Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: shale gas

120 Fracking the UK's Shale Gas Regulatory Regime

Authors: Yanal Abul Failat

Abstract:

The production of oil and natural gas from shale formations is becoming a trend, and many countries with technically and economically recoverable unconventional resources are endeavoring to explore how shale formations may benefit the economy and achieve energy security. The trajectory of shale gas development in the UK is highly supported by the government; in the Gas Generation Strategy Paper published by the UK government on 5 December 2013, it is recognized that the shale gas production would decrease reliance on imports and thus enhance the UK’s energy security. Moreover, the UK Institute of Directors report on UK Shale Gas Potential explains that in the UK there is a potential of production peaking at around 1.13 trillion cubic feet (“tcf”) and a sector that could support around 70,000 jobs and secure net benefit to the Treasury in tax revenues. On this basis, there has been a growing interest in the benefits of exploring the UK’s shale gas but a combination of technical challenges faced in shale gas operations, a stern opposition by environmentalists and concerns on the adequacy of the legal framework have slowed the progress of the emerging UK shale industry.

Keywords: shale gas, UK, legal, oil and gas, energy

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119 Malaysian's Shale Formation Characterizations: Geochemical Properties, Mineralogy, Adsorption and Desorption Behavior

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw R. Jufar

Abstract:

Global shale gas resource assessment is still in its preliminary stage in most of the countries including the development of shale gas reservoirs in Malaysia. This project presents the main geochemical and mineral characteristics of few Malaysian’s shale samples which contribute on evaluating shale gas reserve world resource evaluations. Three shale samples from the western part of Peninsular Malaysia (Batu-Caja, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor Baru shale formations) were collected for this study. Total organic carbon wt.%, thermal maturity, kerogen type, mineralogy and adsorption/desorption characteristics are measured at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS laboratories. Two samples show good potential in TOC results exhibited > 2wt.% exceeding the minimum values of Shale gas potential, while the third revealed < 1.5wt. Mineralogical compositions for the three samples are within the acceptable range percentage% of quartz and clays compared to shale plays in USA. This research’s results are promising and recommend to continue exploring and assessing unconventional shale gas reserves values in these areas.

Keywords: shale gas characterizations, geochemical properties, Malaysia, shale gas reserve

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
118 A Critical Appraisal of CO₂ Entrance Pressure with Heat

Authors: Abrar Al-Mutairi, Talal Al-Bazali

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In this study, changes in capillary entry pressure of shale, as it interacts with CO₂, under different temperatures (25 °C to 250 °C) have been investigated. The combined impact of temperature and petrophysical properties (water content, water activity, permeability and porosity) of shale was also addressed. Results showed that the capillary entry pressure of shale when it interacted with CO₂ was highly affected by temperature. In general, increasing the temperature decreased capillary entry pressure of shale. We believe that pore dilation, where pore throat size expands due to the application of heat, may have caused this decrease in capillary entry pressure of shale. However, in some cases we found that at higher temperature some shale samples showed that the temperature activated clay swelling may have caused an apparent decrease in pore throat radii of shale which translates into higher capillary entry pressure of shale. Also, our results showed that there is no distinct relationship between shale’s water content, water activity, permeability, and porosity on the capillary entry pressure of shale samples as it interacted with CO₂ at different temperatures.

Keywords: heat, threshold pressure, CO₂ sequestration, shale

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117 Physico-Chemical Properties of Silurian Hot Shale in Ahnet Basin, Algeria: Case Study Well ASS-1

Authors: Mohamed Mehdi Kadri

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The prediction of hot shale interval in Silurian formation in a well drilled vertically in Ahnet basin Is by logging Data (Resistivity, Gamma Ray, Sonic) with the calculation of total organic carbon (TOC) using ∆ log R Method. The aim of this paper is to present Physico-chemical Properties of Hot Shale using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis; this mixture of measurements, evaluation and characterization show that the hot shale interval located in the lower of Silurian, the molecules adsorbed at the surface of shale sheet are significantly different from petroleum hydrocarbons this result are also supported with gas-liquid chromatography showed that the study extract is a hydroxypropyl.

Keywords: physic-chemical analysis, reservoirs characterization, sweet window evaluation, Silurian shale, Ahnet basin

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116 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India

Authors: Vaishali Sharma, Anirbid Sircar

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Energy is one of the most eminent and fundamental strategic commodity, scarcity of which may poses great impact on the functioning of the entire commodity. According to the present study, the estimated reserves of gas in India as on 31.03.2015 stood at 1427.15 BCM. It is expected that the gas demand is set to grow significantly at a CAGR of 7% from 226.7 MMSCMD in 2012-13 to 713.5 MMSCMD in 2009-30. To bridge the gap between the demand and supply of energy, the interest towards the exploration and exploitation of unconventional resources like – Shale gas, Coal bed methane, Gas hydrates, tight gas etc has immensed. Nowadays, Shale gas prospects are emerging rapidly as a promising energy source globally. The United States of America (USA) has 240 TCF of proved reserves of shale gas and presently contributed more than 17% of total gas production. As compared to USA, shale gas production in India is at nascent stage. A resource potential of around 2000 TCF is estimated and according to preliminary data analysis, basins like Gondwana, Cambay, Krishna – Godavari, Cauvery, Assam-Arakan, Rajasthan, Vindhyan, and Bengal are the most promising shale gas basins. In the present study, the careful evaluation of Cambay Shale (Indian Shale) properties like geological age, lithology, depth, organically rich thickness, TOC, thermal maturity, porosity, permeability, clay content, quartz content, Kerogen type, Hydrocarbon window etc. has been done. And then the detailed comparison of Indian shale with USA shale will be discussed. This study investigates qualitative and quantitative nature of potential shale basins which will be helpful from exploration and exploitation point of view.

Keywords: shale, shale gas, energy source, lithology

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115 Economic Evaluation of Bowland Shale Gas Wells Development in the UK

Authors: Elijah Acquah-Andoh

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The UK has had its fair share of the shale gas revolutionary waves blowing across the global oil and gas industry at present. Although, its exploitation is widely agreed to have been delayed, shale gas was looked upon favorably by the UK Parliament when they recognized it as genuine energy source and granted licenses to industry to search and extract the resource. This, although a significant progress by industry, there yet remains another test the UK fracking resource must pass in order to render shale gas extraction feasible – it must be economically extractible and sustainably so. Developing unconventional resources is much more expensive and risky, and for shale gas wells, producing in commercial volumes is conditional upon drilling horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing, techniques which increase CAPEX. Meanwhile, investment in shale gas development projects is sensitive to gas price and technical and geological risks. Using a Two-Factor Model, the economics of the Bowland shale wells were analyzed and the operational conditions under which fracking is profitable in the UK was characterized. We find that there is a great degree of flexibility about Opex spending; hence Opex does not pose much threat to the fracking industry in the UK. However, we discover Bowland shale gas wells fail to add value at gas price of $8/ Mmbtu. A minimum gas price of $12/Mmbtu at Opex of no more than $2/ Mcf and no more than $14.95M Capex are required to create value within the present petroleum tax regime, in the UK fracking industry.

Keywords: capex, economical, investment, profitability, shale gas development, sustainable

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114 An Overview of Pakistani Shales for Shale Gas Exploration and Comparison to North American Shale Plays

Authors: Ghulam Sohail, Christopher Hawkes

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Pakistan has been facing a growing energy crisis for the last decade, and the government is seeking new horizons for increasing oil and gas production to reduce the gap between supply and demand. Recent developments in technologies to produce natural gas from shales at economical rates has unlocked new horizons for hydrocarbon exploration and development throughout the world. Operating companies in the U.S.A. and Canada have been particularly successful at producing shale gas, so comparing against the properties of shale gas reservoirs in these countries is used for an initial assessment of prospective shale gas reservoirs in other parts of the world. In this study, selected source rocks of Pakistan are evaluated for their shale gas potential using analogs selected from various North American shales for which data have been published. Published data for Pakistani shales were compiled, then assessed and supplemented through consultation with industry professionals. Pakistani formations reviewed are the Datta (shaly sandstone), Hangu (sandy shale), Patala (sandy shale), Ranikot (shaly sandstone), Sembar (sandy shale) and Lower Goru (shaly sandstone) formations, all of which are known source rocks in the Indus Basin. For this study, available geological, geochemical, petrophysical and elastic parameters have been investigated and are correlated specifically with the eight most active shale gas plays of the U.S.A., while data for other North American shale gas plays are used for general discussion on prospective Pakistani shales. The results show that the geological and geochemical parameters of all the Pakistani shales reviewed in this work are promising regarding their shale gas. However, more petrophysical and geomechanical data are required before conclusions on economic production from these shales can be made with confidence.

Keywords: Canada shale gas, Indus Basin, Pakistani shales, U.S.A shale gas

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113 Multiscale Analysis of Shale Heterogeneity in Silurian Longmaxi Formation from South China

Authors: Xianglu Tang, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li

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Characterization of shale multi scale heterogeneity is an important part to evaluate size and space distribution of shale gas reservoirs in sedimentary basins. The origin of shale heterogeneity has always been a hot research topic for it determines shale micro characteristics description and macro quality reservoir prediction. Shale multi scale heterogeneity was discussed based on thin section observation, FIB-SEM, QEMSCAN, TOC, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and nitrogen adsorption analysis from 30 core samples in Silurian Longmaxi formation. Results show that shale heterogeneity can be characterized by pore structure and mineral composition. The heterogeneity of shale pore is showed by different size pores at nm-μm scale. Macropores (pore diameter > 50 nm) have a large percentage of pore volume than mesopores (pore diameter between 2~ 50 nm) and micropores (pore diameter < 2nm). However, they have a low specific surface area than mesopores and micropores. Fractal dimensions of the pores from nitrogen adsorption data are higher than 2.7, what are higher than 2.8 from MIP data, showing extremely complex pore structure. This complexity in pore structure is mainly due to the organic matter and clay minerals with complex pore network structures, and diagenesis makes it more complicated. The heterogeneity of shale minerals is showed by mineral grains, lamina, and different lithology at nm-km scale under the continuous changing horizon. Through analyzing the change of mineral composition at each scale, random arrangement of mineral equal proportion, seasonal climate changes, large changes of sedimentary environment, and provenance supply are considered to be the main reasons that cause shale minerals heterogeneity from microcosmic to macroscopic. Due to scale effect, the change of shale multi scale heterogeneity is a discontinuous process, and there is a transformation boundary between homogeneous and in homogeneous. Therefore, a shale multi scale heterogeneity changing model is established by defining four types of homogeneous unit at different scales, which can be used to guide the prediction of shale gas distribution from micro scale to macro scale.

Keywords: heterogeneity, homogeneous unit, multiscale, shale

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112 Factors Controlling Marine Shale Porosity: A Case Study between Lower Cambrian and Lower Silurian of Upper Yangtze Area, South China

Authors: Xin Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li

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Generally, shale gas is trapped within shale systems with low porosity and ultralow permeability as free and adsorbing states. Its production is controlled by properties, in terms of occurrence phases, gas contents, and percolation characteristics. These properties are all influenced by porous features. In this paper, porosity differences of marine shales were explored between Lower Cambrian shale and Lower Silurian shale of Sichuan Basin, South China. Both the two shales were marine shales with abundant oil-prone kerogen and rich siliceous minerals. Whereas Lower Cambrian shale (3.56% Ro) possessed a higher thermal degree than that of Lower Silurian shale (2.31% Ro). Samples were measured by a combination of organic-chemistry geology measurement, organic matter (OM) isolation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Lower Cambrian shale presented relatively low pore properties, with averaging 0.008ml/g pore volume (PV), averaging 7.99m²/g pore surface area (PSA) and averaging 5.94nm average pore diameter (APD). Lower Silurian shale showed as relatively high pore properties, with averaging 0.015ml/g PV, averaging 10.53m²/g PSA and averaging 18.60nm APD. Additionally, fractal analysis indicated that the two shales presented discrepant pore morphologies, mainly caused by differences in the combination of pore types between the two shales. More specifically, OM-hosted pores with pin-hole shape and dissolved pores with dead-end openings were the main types in Lower Cambrian shale, while OM-hosted pore with a cellular structure was the main type in Lower Silurian shale. Moreover, porous characteristics of isolated OM suggested that OM of Lower Silurian shale was more capable than that of Lower Cambrian shale in the aspect of pore contribution. PV of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 6.6 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale, and PSA of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 4.3 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale. However, no apparent differences existed among samples with various matrix compositions. At late diagenetic or metamorphic epoch, extensive diagenesis overprints the effects of minerals on pore properties and OM plays the dominant role in pore developments. Hence, differences of porous features between the two marine shales highlight the effect of diagenetic degree on OM-hosted pore development. Consequently, distinctive pore characteristics may be caused by the different degrees of diagenetic evolution, even with similar matrix basics.

Keywords: marine shale, lower Cambrian, lower Silurian, om isolation, pore properties, om-hosted pore

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111 An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. A. Embaby, A. Abu Halawa, M. Ramadan

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In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.

Keywords: cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS), expansive soil, Saudi Arabia, swelling pressure, Tabuk Shale

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110 Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Shale Stabilizer

Authors: N. K. Thakur

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A major proportion of the formations drilled for the production of hydrocarbons consists of clay containing shales. The petroleum industry has hugely investigated the role of clay minerals and their subsequent effect on wellbore stability during the drilling and production of hydrocarbons. It has been found that when the shale formation comes in contact with water-based drilling fluid, the interaction of clay minerals like montmorillonite with infiltrated water leads to hydration of the clay minerals, which causes shale swelling. When shale swelling proceeds further, it may lead to major drilling complications like caving, pipe sticking, which invariably influences wellbore stability, wellbore diameter, the mechanical strength of shale, stress distribution in the wellbore, etc. These problems ultimately lead to an increase in nonproductive time and additional costs during drilling. Several additives are used to prevent shale instability. Among the popular additives used for shale inhibition in drilling muds, ionic liquids and nanoparticles are emerging to be the best additives. The efficiency of the proposed additives will be studied and compared with conventional clay inhibitors like KCl. The main objective is to develop a highly efficient water-based mud for mitigating shale instability and reducing fluid loss which is environmentally friendly and does not alter the formation permeability. The use of nanoparticles has been exploited to enhance the rheological and fluid loss properties in water-based drilling fluid ionic liquid have attracted significant research interest due to its unique thermal stability. It is referred to as ‘green chemical’. The preliminary experimental studies performed are promising. The application of more effective mud additives is always desirable to make the drilling process techno-economically proficient.

Keywords: ionic liquid, shale inhibitor, wellbore stability, unconventional

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109 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

Authors: Ovye Yohanna Musah

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Shale formations of the Middle Benue Trough in North Central Nigeria present a variety of opportunities for the exploration, development and exploitation of unconventional natural gas. Prospective formations range in age from Albian through Coniacian; they include the Asu River Group, Awe, Ezeaku and the Awgu formations, however, the Keana and Lafia formations are thought to be of lesser importance. The Awgu formation presents the best prospect when compared to the Barnett Shales of Fort Worth Basin in Texa, United States with regards to the organic matter maturition, TOC content of formation and shale thicknesses which are key attributes that aid in determining the economic viability of any shale gas play. The vitrinite reflectance value from Rock Eval pyrolysis for Awe and Awgu formations are 0.89—1.34(%) and 0.83—1.13(%) respectively and are good and sufficiently mature to generate gas from the Benue Trough. The TOC value are good for Awgu formation which is 0.83—6.54(%) and closest to that of the Barnett at 1—4.5(%). Asu River and Ezeaku are less viable. Furthermore, the High to Medium Volatile bituminous coals found in the Awgu formation are characterized by high TOC contents which may enhance gas generation and this is good for further examination and possible development.

Keywords: shale gas, resource, unconventional, benue, TOC

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108 Effect of Oil Shale Alkylresorcinols on Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Polycondensation Resins

Authors: Ana Jurkeviciute, Larisa Grigorieva, Ksenia Moskvinа

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Oil shale alkylresorcinols are formed as a by-product in oil shale processing. They are unique raw material for chemical industry. Polycondensation resins obtaining is one of the worthwhile directions of oil shale alkylresorcinols use. These resins are widely applied in many branches of industry such as wood-working, metallurgic, tire, rubber products, construction etc. Possibility of resins obtaining using overall alkylresorcinols will allow to cheapen finished products on their base and to widen the range of resins offered on the market. Synthesis of polycondensation resins on the basis of alkylresorcinols was conducted by several methods in the process of investigations. In the formulations a part of resorcinol was replaced by fractions of oil shale alkylresorcinols containing different amount of 5-methylresorcinol (40-80 mass %). Some resins were modified by aromatic alkene at the stage of synthesis. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method both in an inert nitrogen environment and in an oxidative environment of air. TGA integral curves were obtained and processed in dynamic mode for interval of temperatures from 25 to 830 °C. Rate of temperature rise was 5°C/min, gas flow rate - 50 ml/min. Resins power for carbonization was evaluated by carbon residue. Physical-chemical parameters of the resins were determined. Content of resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol not reacted in the process of synthesis were determined by gas chromatography method.

Keywords: resorcinol, oil shale alkylresorcinols, aromatic alkene, polycondensation resins, modified resins

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107 Defining Unconventional Hydrocarbon Parameter Using Shale Play Concept

Authors: Rudi Ryacudu, Edi Artono, Gema Wahyudi Purnama

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Oil and gas consumption in Indonesia is currently on the rise due to its nation economic improvement. Unfortunately, Indonesia’s domestic oil production cannot meet it’s own consumption and Indonesia has lost its status as Oil and Gas exporter. Even worse, our conventional oil and gas reserve is declining. Unwilling to give up, the government of Indonesia has taken measures to invite investors to invest in domestic oil and gas exploration to find new potential reserve and ultimately increase production. Yet, it has not bear any fruit. Indonesia has taken steps now to explore new unconventional oil and gas play including Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands to increase domestic production. These new plays require definite parameters to differentiate each concept. The purpose of this paper is to provide ways in defining unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir parameters in Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands. The parameters would serve as an initial baseline for users to perform analysis of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. Some of the on going concerns or question to be answered in regards to unconventional hydrocarbon plays includes: 1. The TOC number, 2. Has it been well “cooked” and become a hydrocarbon, 3. What are the permeability and the porosity values, 4. Does it need a stimulation, 5. Does it has pores, and 6. Does it have sufficient thickness. In contrast with the common oil and gas conventional play, Shale Play assumes that hydrocarbon is retained and trapped in area with very low permeability. In most places in Indonesia, hydrocarbon migrates from source rock to reservoir. From this case, we could derive a theory that Kitchen and Source Rock are located right below the reservoir. It is the starting point for user or engineer to construct basin definition in relation with the tectonic play and depositional environment. Shale Play concept requires definition of characteristic, description and reservoir identification to discover reservoir that is technically and economically possible to develop. These are the steps users and engineers has to do to perform Shale Play: a. Calculate TOC and perform mineralogy analysis using water saturation and porosity value. b. Reconstruct basin that accumulate hydrocarbon c. Brittlenes Index calculated form petrophysical and distributed based on seismic multi attributes d. Integrated natural fracture analysis e. Best location to place a well.

Keywords: unconventional hydrocarbon, shale gas, shale oil tight sand reservoir parameters, shale play

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106 The Impact of Temperature on the Threshold Capillary Pressure of Fine-Grained Shales

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali, S. Mohammad

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The threshold capillary pressure of shale caprocks is an important parameter in CO₂ storage modeling. A correct estimation of the threshold capillary pressure is not only essential for CO₂ storage modeling but also important to assess the overall economical and environmental impact of the design process. A standard step by step approach has to be used to measure the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluids at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of high temperature on the threshold capillary pressure of four different shales as they interacted with four different oil based muds, air, CO₂, N₂, and methane. This study shows that the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluid is highly impacted by temperature. An empirical correlation for the dependence of threshold capillary pressure on temperature when different shales interacted with oil based muds and gasses has been developed. This correlation shows that the threshold capillary pressure decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. In this correlation, an experimental constant (α) appears, and this constant may depend on the properties of shale and non-wetting fluid. The value for α factor was found to be higher for gasses than for oil based muds. This is consistent with our intuition since the interfacial tension for gasses is higher than those for oil based muds. The author believes that measured threshold capillary pressure at ambient temperature is misleading and could yield higher values than those encountered at in situ conditions. Therefore one must correct for the impact of temperature when measuring threshold capillary pressure of shale at ambient temperature.

Keywords: capillary pressure, shale, temperature, thresshold

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105 The Scenario Analysis of Shale Gas Development in China by Applying Natural Gas Pipeline Optimization Model

Authors: Meng Xu, Alexis K. H. Lau, Ming Xu, Bill Barron, Narges Shahraki

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As an emerging unconventional energy, shale gas has been an economically viable step towards a cleaner energy future in U.S. China also has shale resources that are estimated to be potentially the largest in the world. In addition, China has enormous unmet for a clean alternative to substitute coal. Nonetheless, the geological complexity of China’s shale basins and issues of water scarcity potentially impose serious constraints on shale gas development in China. Further, even if China could replicate to a significant degree the U.S. shale gas boom, China faces the problem of transporting the gas efficiently overland with its limited pipeline network throughput capacity and coverage. The aim of this study is to identify the potential bottlenecks in China’s gas transmission network, as well as to examine the shale gas development affecting particular supply locations and demand centers. We examine this through application of three scenarios with projecting domestic shale gas supply by 2020: optimistic, medium and conservative shale gas supply, taking references from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) projections and China’s shale gas development plans. Separately we project the gas demand at provincial level, since shale gas will have more significant impact regionally than nationally. To quantitatively assess each shale gas development scenario, we formulated a gas pipeline optimization model. We used ArcGIS to generate the connectivity parameters and pipeline segment length. Other parameters are collected from provincial “twelfth-five year” plans and “China Oil and Gas Pipeline Atlas”. The multi-objective optimization model uses GAMs and Matlab. It aims to minimize the demands that are unable to be met, while simultaneously seeking to minimize total gas supply and transmission costs. The results indicate that, even if the primary objective is to meet the projected gas demand rather than cost minimization, there’s a shortfall of 9% in meeting total demand under the medium scenario. Comparing the results between the optimistic and medium supply of shale gas scenarios, almost half of the shale gas produced in Sichuan province and Chongqing won’t be able to be transmitted out by pipeline. On the demand side, the Henan province and Shanghai gas demand gap could be filled as much as 82% and 39% respectively, with increased shale gas supply. To conclude, the pipeline network in China is currently not sufficient in meeting the projected natural gas demand in 2020 under medium and optimistic scenarios, indicating the need for substantial pipeline capacity expansion for some of the existing network, and the importance of constructing new pipelines from particular supply to demand sites. If the pipeline constraint is overcame, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Henan’s gas demand gap could potentially be filled, and China could thereby reduce almost 25% its dependency on LNG imports under the optimistic scenario.

Keywords: energy policy, energy systematic analysis, scenario analysis, shale gas in China

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104 Aquatic Environmental Effects of Black Shale in Eastern Kentucky through the Measurement of Chemical and Physical Properties

Authors: Mitchell T. Grothaus, Cory Grigsby, Timothy S. Hare

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This study aims to determine if there is a relationship between elevated cancer risks in eastern Kentucky and the environmental effects of black shale. Previous research shows that black shale formations, such as those in eastern Kentucky contain high levels of toxic elements including arsenic and radon compared to average rocks and sediment. Similarly, the population of eastern Kentucky has higher rates of many health conditions, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, than surrounding regions. These poor health outcomes are typically explained in relation to social, economic, behavioral, and healthcare factors. The rates of many conditions, however, have not decreased as these factors improve with regional development. Black shale is known to affect environmental conditions such as by increasing radiation levels and heavy metal toxicity. We are mapping the effects of black shale through monitoring radiation, microbes, and chemical standards of water sources. In this presentation, we report on our measuring pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, conductivity, temperature, and discharge and comparison with water quality standards from the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection. The conditions of water sources combined with an environmental survey of the surrounding areas provide a greater understanding of why the people in eastern Kentucky face the current health issues.

Keywords: black shale, eastern Kentucky, environmental impact, water quality

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103 Bacteriological Analysis of Logan's Branch Rowan County, Kentucky Utilizing Membrane Filtration Method

Authors: Elizabeth G. Hereford, Geoffrey W. Gearner

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Logan’s Branch, within the Triplett Creek Watershed of Rowan County, Kentucky, is a waterway located near important agricultural and residential areas. Part of Logan’s Branch flows over an exposed black shale formation with elevated radioactivity and heavy metals. Three sites were chosen in relation to the formation and sampled five times over a thirty-day period during the recreational season. A fourth site in North Fork in Rowan County, Kentucky was also sampled periodically as it too has contact with the shale formation. These sites were then sampled monthly. All samples are analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and total coliform bacteria utilizing the membrane filtration method and various culture media. Current data suggests that the radioactivity of the shale formation influences the bacteriological growth present in the waterway; however, further data will be collected and compared with that of my colleagues to confirm this trend.

Keywords: bacteriological analysis, Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, radioactive black shale formation, water quality

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102 Shale Gas Accumulation of Over-Mature Cambrian Niutitang Formation Shale in Structure-Complicated Area, Southeastern Margin of Upper Yangtze, China

Authors: Chao Yang, Jinchuan Zhang, Yongqiang Xiong

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The Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation shale (NFS) deposited in the marine deep-shelf environment in Southeast Upper Yangtze (SUY), possess excellent source rock basis for shale gas generation, however, it is currently challenged by being over-mature with strong tectonic deformations, leading to much uncertainty of gas-bearing potential. With emphasis on the shale gas enrichment of the NFS, analyses were made based on the regional gas-bearing differences obtained from field gas-desorption testing of 18 geological survey wells across the study area. Results show that the NFS bears low gas content of 0.2-2.5 m³/t, and the eastern region of SUY is higher than the western region in gas content. Moreover, the methane fraction also presents the similar regional differentiation with the western region less than 10 vol.% while the eastern region generally more than 70 vol.%. Through the analysis of geological theory, the following conclusions are drawn: Depositional environment determines the gas-enriching zones. In the western region, the Dengying Formation underlying the NFS in unconformity contact was mainly plateau facies dolomite with caves and thereby bears poor gas-sealing ability. Whereas the Laobao Formation underling the NFS in eastern region was a set of siliceous rocks of shelf-slope facies, which can effectively prevent the shale gas from escaping away from the NFS. The tectonic conditions control the gas-enriching bands in the SUY, which is located in the fold zones formed by the thrust of the Southern China plate towards to the Sichuan Basin. Compared with the western region located in the trough-like folds, the eastern region at the fold-thrust belts was uplifted early and deformed weakly, resulting in the relatively less mature level and relatively slight tectonic deformation of the NFS. Faults determine whether shale gas can be accumulated in large scale. Four deep and large normal faults in the study area cut through the Niutitang Formation to the Sinian strata, directly causing a large spillover of natural gas in the adjacent areas. For the secondary faults developed within the shale formation, the reverse faults generally have a positive influence on the shale accumulation while the normal faults perform the opposite influence. Overall, shale gas enrichment targets of the NFS, are the areas with certain thickness of siliceous rocks at the basement of the Niutitang Formation, and near the margin of the paleouplift with less developed faults. These findings provide direction for shale gas exploration in South China, and also provide references for the areas with similar geological conditions all over the world.

Keywords: over-mature marine shale, shale gas accumulation, structure-complicated area, Southeast Upper Yangtze

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101 Gas Injection Transport Mechanism for Shale Oil Recovery

Authors: Chinedu Ejike

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The United States is now energy self-sufficient due to the production of shale oil reserves. With more than half of it being tapped daily in the United States, these unconventional reserves are massive and provide immense potential for future energy demands. Drilling horizontal wells and fracking are the primary methods for developing these reserves. Regrettably, recovery efficiency is rarely greater than 10%. As a result, optimizing recuperation offers a significant benefit. Huff and puff gas flooding and cyclic gas injection have all been demonstrated to be more successful than tapping the remaining oil in place. Methane, nitrogen, and carbon (IV) oxide, among other high-pressure gases, can be injected. Operators use Darcy's law to assess a reservoir's productive capacity, but they are unaware that the law may not apply to shale oil reserves. This is due to the fact that, unlike pressure differences alone, diffusion, concentration, and gas selection all play a role in the flow of gas injected into the wellbore. The reservoir drainage and oil sweep efficiency rates are determined by the transport method. This research assesses the parameters that influence the gas injection transport mechanism. Understanding the process causing these factors could accelerate recovery by two to three times, according to peer-reviewed studies and effective field testing.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, gas injection, shale oil, transport mechanism, unconventional reserve

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
100 Role of Baseline Measurements in Assessing Air Quality Impact of Shale Gas Operations

Authors: Paula Costa, Ana Picado, Filomena Pinto, Justina Catarino

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Environmental impact associated with large scale shale gas development is of major concern to the public, policy makers and other stakeholders. To assess this impact on the atmosphere, it is important to monitoring ambient air quality prior to and during all shale gas operation stages. Baseline observations can provide a standard of the pre-shale gas development state of the environment. The lack of baseline concentrations was identified as an important knowledge gap to assess the impact of emissions to the air due to shale gas operations. In fact baseline monitoring of air quality are missing in several regions, where there is a strong possibility of future shale gas exploration. This makes it difficult to properly identify, quantify and characterize environmental impacts that may be associated with shale gas development. The implementation of a baseline air monitoring program is imperative to be able to assess the total emissions related with shale gas operations. In fact, any monitoring programme should be designed to provide indicative information on background levels. A baseline air monitoring program should identify and characterize targeted air pollutants, most frequently described from monitoring and emission measurements, as well as those expected from hydraulic fracturing activities, and establish ambient air conditions prior to start-up of potential emission sources from shale gas operations. This program has to be planned for at least one year accounting for ambient variations. In the literature, in addition to GHG emissions of CH4, CO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx), fugitive emissions from shale gas production can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The VOCs include a.o., benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes, hexanes, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, styrene. The concentrations of six air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), and lead) whose regional ambient air levels are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are often discussed. However, the main concern in the emissions to air associated to shale gas operations, seems to be the leakage of methane. Methane is identified as a compound of major concern due to its strong global warming potential. The identification of methane leakage from shale gas activities is complex due to the existence of several other CH4 sources (e.g. landfill, agricultural activity or gas pipeline/compressor station). An integrated monitoring study of methane emissions may be a suitable mean of distinguishing the contribution of different sources of methane to ambient levels. All data analysis needs to be carefully interpreted taking, also, into account the meteorological conditions of the site. This may require the implementation of a more intensive monitoring programme. So, it is essential the development of a low-cost sampling strategy, suitable for establishing pre-operations baseline data as well as an integrated monitoring program to assess the emissions from shale gas operation sites. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 640715.

Keywords: air emissions, baseline, green house gases, shale gas

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99 The Effects of Lithofacies on Oil Enrichment in Lucaogou Formation Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks in Santanghu Basin, China

Authors: Guoheng Liu, Zhilong Huang

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For more than the past ten years, oil and gas production from marine shale such as the Barnett shale. In addition, in recent years, major breakthroughs have also been made in lacustrine shale gas exploration, such as the Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin in China. Lucaogou Formation shale, which is also lacustrine shale, has also yielded a high production in recent years, for wells such as M1, M6, and ML2, yielding a daily oil production of 5.6 tons, 37.4 tons and 13.56 tons, respectively. Lithologic identification and classification of reservoirs are the base and keys to oil and gas exploration. Lithology and lithofacies obviously control the distribution of oil and gas in lithological reservoirs, so it is of great significance to describe characteristics of lithology and lithofacies of reservoirs finely. Lithofacies is an intrinsic property of rock formed under certain conditions of sedimentation. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale formed under different sedimentary conditions display great particularity and distinctiveness. Hence, to our best knowledge, no constant and unified criteria and methods exist for fine-grained sedimentary rocks regarding lithofacies definition and classification. Consequently, multi-parameters and multi-disciplines are necessary. A series of qualitative descriptions and quantitative analysis were used to figure out the lithofacies characteristics and its effect on oil accumulation of Lucaogou formation fine-grained sedimentary rocks in Santanghu basin. The qualitative description includes core description, petrographic thin section observation, fluorescent thin-section observation, cathode luminescence observation and scanning electron microscope observation. The quantitative analyses include X-ray diffraction, total organic content analysis, ROCK-EVAL.II Methodology, soxhlet extraction, porosity and permeability analysis and oil saturation analysis. Three types of lithofacies were mainly well-developed in this study area, which is organic-rich massive shale lithofacies, organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies and organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies mainly include massive shale and tuffaceous shale, of which quartz and clay minerals are the major components. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies contain lamina and cloddy structure. Rocks from this lithofacies chiefly consist of dolomite and quartz. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies mainly contains massive bedding fine-grained carbonate rocks, of which fine-grained dolomite accounts for the main part. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies contain the highest content of free hydrocarbon and solid organic matter. Moreover, more pores were developed in organic-rich massive shale lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies contain the lowest content solid organic matter and develop the least amount of pores. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies develop the largest number of cracks and fractures. To sum up, organic-rich massive shale lithofacies is the most favorable type of lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies is impossible for large scale oil accumulation.

Keywords: lithofacies classification, tuffaceous shale, oil enrichment, Lucaogou formation

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98 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

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This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: enough size, good potential, shale gas, structure closure

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97 The Effect of Finding and Development Costs and Gas Price on Basins in the Barnett Shale

Authors: Michael Kenomore, Mohamed Hassan, Amjad Shah, Hom Dhakal

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Shale gas reservoirs have been of greater importance compared to shale oil reservoirs since 2009 and with the current nature of the oil market, understanding the technical and economic performance of shale gas reservoirs is of importance. Using the Barnett shale as a case study, an economic model was developed to quantify the effect of finding and development costs and gas prices on the basins in the Barnett shale using net present value as an evaluation parameter. A rate of return of 20% and a payback period of 60 months or less was used as the investment hurdle in the model. The Barnett was split into four basins (Strawn Basin, Ouachita Folded Belt, Forth-worth Syncline and Bend-arch Basin) with analysis conducted on each of the basin to provide a holistic outlook. The dataset consisted of only horizontal wells that started production from 2008 to at most 2015 with 1835 wells coming from the strawn basin, 137 wells from the Ouachita folded belt, 55 wells from the bend-arch basin and 724 wells from the forth-worth syncline. The data was analyzed initially on Microsoft Excel to determine the estimated ultimate recoverable (EUR). The range of EUR from each basin were loaded in the Palisade Risk software and a log normal distribution typical of Barnett shale wells was fitted to the dataset. Monte Carlo simulation was then carried out over a 1000 iterations to obtain a cumulative distribution plot showing the probabilistic distribution of EUR for each basin. From the cumulative distribution plot, the P10, P50 and P90 EUR values for each basin were used in the economic model. Gas production from an individual well with a EUR similar to the calculated EUR was chosen and rescaled to fit the calculated EUR values for each basin at the respective percentiles i.e. P10, P50 and P90. The rescaled production was entered into the economic model to determine the effect of the finding and development cost and gas price on the net present value (10% discount rate/year) as well as also determine the scenario that satisfied the proposed investment hurdle. The finding and development costs used in this paper (assumed to consist only of the drilling and completion costs) were £1 million, £2 million and £4 million while the gas price was varied from $2/MCF-$13/MCF based on Henry Hub spot prices from 2008-2015. One of the major findings in this study was that wells in the bend-arch basin were least economic, higher gas prices are needed in basins containing non-core counties and 90% of the Barnet shale wells were not economic at all finding and development costs irrespective of the gas price in all the basins. This study helps to determine the percentage of wells that are economic at different range of costs and gas prices, determine the basins that are most economic and the wells that satisfy the investment hurdle.

Keywords: shale gas, Barnett shale, unconventional gas, estimated ultimate recoverable

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96 Geochemical Evaluation of Weathering-Induced Release of Trace Metals from the Maastritchian Shales in Parts of Bida an Anambra Basins, Nigeria

Authors: Adetunji Olusegun Aderigibigbe

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Shales, especially black shales, are of great geological significance, in the study of heavy/trace metal contamination. This is due to their abundance in occurrence and high concentration of heavy metals embedded which are released during their weathering. Heavy metals constitute one of the most dangerous pollution known to human because they are toxic (i.e., carcinogenic), non-biodegradable and can enter the global eco-biological circle. In the past, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment and agricultural top soil has been attributed to industrial wastes, mining extractions and pollution from traffic vehicles; only a few studies have focused on weathering of shale as possible source of heavy metal contamination. Based on the above background, this study attempts to establish weathering of shale as possible source of trace/heavy metal contaminations. This was done by carefully selecting fresh and their corresponding weathered shale samples from selected localities in Bida and Anambra Basins. The samples were analysed in Activation Laboratories Ltd; Ontario, Canada for trace/heavy metal. It was observed that some major and trace metals were released during weathering, i.e., some were depleted and some enriched. By this contamination of water zones and agricultural top soils are not only traceable to biogenic processes but geogenic inputs (weathering of shale) as well.

Keywords: contamination, fresh samples, heavy metals, pollution, shales, trace metals, weathered samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
95 Detailed Investigation of Thermal Degradation Mechanism and Product Characterization of Co-Pyrolysis of Indian Oil Shale with Rubber Seed Shell

Authors: Bhargav Baruah, Ali Shemsedin Reshad, Pankaj Tiwari

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This work presents a detailed study on the thermal degradation kinetics of co-pyrolysis of oil shale of Upper Assam, India with rubber seed shell, and lab-scale pyrolysis to investigate the influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yield and composition of products. The physicochemical characteristics of oil shale and rubber seed shell were studied by proximate analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical study showed the mixture to be of low moisture, high ash, siliceous, sour with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, and phenolic compounds. The thermal decomposition of the oil shale with rubber seed shell was studied using thermogravimetric analysis at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 °C/min. The kinetic study of the oil shale pyrolysis process was performed on the thermogravimetric (TGA) data using three model-free isoconversional methods viz. Friedman, Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger Akahira Sunnose (KAS). The reaction mechanisms were determined using the Criado master plot. The understanding of the composition of Indian oil shale and rubber seed shell and pyrolysis process kinetics can help to establish the experimental parameters for the extraction of valuable products from the mixture. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed usinf central composite design (CCD) model to setup the lab-scale experiment using TGA data, and optimization of process parameters viz. heating rate, temperature, and particle size. The samples were pre-dried at 115°C for 24 hours prior to pyrolysis. The pyrolysis temperatures were set from 450 to 650 °C, at heating rates of 2 to 20°C/min. The retention time was set between 2 to 8 hours. The optimum oil yield was observed at 5°C/min and 550°C with a retention time of 5 hours. The pyrolytic oil and gas obtained at optimum conditions were subjected to characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR).

Keywords: Indian oil shale, rubber seed shell, co-pyrolysis, isoconversional methods, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
94 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr

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Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, optimisation, shale, tight reservoir

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93 Waterless Fracking: An Alternative to Conventional Fracking

Authors: Shubham Damke, Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei

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To stimulate the well and to enhance the production from the shaly formations, fracturing is essential. Presently the chiefly employed technology is Hydraulic Fracturing. However Hydraulic Fracturing accompanies itself with problems like disposing large volumes of fracturing wastewater, removal of water from the pores, formation damage due to injection of large amount of chemicals into underground formations and many more. Therefore embarking on the path of innovation new techniques have been developed which uses different gases such as Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Frac Oil, LPG, etc. are used as a base fluid for fracturing formation. However LPG proves to be the most favorable of them which eliminates the use of water and chemicals. When using it as a fracturing fluid, within the surface equipment, it is stored, gelled, and proppant blended at a constant pressure. It is then pressurized with high pressure pumps to the required surface injection pressure With lowering the total cost and increasing the productivity, LPG is also very noteworthy for fracturing shale, where if the hydraulic fracturing is done the water ‘swells’ the formation and creates surface tension, both of which inhibit the flow of oil and gas. Also fracturing with LPG increases the effective fracture length and since propane, butane and pentane is used which are already present in the natural gas therefore there is no problem of back flow because these gases get mixed with the natural gas. LPG Fracturing technology can be a promising substitute of the Hydraulic Fracturing, which could substantially reduce the capital cost of fracturing shale and will also restrict the problems with the disposal of water and on the same hand increasing the fracture length and the productivity from the shale.

Keywords: Fracking, Shale, Surface Tension, Viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
92 Sphere in Cube Grid Approach to Modelling of Shale Gas Production Using Non-Linear Flow Mechanisms

Authors: Dhruvit S. Berawala, Jann R. Ursin, Obrad Slijepcevic

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Shale gas is one of the most rapidly growing forms of natural gas. Unconventional natural gas deposits are difficult to characterize overall, but in general are often lower in resource concentration and dispersed over large areas. Moreover, gas is densely packed into the matrix through adsorption which accounts for large volume of gas reserves. Gas production from tight shale deposits are made possible by extensive and deep well fracturing which contacts large fractions of the formation. The conventional reservoir modelling and production forecasting methods, which rely on fluid-flow processes dominated by viscous forces, have proved to be very pessimistic and inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach to forecast shale gas production by detailed modeling of gas desorption, diffusion and non-linear flow mechanisms in combination with statistical representation of these processes. The representation of the model involves a cube as a porous media where free gas is present and a sphere (SiC: Sphere in Cube model) inside it where gas is adsorbed on to the kerogen or organic matter. Further, the sphere is considered consisting of many layers of adsorbed gas in an onion-like structure. With pressure decline, the gas desorbs first from the outer most layer of sphere causing decrease in its molecular concentration. The new available surface area and change in concentration triggers the diffusion of gas from kerogen. The process continues until all the gas present internally diffuses out of the kerogen, gets adsorbs onto available surface area and then desorbs into the nanopores and micro-fractures in the cube. Each SiC idealizes a gas pathway and is characterized by sphere diameter and length of the cube. The diameter allows to model gas storage, diffusion and desorption; the cube length takes into account the pathway for flow in nanopores and micro-fractures. Many of these representative but general cells of the reservoir are put together and linked to a well or hydraulic fracture. The paper quantitatively describes these processes as well as clarifies the geological conditions under which a successful shale gas production could be expected. A numerical model has been derived which is then compiled on FORTRAN to develop a simulator for the production of shale gas by considering the spheres as a source term in each of the grid blocks. By applying SiC to field data, we demonstrate that the model provides an effective way to quickly access gas production rates from shale formations. We also examine the effect of model input properties on gas production.

Keywords: adsorption, diffusion, non-linear flow, shale gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
91 Analysis of Production Forecasting in Unconventional Gas Resources Development Using Machine Learning and Data-Driven Approach

Authors: Dongkwon Han, Sangho Kim, Sunil Kwon

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Unconventional gas resources have dramatically changed the future energy landscape. Unlike conventional gas resources, the key challenges in unconventional gas have been the requirement that applies to advanced approaches for production forecasting due to uncertainty and complexity of fluid flow. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) model which integrates machine learning and data-driven approach was developed to predict productivity in shale gas. The database of 129 wells of Eagle Ford shale basin used for testing and training of the ANN model. The Input data related to hydraulic fracturing, well completion and productivity of shale gas were selected and the output data is a cumulative production. The performance of the ANN using all data sets, clustering and variables importance (VI) models were compared in the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). ANN model using all data sets, clustering, and VI were obtained as 44.22%, 10.08% (cluster 1), 5.26% (cluster 2), 6.35%(cluster 3), and 32.23% (ANN VI), 23.19% (SVM VI), respectively. The results showed that the pre-trained ANN model provides more accurate results than the ANN model using all data sets.

Keywords: unconventional gas, artificial neural network, machine learning, clustering, variables importance

Procedia PDF Downloads 135