central to the non-profit’s success was the agency’s pioneering formulation of a treatment model known as, Reciprocal Community Engagement Model (RCEM). The model works by reintegrating the homeless back into society through relationship building within a network of programs that foster positive human connections. This approach aims to draw the homeless out of the debilitating isolation of their situation, reintegrate them through purposeful roles in the community while simultaneously providing a reciprocal benefit to the community at large. Through multilevel, simultaneous social interaction, RCEM has a direct impact not only on the homeless shelter’s clients but also for the community as well. The agency’s approach of RCEM led to their homeless clients getting out of the shelter and getting to work in the community directly alongside other community volunteers and for the benefit of other city and community organizations. This led to several opportunities for community members and residents to interact in meaningful ways. Through each successive exposure, the resident and community members’ distrust in one another was gradually eased and a mutually supportive relationship restored. In this process, the community member becomes the locus of change as much as the residents of the shelter. Measurements of community trust and resilience increased while negative perceptions of homeless people decreased.

Keywords: stigma, homelessness, reciprocity, identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
32 The Impact of the Length of Time Spent on the Street on Adjustment to Homelessness

Authors: Jakub Marek, Marie Vagnerova, Ladislav Csemy


Background: The length of time spent on the street influences the degree of adjustment to homelessness. Over the years spent sleeping rough, homeless people gradually lose the ability to control their lives and their return to mainstream society becomes less and less likely. Goals: The aim of the study was to discover whether and how men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years differ from those who have been homeless for four years or less. Methods: The research was based on a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews focused on the respondent’s entire life story, i.e. their childhood, adolescence, and the period of adulthood preceding homelessness. It also asked the respondents about how they envisaged the future. The group under examination comprised 51 homeless men aged 37 – 54. The first subgroup contained 29 men who have been sleeping rough for 10 – 21 years, the second group contained 22 men who have been homeless for four years or less. Results: Men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years had problems adapting as children. They grew up in a problematic family or in an institution and acquired only a rudimentary education. From the start they had problems at work, found it difficult to apply themselves, and found it difficult to hold down a job. They tend to have high-risk personality traits and often a personality disorder. Early in life they had problems with alcohol or drugs and their relationships were unsuccessful. If they have children, they do not look after them. They are reckless even in respect of the law and often commit crime. They usually ended up on the street in their thirties. Most of this subgroup of homeless people lack motivation and the will to make any fundamental change to their lives. They identify with the homeless community and have no other contacts. Men who have been sleeping rough for four years or less form two subgroups. There are those who had a normal childhood, attended school and found work. They started a family but began to drink, and as a consequence lost their family and their job. Such men end up on the street between the ages of 35 and 40. And then there are men who become homeless after the age of 40 because of an inability to cope with a difficult situation, e.g. divorce or indebtedness. They are not substance abusers and do not have a criminal record. Such people can be offered effective assistance to return to mainstream society by the social services because they have not yet fully self-identified with the homeless community and most of them have retained the necessary abilities and skills. Conclusion: The length of time a person has been homeless is an important factor in respect of social prevention. It is clear that the longer a person is homeless, the worse are their chances of being reintegrated into mainstream society.

Keywords: risk factors, homelessness, chronicity, narrative analysis

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31 Cross-Sectional Study Investigating the Prevalence of Uncorrected Refractive Error and Visual Acuity through Mobile Vision Screening in the Homeless in Wales

Authors: Pakinee Pooprasert, Wanxin Wang, Tina Parmar, Dana Ahnood, Tafadzwa Young-Zvandasara, James Morgan


Homelessness has been shown to be correlated to poor health outcomes, including increased visual health morbidity. Despite this, there are relatively few studies regarding visual health in the homeless population, especially in the UK. This research aims to investigate visual disability and access barriers prevalent in the homeless population in Cardiff, South Wales. Data was collected from 100 homeless participants in three different shelters. Visual outcomes included near and distance visual acuity as well as non-cycloplegic refraction. Qualitative data was collected via a questionnaire and included socio-demographic profile, ocular history, subjective visual acuity and level of access to healthcare facilities. Based on the participants’ presenting visual acuity, the total prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 17.0% and 19.0% respectively based on spherical equivalent from the eye with the greatest absolute value. The prevalence of astigmatism was 8.0%. The mean absolute spherical equivalent was 0.841D and 0.853D for right and left eye respectively. The number of participants with sight loss (as defined by VA= 6/12-6/60 in the better-seeing eye) was 27.0% in comparison to 0.89% and 1.1% in the general Cardiff and Wales population respectively (p-value is < 0.05). Additionally, 1.0% of the homeless subjects were registered blind (VA less than 3/60), in comparison to 0.17% for the national consensus after age standardization. Most participants had good knowledge regarding access to prescription glasses and eye examination services. Despite this, 85.0% never had their eyes examined by a doctor and 73.0% had their last optometrist appointment in more than 5 years. These findings suggested that there was a significant disparity in ocular health, including visual acuity and refractive error amongst the homeless in comparison to the general population. Further, the homeless were less likely to receive the same level of support and continued care in the community due to access barriers. These included a number of socio-economic factors such as travel expenses and regional availability of services, as well as administrative shortcomings. In conclusion, this research demonstrated unmet visual health needs within the homeless, and that inclusive policy changes may need to be implemented for better healthcare outcomes within this marginalized community.

Keywords: homelessness, refractive error, visual disability, Wales

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30 Exploring Causes of Homelessness and Shelter Entry: A Case Study Analysis of Shelter Data in New York

Authors: Lindsay Fink, Sarha Smith-Moyo, Leanne W. Charlesworth


In recent years, the number of individuals experiencing homelessness has increased in the United States. This paper analyzes 2019 data from 16 different emergency shelters in Monroe County, located in Upstate New York. The data were collected through the County’s Homeless Management Information System (HMIS), and individuals were de-identified and de-duplicated for analysis. The purpose of this study is to explore the basic characteristics of the homeless population in Monroe County, and the dynamics of shelter use. The results of this study showed gender as a significant factor when analyzing the relationship between demographic variables and recorded reasons for shelter entry. Results also indicated that age and ethnicity did not significantly influence odds of re-entering a shelter, but did significantly influence reasons for shelter entry. Overall, the most common recorded cause of shelter entry in 2019 in the examined county was eviction by primary tenant. Recommendations to better address recurrent shelter entry and potential chronic homelessness include more consideration for the diversity existing within the homeless population, and the dynamics leading to shelter stays, including enhanced funding and training for shelter staff, as well as expanded access to permanent supportive housing programs.

Keywords: chronic homelessness, homeless shelter stays, permanent supportive housing, shelter population dynamics

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29 An Approach to Addressing Homelessness in Hong Kong: Life Story Approach

Authors: Tak Mau Simon Chan, Ying Chuen Lance Chan


Homelessness has been a popular and controversial debate in Hong Kong, a city which is densely populated and well-known for very expensive housing. The constitution of the homeless as threats to the community and environmental hygiene is ambiguous and debatable in the Hong Kong context. The lack of an intervention model is the critical research gap thus far, aside from the tangible services delivered. The life story approach (LSA), with its unique humanistic orientation, has been well applied in recent decades to depict the needs of various target groups, but not the homeless. It is argued that the life story approach (LSA), which has been employed by health professionals in the landscape of dementia, and health and social care settings, can be used as a reference in the local Chinese context through indigenization. This study, therefore, captures the viewpoints of service providers and users by constructing an indigenous intervention model that refers to the LSA in serving the chronically homeless. By informing 13 social workers and 27 homeless individuals in 8 focus groups whilst 12 homeless individuals have participated in individual in-depth interviews, a framework of LSA in homeless people is proposed. Through thematic analysis, three main themes of their life stories was generated, namely, the family, negative experiences and identity transformation. The three domains solidified framework that not only can be applied to the homeless, but also other disadvantaged groups in the Chinese context. Based on the three domains of family, negative experiences and identity transformation, the model is applied in the daily practices of social workers who help the homeless. The domain of family encompasses familial relationships from the past to the present to the speculated future with ten sub-themes. The domain of negative experiences includes seven sub-themes, with reference to the deviant behavior committed. The last domain, identity transformation, incorporates the awareness and redefining of one’s identity and there are a total of seven sub-themes. The first two domains are important components of personal histories while the third is more of an unknown, exploratory and yet to-be-redefined territory which has a more positive and constructive orientation towards developing one’s identity and life meaning. The longitudinal temporal dimension of moving from the past – present - future enriches the meaning making process, facilitates the integration of life experiences and maintains a more hopeful dialogue. The model is tested and its effectiveness is measured by using qualitative and quantitative methods to affirm the extent that it is relevant to the local context. First, it contributes to providing a clear guideline for social workers who can use the approach as a reference source. Secondly, the framework acts as a new intervention means to address problem saturated stories and the intangible needs of the homeless. Thirdly, the model extends the application to beyond health related issues. Last but not least, the model is highly relevant to the local indigenous context.

Keywords: homeless, indigenous intervention, life story approach, social work practice

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28 Reviews of Chief Complaints and Treatments [in an Early Street Medicine Program]

Authors: A. Hoppe, T. Kagele, B. Hall, A. Nichols, B. Messner


The Spokane Street Medicine (SSM) Program aims to deliver medical care to members of Spokane, Washington, experiencing homelessness. Street medicine is designed to function in a non-traditional setting to help deliver healthcare to the underserved homeless population. In this analysis, clinical charts from street and shelter encounters made by the Spokane Street Medicine Program in early 2021 were reviewed in order to better understand the healthcare inequities prevalent among people experiencing homelessness in Spokane, WA. Pain, wound-care, and follow-up efforts were predominant concerns among the homeless population. More than half of the conditions addressed were acute, and almost a quarter of all chief complaints involved chronic unmanaged conditions. This analysis gives reason for the priorities of the SSM Program to be focused on pain, wound-care, and follow-up efforts. Understanding the specific medical needs of this population will allow for better resource allocation and improved health outcomes among people experiencing homelessness.

Keywords: equity issues in public health, health disparities, health services accessibility, medical public health, street medicine

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27 Cost Reduction Techniques for Provision of Shelter to Homeless

Authors: Mukul Anand


Quality oriented affordable shelter for all has always been the key issue in the housing sector of our country. Homelessness is the acute form of housing need. It is a paradox that in spite of innumerable government initiated programmes for affordable housing, certain section of society is still devoid of shelter. About nineteen million (18.78 million) households grapple with housing shortage in Urban India in 2012. In Indian scenario there is major mismatch between the people for whom the houses are being built and those who need them. The prime force faced by public authorities in facilitation of quality housing for all is high cost of construction. The present paper will comprehend executable techniques for dilution of cost factor in housing the homeless. The key actors responsible for delivery of cheap housing stock such as capacity building, resource optimization, innovative low cost building material and indigenous skeleton housing system will also be incorporated in developing these techniques. Time performance, which is an important angle of above actors, will also be explored so as to increase the effectiveness of low cost housing. Along with this best practices will be taken up as case studies where both conventional techniques of housing and innovative low cost housing techniques would be cited. Transportation consists of approximately 30% of total construction budget. Thus use of alternative local solutions depending upon the region would be covered so as to highlight major components of low cost housing. Government is laid back regarding base line information on use of innovative low cost method and technique of resource optimization. Therefore, the paper would be an attempt to bring to light simpler solutions for achieving low cost housing.

Keywords: construction, cost, housing, optimization, shelter

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26 Prioritizing Temporary Shelter Areas for Disaster Affected People Using Hybrid Decision Support Model

Authors: Ashish Trivedi, Amol Singh


In the recent years, the magnitude and frequency of disasters have increased at an alarming rate. Every year, more than 400 natural disasters affect global population. A large-scale disaster leads to destruction or damage to houses, thereby rendering a notable number of residents homeless. Since humanitarian response and recovery process takes considerable time, temporary establishments are arranged in order to provide shelter to affected population. These shelter areas are vital for an effective humanitarian relief; therefore, they must be strategically planned. Choosing the locations of temporary shelter areas for accommodating homeless people is critical to the quality of humanitarian assistance provided after a large-scale emergency. There has been extensive research on the facility location problem both in theory and in application. In order to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short timeframe, humanitarian relief organisations pre-position warehouses at strategic locations. However, such approaches have received limited attention from the perspective of providing shelters to disaster-affected people. In present research work, this aspect of humanitarian logistics is considered. The present work proposes a hybrid decision support model to determine relative preference of potential shelter locations by assessing them based on key subjective criteria. Initially, the factors that are kept in mind while locating potential areas for establishing temporary shelters are identified by reviewing extant literature and through consultation from a panel of disaster management experts. In order to determine relative importance of individual criteria by taking into account subjectivity of judgements, a hybrid approach of fuzzy sets and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted. Further, Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) was applied on an illustrative data set to evaluate potential locations for establishing temporary shelter areas for homeless people in a disaster scenario. The contribution of this work is to propose a range of possible shelter locations for a humanitarian relief organization, using a robust multi criteria decision support framework.

Keywords: AHP, disaster preparedness, fuzzy set theory, humanitarian logistics, TOPSIS, temporary shelters

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25 Conviviality as a Principle in Natural and Social Realms

Authors: Xiao Wen Xu


There exists a challenge of accommodating/integrating people at risk and those from various backgrounds in urban areas. The success of interdependence as a tool for survival largely rests on the mutually beneficial relationships amongst individuals within a given society. One approach to meeting this challenge has been written by Ivan Illich in his book, Tools for Conviviality, where he defines 'conviviality' as interactions that help individuals. With the goal of helping the community and applying conviviality as a principle to actors in both natural and social realms of Moss Park in Toronto, the proposal involves redesigning the park and buildings as a series of different health care, extended learning, employment support, armoury, and recreation facilities that integrate the exterior landscape as treatment, teaching, military, and recreation areas; in other words, the proposal links services with access to park space. While buildings are traditionally known to physically provide shelter, parks embody shelter and act as service, as people often find comfort and relief from being in nature, and Moss Park, in particular, is home to many people at risk. This landscape is not only an important space for the homeless community but also the rest of the neighborhood. The thesis proposes that the federal government rebuilds the current armoury, as it is an obsolete building while acknowledging the extensive future developments proposed by developers and its impact on public space. The neighbourhood is an underserved area, and the new design develops not just a new armoury, but also a complex of interrelated services, which are completely integrated into the park. The armoury is redesigned as an integral component of the community that not only serves as training facilities for reservists but also serves as an emergency shelter in sub-zero temperatures for the homeless community. This paper proposes a new design for Moss Park through examining how 'park buildings', interconnected buildings and parks, can foster empowering relationships that create a supportive public realm.

Keywords: conviviality, natural, social, Ivan Illich

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24 Poverty Reduction in European Cities: Local Governments’ Strategies and Programmes to Reduce Poverty; Interview Results from Austria

Authors: Melanie Schinnerl, Dorothea Greiling


In the context of the 2020 strategy, poverty and its fight returned to the center of national political efforts. This served as motivation for an Austrian research grant-funded project to focus on the under-researched local government level with the aim to identify municipal best-practice cases and to derive policy implications for Austria. Designing effective poverty reduction strategies is a complex challenge which calls for an integrated multi-actor in approach. Cities are increasingly confronted to combat poverty, even in rich EU-member states. By doing so cities face substantial demographic, cultural, economic and social challenges as well as changing welfare state regimes. Furthermore, there is a low willingness of (right-wing) governments to support the poor. Against this background, the research questions are: 1. How do local governments define poverty? 2. Who are the main risk groups and what are the most pressing problems when fighting urban poverty? 3. What is regarded as successful anti-poverty initiatives? 4. What is the underlying welfare state concept? To address the research questions a multi-method approach was chosen, consisting of a systematic literature analysis, a comprehensive document analysis, and expert interviews. For interpreting the data the project follows the qualitative-interpretive paradigm. Municipal approaches for reducing poverty are compared based on deductive, as well as inductive identified criteria. In addition to an intensive literature analysis, interviews (40) were conducted in Austria since the project started in March 2018. From the other countries, 14 responses have been collected, providing a first insight. Regarding the definition of poverty the EU SILC-definition as well as counting the persons who receive need-based minimum social benefits, the Austrian form of social welfare, are the predominant approaches in Austria. In addition to homeless people, single-parent families, un-skilled persons, long-term unemployed persons, migrants (first and second generation), refugees and families with at least 3 children were frequently mentioned. The most pressing challenges for Austrian cities are: expected reductions of social budgets, a great insecurity of the central government's social policy reform plans, the growing number of homeless people and a lack of affordable housing. Together with affordable housing, old-age poverty will gain more importance in the future. The Austrian best practice examples, suggested by interviewees, focused primarily on homeless, children and young people (till 25). Central government’s policy changes have already negative effects on programs for refugees and elderly unemployed. Social Housing in Vienna was frequently mentioned as an international best practice case, other growing cities can learn from. The results from Austria indicate a change towards the social investment state, which primarily focuses on children and labour market integration. The first insights from the other countries indicate that affordable housing and labor market integration are cross-cutting issues. Inherited poverty and old-age poverty seems to be more pressing outside Austria.

Keywords: anti-poverty policies, European cities, empirical study, social investment

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23 An Empirical Analysis of Euthanasia Issues in Taiwan

Authors: Wen-Shai Hung


This paper examines the factors influencing euthanasia issues in Taiwan. The data used is from the 2015 Survey Research on Attitudes towards the Death Penalty and Related Values in Taiwan, which focused on knowledge, attitudes towards the death penalty, and the concepts of social, political, and law values. The sample ages are from 21 to 94. The method used is probit modelling for examining the influences on euthanasia issues in Taiwan. The main empirical results find that older people, persons with higher educational attainment, those who favour abolition of the death penalty and do not oppose divorce, abortion, same-sex relationships, and putting down homeless’ cats or dogs are more likely to approve of the use of euthanasia to end their lives. In contrast, Mainlanders, people who support the death penalty and favour long-term prison sentences are less likely to support the use of euthanasia.

Keywords: euthanasia, homosexual, death penalty, and probit model

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22 Evaluation of DNA Paternity Testing Accuracy of Child Trafficking Cases

Authors: Wing Kam Fung, Kexin Yu


Child trafficking has been a serious problem in modern China. The Chinese government has established a national anti-trafficking DNA database to help reunite missing children with their families. The database collects DNA information from missing children's parents, trafficked and homeless children, then conducts paternity tests to find matched pairs. This paper considers the matching accuracy in such cases by looking into the exclusion probability in paternity testing. First, the situation of child trafficking in China is introduced. Next, derivations of the exclusion probability for both one-parent and two-parents cases are given, followed by extension to allow for 1 or 2 mutations. The accuracy of paternity testing of child trafficking cases is then assessed using the exclusion probabilities and available data. Finally, the number of loci that should be used to ensure a correct match is investigated.

Keywords: child trafficking, DNA database, exclusion probability, paternity testing

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21 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan


The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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20 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab


Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: street children, health status, psychology wellbeing, homeless

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19 Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna

Authors: Salma Akter, Md. Kamal Uddin


This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.

Keywords: Ashrayan Prakalpa, compromise, displaced people, quality of life

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18 Strengths Profiling: An Alternative Approach to Assessing Character Strengths Based on Personal Construct Psychology

Authors: Sam J. Cooley, Mary L. Quinton, Benjamin J. Parry, Mark J. G. Holland, Richard J. Whiting, Jennifer Cumming


Practitioners draw attention to people’s character strengths to promote empowerment and well-being. This paper explores the possibility that existing approaches for assessing character strengths (e.g., the Values in Action survey; VIA-IS) could be even more autonomy supportive and empowering when combined with strengths profiling, an ideographic tool informed by personal construct theory (PCT). A PCT approach ensures that: (1) knowledge is co-created (i.e., the practitioner is not seen as the ‘expert’ who leads the process); (2) individuals are not required to ‘fit’ within a prescribed list of characteristics; and (3) individuals are free to use their own terminology and interpretations. A combined Strengths Profiling and VIA approach was used in a sample of homeless youth (aged 16-25) who are commonly perceived as ‘hard-to-engage’ through traditional forms of assessment. Strengths Profiling was completed face-to-face in small groups. Participants (N = 116) began by listing a variety of personally meaningful characteristics. Participants gave each characteristic a score out of ten for how important it was to them (1 = not so important; 10 = very important), their ideal competency, and their current competency (1 = poor; 10 = excellent). A discrepancy score was calculated for each characteristic (discrepancy score = ideal score - current score x importance), whereby a lower discrepancy score indicated greater satisfaction. Strengths Profiling was used at the beginning and end of a 10-week positive youth development programme. Experiences were captured through video diary room entries made by participants and through reflective notes taken by the facilitators. Participants were also asked to complete a pre-and post-programme questionnaire, measuring perceptions of well-being, self-worth, and resilience. All of the young people who attended the strengths profiling session agreed to complete a profile, and the majority became highly engaged in the process. Strengths profiling was found to be an autonomy supportive and empowering experience, with each participant identifying an average of 10 character strengths (M = 10.27, SD = 3.23). In total, 215 different character strengths were identified, each with varying terms and definitions used, which differed greatly between participants and demonstrated the value in soliciting personal constructs. Using the participants’ definitions, 98% of characteristics were categorized deductively into the VIA framework. Bravery, perseverance, and hope were the character strengths that featured most, whilst temperance and courage received the highest discrepancy scores. Discrepancy scores were negatively correlated with well-being, self-worth, and resilience, and meaningful improvements were recorded following the intervention. These findings support the use of strengths profiling as a theoretically-driven and novel way to engage disadvantaged youth in identifying and monitoring character strengths. When young people are given the freedom to express their own characteristics, the resulting terminologies extend beyond the language used in existing frameworks. This added freedom and control over the process of strengths identification encouraged youth to take ownership over their profiles and apply their strengths. In addition, the ability to transform characteristics post hoc into the VIA framework means that strengths profiling can be used to explore aggregated/nomothetic hypotheses, whilst still benefiting from its ideographic roots.

Keywords: ideographic, nomothetic, positive youth development, VIA-IS, assessment, homeless youth

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17 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel


Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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16 Comparing Repaired and Undamaged Specimens Test Results of Post-Tensioned Beam to Column Connections

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


After the 1999 Marmara earthquake in Turkey research by the Turkish Precast Union stated that 24.50% of the precast structures were damaged with some of this damage being observed in the beam to column connections of the structures. Since it is essential to provide those rendered homeless by the earthquake with safe, habitable accommodation repairing medium and slight levels of damage at the connection parts should be undertaken. In order to prove that a repaired connection was sufficiently strong, a precast beam to column post tensioned connection was tested in three phases. In phase one, the middle level damage was observed at 6% drift at these connections. As a result of the extra loads applied, little damage was observed. In the last phase, the four connections tested in the first phase were repaired using epoxy resin and then retested. The results from the tests on the repaired precast and the undamaged specimens showed that the repaired specimens were sufficiently strong, thus proving that repair to damaged precast beam to column post tensioned connections can be undertaken.

Keywords: precast beam to column connection, moment-resisting connection, post-tensioned connections, repair of precast connections

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15 Prevalence Of Periodontal Disease In Felines In The Outskirts Of The City Of Manaus, Brazil: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Pármenas Costa Macedo do Nascimento


Periodontal disease is the most common disease in the oral cavity of felines. It starts with the accumulation of bacteria on the tooth surface supporting the tissues of the periodontal tissue, namely gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. The main clinical symptom observed by the owner is bad breath, which may lead to local and systemic consequences depending on the stage of periodontal disease, such as bleeding and bone loss. Therefore, the study is important to educate tutors to take better care of the felines oral health in order to try to prevent the disease. For this epidemiological study, the target population has been felines, located on the outskirts of Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, with a geographic area of 155.68 km², with no defined breed, from October 1st to 10th, 2021, whose samples has been randomly selected, with a detailed profile. The variables of interest for this study have been: absence or presence of periodontal disease, gender, age (delimited by age group), and condition (domiciled or homeless). Using a sample of 40 felines from 4 districts of the east side of Manaus chosen at random, an oral exam has been made to identify the studied disease. The animal's apparent age, condition, sex, and presence or absence of periodontal disease has been noted. It has been observed that 70% (28/40) of them had periodontal disease, mostly females, aged between 0 and 5 years and domiciled, totaling 30% (12/40).

Keywords: felines, oral cavity, oral exam, periodontal disease

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14 Communal Shipping Container Home Design for Reducing Homelessness in Glasgow

Authors: Matthew Brady


Lack of affordable housing for individuals has the potential to create gaps in society, which result in thousands of people facing homelessness every year in some of the worlds most affluent cities. This paper examines strategies for providing a more economic living environment for single occupants. Focusing on comparisons of successful examples reducing homeless populations around the world, with an emphasis on social inclusion and community living. Practically exploring the architectural considerations of ensuring a suitable living environment for multiple single occupancy residents, as well as selecting the appropriate materials to ensure costs are kept to manageable level for investment from local governments. The aim of this paper is to make some practical recommendations for low cost communal living space, with particular reference to recycled shipping container homes on a potential unused site on the River Clyde in Glasgow. Ideally, the suggestions and recommendations put forward in this paper can be replicable or used for reference in other similar situations. The proposal explored in this paper is sensitive towards addressing people's standard of living and adapting homes to match may be one solution to reducing the number of people being evicted from unaffordable homes as the generally upward global trend for urbanization continues.

Keywords: affordable housing, community living, shipping container, urban regeneration

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13 Locating the Best Place for Earthquake Refugee Camps by OpenSource Software: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi


Iran is one of the regions which are most prone for earthquakes annually having a large number of financial and mortality and financial losses. Every year around the world, a large number of people lose their home and life due to natural disasters such as earthquakes. It is necessary to provide and specify some suitable places for settling the homeless people before the occurrence of the earthquake, one of the most important factors in crisis planning and management. Some of the natural disasters can be Modeling and shown by Geospatial Information System (GIS). By using GIS, it would be possible to manage the spatial data and reach several goals by making use of the analyses existing in it. GIS has a determining role in disaster management because it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this research QuantumGIS software is used that It is an OpenSource software so that easy to access codes and It is also free. In this system, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling, is done based on the related organizations criteria with their weights and buffers. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Eventually, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QuantumGIS platform.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, QuantumGIS

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12 Embodied Spiritualities and Emerging Search for Social Transformation: An Embodied Ethnographic Study of Yoga Practices in Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Lina M. Vidal


This paper discusses yoga practices involvement in both self-transformation and social transformations by means of an embodied ethnographic approach to different initiatives for social change in Medellín. In the context of gradual popularization of embodied spiritualities, yoga practices have opened their way in calls for social change in a performative perspective which involves collective experiences, reflections and production of embodied knowledge. Through the reflection on bodily dimension and corporal experience, this ethnographic approach acknowledges inter-corporality and somatic modes of attention during observations and personal experiences. In social change initiatives that include yoga practices were identified transformations of common understanding on social issues such as it is produced by institutionalized education, health system and other fields of knowledge. This is clearly visible in yoga projects for children in vulnerable conditions, homeless people, prisoners, and young people recovering from drug addiction. These projects are often promoted by organizations and networks, which incorporate individual life stories into collective experiences. Dissemination of yoga is heading to a broad institutional and cultural legitimation of yoga and of spirituality that impact different fields of social work and everyday life in general. This way, yoga is becoming an embodied activist way of life and a legitimate field for social work.

Keywords: embodied ethnography, Medellin, social transformation, embodied spiritualities, yoga practices

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11 Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Repackaging for Sustainable Development

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao, Amos O. Amao


It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing quality or totally homeless in urban center despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public. On the supply side, various government policies in the past have been formulated towards overcoming the huge shortage through several Housing Reform Programmes. Despite these past efforts, housing continues to be a mirage to ordinary Nigerian. Currently, there are various mass housing delivery programmes such as the affordable housing scheme that utilize the Public Private Partnership effort and several Private Finance Initiative models could only provide for about 3% of the required stock. This suggests the need for a holistic solution in approaching the problem. The aim of this research is to find out the problems hindering the delivery of housing in Nigeria and its effects on housing affordability. The specific objectives are to identify the causes of housing delivery problems, to examine different housing policies over years and to suggest a way out for sustainable housing delivery. This paper also reviews the past and current housing delivery programmes in Nigeria and analyses the demand and supply side issues. It identifies the various housing delivery mechanisms in current practice. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to give you an insight into the delivery option for the sustainability of housing in Nigeria, given the existing delivery structures and the framework specified in the New National Housing Policy. The secondary data were obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The conclusion is that we cannot copy models from other nations, but should rather evolve workable models based on our socio-cultural background to address the huge housing shortage in Nigeria. Recommendations are made in this regard.

Keywords: housing, sustainability, housing delivery, housing policy, housing affordability

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10 Predicting the Human Impact of Natural Onset Disasters Using Pattern Recognition Techniques and Rule Based Clustering

Authors: Sara Hasani


This research focuses on natural sudden onset disasters characterised as ‘occurring with little or no warning and often cause excessive injuries far surpassing the national response capacities’. Based on the panel analysis of the historic record of 4,252 natural onset disasters between 1980 to 2015, a predictive method was developed to predict the human impact of the disaster (fatality, injured, homeless) with less than 3% of errors. The geographical dispersion of the disasters includes every country where the data were available and cross-examined from various humanitarian sources. The records were then filtered into 4252 records of the disasters where the five predictive variables (disaster type, HDI, DRI, population, and population density) were clearly stated. The procedure was designed based on a combination of pattern recognition techniques and rule-based clustering for prediction and discrimination analysis to validate the results further. The result indicates that there is a relationship between the disaster human impact and the five socio-economic characteristics of the affected country mentioned above. As a result, a framework was put forward, which could predict the disaster’s human impact based on their severity rank in the early hours of disaster strike. The predictions in this model were outlined in two worst and best-case scenarios, which respectively inform the lower range and higher range of the prediction. A necessity to develop the predictive framework can be highlighted by noticing that despite the existing research in literature, a framework for predicting the human impact and estimating the needs at the time of the disaster is yet to be developed. This can further be used to allocate the resources at the response phase of the disaster where the data is scarce.

Keywords: disaster management, natural disaster, pattern recognition, prediction

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9 [Keynote Talk] The Practices and Issues of Career Education: Focusing on Career Development Course on Various Problems of Society

Authors: Azusa Katsumata


Several universities in Japan have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered excursion focusing Various Problems of Society, as second year career education course, Students will learn about contraception, infertility, homeless people, LGBT, and they will discuss based on the excursion. This paper aims to study the ‘learning platform’ created by a series of processes such as the excursion, the discussion, and the presentation. In this course, students looked back on their lives and imagined the future in concrete terms, performing tasks in groups. The students came across a range of values through lectures and conversations, thereby developing feelings of self-efficacy. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of career in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students respected diversity and understood the importance of uncertainty and discontinuity. Whereas the students developed career awareness, they actually did not come across that scene and would do so only in the future when it became necessary. In this class, students consciously considered social problems, but did not develop the practical skills necessary to deal with these. This is appropriate for one of project, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. University constitutes only a single period in life-long career formation. Thus, further research may be indicated to determine whether the positive effects of career education at university continue to contribute to individual careers going forward.

Keywords: career education of university, excursion, learning platform, problems of society

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8 A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies

Authors: Belal Neazi


'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.

Keywords: city renewal, environmental concern, micro-living, tiny house

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7 Monitoring the Change of Padma River Bank at Faridpur, Bangladesh Using Remote Sensing Approach

Authors: Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu


Bangladesh is often called as a motherland of rivers. It contains about 700 rivers among all these the Padma River is one of the largest rivers of Bangladesh. The change of river bank and erosion has become a common environmental natural hazard in Bangladesh. The river banks are under intense pressure from natural processes such as erosion and accretion as well as anthropogenic processes such as urban growth and pollution. The Padma River is flowing along ten districts of Bangladesh among all these Faridpur district is most vulnerable to river bank erosion. The severity of the river erosion is so high that each year a thousand of populations become homeless and lose their agricultural lands. Though the Faridpur district is most vulnerable to river bank erosion no specific research has been conducted to identify the changing pattern of river bank along this district. The outcome of the research may serve as guidance to prepare river bank monitoring program and management. This research has utilized integrated techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system to monitor the changes from 1995 to 2015 at Faridpur district. To discriminate the land water interface Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) algorithm is applied and on screen digitization approach is used over MNDWI images of 1995, 2002 and 2015 for river bank line extraction. The extent of changes in the river bank along Faridpur district is estimated through overlaying the digitized maps of all three years. The river bank lines are highlighted to infer the erosion and accretion and the changes are calculated. The result shows that the middle of the river is gaining land through sedimentation and the both side river bank is shifting causing severe erosion that consequently resulting the loss of farmland and homestead. Over the study period from 1995 to 2015 it witnessed huge erosion and accretion that played an active role in the changes of the river bank.

Keywords: river bank, erosion and accretion, change monitoring, remote sensing

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6 Income Inequality and the Poverty of Youth in the Douala Metropolis of Cameroon

Authors: Nanche Billa Robert


More and more youth are doubtful of making a satisfactory labour market transition because of the present global economic instability and this is more so in Africa of the Sahara and metropolis like Douala. We use the explanatory sequential mixed method: in the first phase we randomly administered 610 questionnaires in the Douala metropolis respecting the population size of each division and its gender composition. We constructed the questionnaire using the desired values for living a comfortable life in Douala. In the second phase, we purposefully selected and interviewed 50 poor youth in order to explain in detail the initial quantitative results. We obtain the following result: The modal income class is 24,000-74,000 frs Central Africa Franc (CFA) and about 67% of the youth of the Douala metropolis earn below 75,000 frs CFA. They earn only 31.02% of the total income. About 85.7% earn below 126,000 frs CFA and about 92.14% earn below 177,000 frs CFA. The poverty-line is estimated at 177,000 frs CFA per month based on the desired predominant values in Douala and only about 9% of youth earn this sum, therefore, 91% of the youth are poor. We discovered that the salary a youth earns influences his level of poverty. Low income earners eat once or twice per day, rent low-standard houses of below 20,000 frs, are dependent and possess very limited durable goods, consult traditional doctors when they are sick, sleep and gamble during their leisure time. Intermediate income earners feed themselves either twice or thrice per day, eat healthy meals weekly, possess more durable goods, are independent, gamble and drink during their leisure time. High income earners feed themselves at least thrice per day, eat healthy food daily, inhabit high quality and expensive houses, are more stable by living longer in their neighbourhoods, like travelling and drinking during their leisure time. Unsalaried youth, are students, housewives or unemployed youth, they eat four times per day, take healthy meals daily, weekly, fortnightly or occasionally, are dependent or homeless depending on whether they are students or unemployed youth. The situation of the youth can be ameliorated through investing in the productive sector and promoting entrepreneurship as well as formalizing the informal sector.

Keywords: income, inequality, poverty, metropolis

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