Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1303

Search results for: targeted attack

1303 Modeling Intelligent Threats: Case of Continuous Attacks on a Specific Target

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we treat a model that falls in the area of protecting targeted systems from intelligent threats including terrorism. We introduce the concept of system survivability, in the context of continuous attacks, as the probability that a system under attack will continue operation up to some fixed time t. We define a constant attack rate (CAR) process as an attack on a targeted system that follows an exponential distribution. We consider the superposition of several CAR processes. From the attacker side, we determine the optimal attack strategy that minimizes the system survivability. We also determine the optimal strengthening strategy that maximizes the system survivability under limited defensive resources. We use operations research techniques to identify optimal strategies of each antagonist. Our results may be used as interesting starting points to develop realistic protection strategies against intentional attacks.

Keywords: CAR processes, defense/attack strategies, exponential failure, survivability

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1302 The Proactive Approach of Digital Forensics Methodology against Targeted Attack Malware

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin


Each individual organization has their own mechanism to build up cyber defense capability in protecting their information infrastructures from data breaches and cyber espionage. But, we can not deny the possibility of failing to detect and stop cyber attacks especially for those targeting credential information and intellectual property (IP). In this paper, we would like to share the modern approach of effective digital forensic methodology in order to identify the artifacts in tracing the trails of evidence while mitigating the infection from the target machine/s. This proposed approach will suit the digital forensic investigation to be conducted while resuming the business critical operation after mitigating the infection and minimizing the risk from the identified attack to transpire. Therefore, traditional digital forensics methodology has to be improvised to be proactive which not only focusing to discover the root caused and the threat actor but to develop the relevant mitigation plan in order to prevent from the same attack.

Keywords: digital forensic, detection, eradication, targeted attack, malware

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1301 Malware Beaconing Detection by Mining Large-scale DNS Logs for Targeted Attack Identification

Authors: Andrii Shalaginov, Katrin Franke, Xiongwei Huang


One of the leading problems in Cyber Security today is the emergence of targeted attacks conducted by adversaries with access to sophisticated tools. These attacks usually steal senior level employee system privileges, in order to gain unauthorized access to confidential knowledge and valuable intellectual property. Malware used for initial compromise of the systems are sophisticated and may target zero-day vulnerabilities. In this work we utilize common behaviour of malware called ”beacon”, which implies that infected hosts communicate to Command and Control servers at regular intervals that have relatively small time variations. By analysing such beacon activity through passive network monitoring, it is possible to detect potential malware infections. So, we focus on time gaps as indicators of possible C2 activity in targeted enterprise networks. We represent DNS log files as a graph, whose vertices are destination domains and edges are timestamps. Then by using four periodicity detection algorithms for each pair of internal-external communications, we check timestamp sequences to identify the beacon activities. Finally, based on the graph structure, we infer the existence of other infected hosts and malicious domains enrolled in the attack activities.

Keywords: malware detection, network security, targeted attack, computational intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1300 A Game of Information in Defense/Attack Strategies: Case of Poisson Attacks

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept of Poisson attacks in the case of defense/attack strategies where attacks are assumed to be continuous. We suggest a game model in which the attacker will combine both criteria of a sufficient confidence level of a successful attack and a reasonably small size of the estimation error in order to launch an attack. Here, estimation error arises from assessing the system failure upon attack using aggregate data at the system level. The corresponding error is referred to as aggregation error. On the other hand, the defender will attempt to deter attack by making one or both criteria inapplicable. The defender will build his/her strategy by both strengthening the targeted system and increasing the size of error. We will formulate the defender problem based on appropriate optimization models. The attacker will opt for a Bayesian updating in assessing the impact on the improvement made by the defender. Then, the attacker will evaluate the feasibility of the attack before making the decision of whether or not to launch it. We will provide illustrations to better explain the process.

Keywords: attacker, defender, game theory, information

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
1299 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei


With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain, threat intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1298 Trastuzumab Decorated Bioadhesive Nanoparticles for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Kasi Viswanadh Matte, Abhisheh Kumar Mehata, M.S. Muthu


Brest cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro, MDA-MB-231 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional nanoparticles. The IC50 values of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles from cytotoxic assay were found to be 43 and 223 folds higher than DocelTM. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study showed 2.33, and 2.82-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of docetaxel for non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted nanoparticles, respectively than DocelTM, and after i.v administration, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticle achieved 3.48 and 5.94 times prolonged half-life in comparison to DocelTM. The area under the curve (AUC), relative bioavailability (FR) and mean residence time (MRT) were found to be higher for non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles compared to DocelTM. Further, histopathology results of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles showed less toxicity on vital organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney compared to DocelTM.

Keywords: breast cancer, HER-2 receptor, targeted nanomedicine, chitosan, TPGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1297 Non-Targeted Adversarial Image Classification Attack-Region Modification Methods

Authors: Bandar Alahmadi, Lethia Jackson


Machine Learning model is used today in many real-life applications. The safety and security of such model is important, so the results of the model are as accurate as possible. One challenge of machine learning model security is the adversarial examples attack. Adversarial examples are designed by the attacker to cause the machine learning model to misclassify the input. We propose a method to generate adversarial examples to attack image classifiers. We are modifying the successfully classified images, so a classifier misclassifies them after the modification. In our method, we do not update the whole image, but instead we detect the important region, modify it, place it back to the original image, and then run it through a classifier. The algorithm modifies the detected region using two methods. First, it will add abstract image matrix on back of the detected image matrix. Then, it will perform a rotation attack to rotate the detected region around its axes, and embed the trace of image in image background. Finally, the attacked region is placed in its original position, from where it was removed, and a smoothing filter is applied to smooth the background with foreground. We test our method in cascade classifier, and the algorithm is efficient, the classifier confident has dropped to almost zero. We also try it in CNN (Convolutional neural network) with higher setting and the algorithm was successfully worked.

Keywords: adversarial examples, attack, computer vision, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1296 Non-Targeted Adversarial Object Detection Attack: Fast Gradient Sign Method

Authors: Bandar Alahmadi, Manohar Mareboyana, Lethia Jackson


Today, there are many applications that are using computer vision models, such as face recognition, image classification, and object detection. The accuracy of these models is very important for the performance of these applications. One challenge that facing the computer vision models is the adversarial examples attack. In computer vision, the adversarial example is an image that is intentionally designed to cause the machine learning model to misclassify it. One of very well-known method that is used to attack the Convolution Neural Network (CNN) is Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM). The goal of this method is to find the perturbation that can fool the CNN using the gradient of the cost function of CNN. In this paper, we introduce a novel model that can attack Regional-Convolution Neural Network (R-CNN) that use FGSM. We first extract the regions that are detected by R-CNN, and then we resize these regions into the size of regular images. Then, we find the best perturbation of the regions that can fool CNN using FGSM. Next, we add the resulted perturbation to the attacked region to get a new region image that looks similar to the original image to human eyes. Finally, we placed the regions back to the original image and test the R-CNN with the attacked images. Our model could drop the accuracy of the R-CNN when we tested with Pascal VOC 2012 dataset.

Keywords: adversarial examples, attack, computer vision, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1295 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi


Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
1294 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi


Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
1293 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao


Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: heart attack, artificial neural network, diagnosis, intelligent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
1292 Reliable and Energy-Aware Data Forwarding under Sink-Hole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ebrahim Alrashed


Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to attacks from adversaries attempting to disrupt their operations. Sink-hole attacks are a type of attack where an adversary node drops data forwarded through it and hence affecting the reliability and accuracy of the network. Since sensor nodes have limited battery power, it is essential that any solution to the sinkhole attack problem be very energy-aware. In this paper, we present a reliable and energy efficient scheme to forward data from source nodes to the base station while under sink-hole attack. The scheme also detects sink-hole attack nodes and avoid paths that includes them.

Keywords: energy-aware routing, reliability, sink-hole attack, WSN

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1291 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long


Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1290 Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Attack and Automatic Detection Technology Research

Authors: Tao Feng, Wei-Wei Zhang, Chang-Ming Ding


Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most popular WEB Attacking methods at present, and also one of the most risky web attacks. Because of the population of JavaScript, the scene of the cross site scripting attack is also gradually expanded. However, since the web application developers tend to only focus on functional testing and lack the awareness of the XSS, which has made the on-line web projects exist many XSS vulnerabilities. In this paper, different various techniques of XSS attack are analyzed, and a method automatically to detect it is proposed. It is easy to check the results of vulnerability detection when running it as a plug-in.

Keywords: XSS, no target attack platform, automatic detection,XSS detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1289 Cryptographic Attack on Lucas Based Cryptosystems Using Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Tze Jin Wong, Lee Feng Koo, Pang Hung Yiu


Lenstra’s attack uses Chinese remainder theorem as a tool and requires a faulty signature to be successful. This paper reports on the security responses of fourth and sixth order Lucas based (LUC4,6) cryptosystem under the Lenstra’s attack as compared to the other two Lucas based cryptosystems such as LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. All the Lucas based cryptosystems were exposed mathematically to the Lenstra’s attack using Chinese Remainder Theorem and Dickson polynomial. Result shows that the possibility for successful Lenstra’s attack is less against LUC4,6 cryptosystem than LUC3 and LUC cryptosystems. Current study concludes that LUC4,6 cryptosystem is more secure than LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems in sustaining against Lenstra’s attack.

Keywords: Lucas sequence, Dickson polynomial, faulty signature, corresponding signature, congruence

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1288 Real Time Detection of Application Layer DDos Attack Using Log Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Farheen Tabassum, Shoab Ahmed Khan


The brutality of attacks on networks and decisive infrastructures are on the climb over recent years and appears to continue to do so. Distributed Denial of service attack is the most prevalent and easy attack on the availability of a service due to the easy availability of large botnet computers at cheap price and the general lack of protection against these attacks. Application layer DDoS attack is DDoS attack that is targeted on wed server, application server or database server. These types of attacks are much more sophisticated and challenging as they get around most conventional network security devices because attack traffic often impersonate normal traffic and cannot be recognized by network layer anomalies. Conventional techniques of single-hosted security systems are becoming gradually less effective in the face of such complicated and synchronized multi-front attacks. In order to protect from such attacks and intrusion, corporation among all network devices is essential. To overcome this issue, a collaborative intrusion detection system (CIDS) is proposed in which multiple network devices share valuable information to identify attacks, as a single device might not be capable to sense any malevolent action on its own. So it helps us to take decision after analyzing the information collected from different sources. This novel attack detection technique helps to detect seemingly benign packets that target the availability of the critical infrastructure, and the proposed solution methodology shall enable the incident response teams to detect and react to DDoS attacks at the earliest stage to ensure that the uptime of the service remain unaffected. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed collaborative detection approach is much more effective and efficient than the previous approaches.

Keywords: Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS), Collaborative Intrusion Detection System (CIDS), Slowloris, OSSIM (Open Source Security Information Management tool), OSSEC HIDS

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1287 11-Round Impossible Differential Attack on Midori64

Authors: Zhan Chen, Wenquan Bi


This paper focuses on examining the strength of Midori against impossible differential attack. The Midori family of light weight block cipher orienting to energy-efficiency is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. Using a 6-round property, the authors implement an 11-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 by extending two rounds on the top and three rounds on the bottom. There is enough key space to consider pre-whitening keys in this attack. An impossible differential path that minimises the key bits involved is used to reduce computational complexity. Several additional observations such as partial abort technique are used to further reduce data and time complexities. This attack has data complexity of 2 ⁶⁹·² chosen plaintexts, requires 2 ¹⁴·⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2 ⁹⁴·⁷ 11- round Midori64 encryptions.

Keywords: cryptanalysis, impossible differential, light weight block cipher, Midori

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1286 External Sulphate Attack: Advanced Testing and Performance Specifications

Authors: G. Massaad, E. Roziere, A. Loukili, L. Izoret


Based on the monitoring of mass, hydrostatic weighing, and the amount of leached OH- we deduced the nature of leached and precipitated minerals, the amount of lost aggregates and the evolution of porosity and cracking during the sulphate attack. Using these information, we are able to draw the volume / mass changes brought by mineralogical variations and cracking of the cement matrix. Then we defined a new performance indicator, the averaged density, capable to resume along the test of sulphate attack the occurred physicochemical variation occurred in the cementitious matrix and then highlight.

Keywords: monitoring strategy, performance indicator, sulphate attack, mechanism of degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1285 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush


Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1284 Achieving Better Security by Using Nonlinear Cellular Automata as a Cryptographic Primitive

Authors: Swapan Maiti, Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury


Nonlinear functions are essential in different cryptoprimitives as they play an important role on the security of the cipher designs. Rule 30 was identified as a powerful nonlinear function for cryptographic applications. However, an attack (MS attack) was mounted against Rule 30 Cellular Automata (CA). Nonlinear rules as well as maximum period CA increase randomness property. In this work, nonlinear rules of maximum period nonlinear hybrid CA (M-NHCA) are studied and it is shown to be a better crypto-primitive than Rule 30 CA. It has also been analysed that the M-NHCA with single nonlinearity injection proposed in the literature is vulnerable against MS attack, whereas M-NHCA with multiple nonlinearity injections provide maximum length cycle as well as better cryptographic primitives and they are also secure against MS attack.

Keywords: cellular automata, maximum period nonlinear CA, Meier and Staffelbach attack, nonlinear functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1283 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor


The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

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1282 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1281 An Aspiring Solution to the Man in the Middle Bootstrap Vulnerability

Authors: Mouad Zouina, Benaceur Outtaj


The proposed work falls within the context of improving data security for m-commerce systems. In this context we have placed under the light some flaws encountered in HTTPS the most used m-commerce protocol, particularly the man in the middle attack, shortly MITM. The man in the middle attack is an active listening attack. The idea of this attack is to target the handshake phase of the HTTPS protocol which is the transition from a non-secure connection to a secure connection in our case HTTP to HTTPS. This paper proposes a solution to fix those flaws based on the upgrade of HSTS standard handshake sequence using the DNSSEC standard.

Keywords: m-commerce, HTTPS, HSTS, DNSSEC, MITM bootstrap vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1280 A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks

Authors: Naghmeh Moradpoor Sheykhkanloo


Structured Query Language Injection (SQLI) attack is a code injection technique in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a web browser. Losing data, disclosing confidential information or even changing the value of data are the severe damages that SQLI attack can cause on a given database. SQLI attack has also been rated as the number-one attack among top ten web application threats on Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). OWASP is an open community dedicated to enabling organisations to consider, develop, obtain, function, and preserve applications that can be trusted. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern recognition neural network model for detection and classification of SQLI attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different SQLI attack categories, and an NN model in order to: 1) detect either a given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the type of SQLI attack for each malicious URL. The model is first trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: neural networks, pattern recognition, SQL injection attacks, SQL injection attack classification, SQL injection attack detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1279 Targeted Effects of Subsidies on Prices of Selected Commodities in Iran Market

Authors: Sayedramin Hashemianesfehani, Seyed Hossein Hosseinilargani


In this study, we attempt to realize that to what extent the increase in selected commodities in Iran Market is originated from the implementation of the targeted subsidies law. Hence, an econometric model based on existing theories of increasing and transferring prices in order to transferring inflation is developed. In other words, world price index and virtual variables defined for targeted subsidies has significant and positive impact on the producer price index. The obtained results indicated that the targeted subsidies act in Iran has influential long and short-term impacts on producer price indexes. Finally, world prices of dairy products and dairy price with respect to major parameters is carried out to obtain some managerial ‎results.

Keywords: econometric models, targeted subsidies, consumer price index (CPI), producer price index (PPI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1278 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1277 Evolution of Bombings against Transportation Infrastructure

Authors: Jonathan K. Hill


The transportation networks throughout Africa remain the only transportation infrastructure system in the world that is attacked by terrorists at a high frequency, so the international community can learn from each attack. The targeting of transportation should be recognized as a direct attack against a civilian population, so the international community should work to better understand the types of attacks utilized, the types of improvised explosive device designs adapted to transportation targets, and the ways the various modes of transportation have been attacked throughout the continent. Some countries have seen grenade attacks that have resulted in only injuries, while some countries have experienced large vehicle bombings that have resulted in hundreds of injuries and numerous deaths. With insurgencies, explosive devices have been small, complex, and generally target an enemy of the insurgency. With terrorist bombings, the explosive devices have been large, brazen, and targeted at civilian populations. And, these civilian populations are easily targeted within the transportation system. The presentation provided by Assess Africa LLC is titled ‘Evolution of Bombings Against Transportation Infrastructure’ and covers improvised explosive device characteristics, how improvised explosive devices have been adapted to transportation targets in Africa, analyses recent incidents, and provides some advice for effective protective measures. A main component of the improvised explosive device characteristics portion of the presentation focuses on the link between explosive device components, the intelligence network, and the bomb-builder’s network. By understanding the components, how the use of various components can be linked to a terrorist group’s capabilities, and how the bomb-builder acquires materials, the analysis of improvised explosive device attacks takes on a new direction – one that focuses on defeating the network instead of merely reviewing incidents of the past.

Keywords: Africa, bombings, critical infrastructure protection, transportation security

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1276 Providing a Secure Hybrid Method for Graphical Password Authentication to Prevent Shoulder Surfing, Smudge and Brute Force Attack

Authors: Faraji Sepideh


Nowadays, purchase rate of the smart device is increasing and user authentication is one of the important issues in information security. Alphanumeric strong passwords are difficult to memorize and also owners write them down on papers or save them in a computer file. In addition, text password has its own flaws and is vulnerable to attacks. Graphical password can be used as an alternative to alphanumeric password that users choose images as a password. This type of password is easier to use and memorize and also more secure from pervious password types. In this paper we have designed a more secure graphical password system to prevent shoulder surfing, smudge and brute force attack. This scheme is a combination of two types of graphical passwords recognition based and Cued recall based. Evaluation the usability and security of our proposed scheme have been explained in conclusion part.

Keywords: brute force attack, graphical password, shoulder surfing attack, smudge attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1275 The Journey of a Malicious HTTP Request

Authors: M. Mansouri, P. Jaklitsch, E. Teiniker


SQL injection on web applications is a very popular kind of attack. There are mechanisms such as intrusion detection systems in order to detect this attack. These strategies often rely on techniques implemented at high layers of the application but do not consider the low level of system calls. The problem of only considering the high level perspective is that an attacker can circumvent the detection tools using certain techniques such as URL encoding. One technique currently used for detecting low-level attacks on privileged processes is the tracing of system calls. System calls act as a single gate to the Operating System (OS) kernel; they allow catching the critical data at an appropriate level of detail. Our basic assumption is that any type of application, be it a system service, utility program or Web application, “speaks” the language of system calls when having a conversation with the OS kernel. At this level we can see the actual attack while it is happening. We conduct an experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of system call analysis for detecting SQL injection. We are able to detect the attack. Therefore we conclude that system calls are not only powerful in detecting low-level attacks but that they also enable us to detect high-level attacks such as SQL injection.

Keywords: Linux system calls, web attack detection, interception, SQL

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1274 Air Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distributions for Staggered Wing Shaped Tubes Bundle

Authors: Sayed A. Elsayed, Emad Z. Ibrahim, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief


An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics and pressure drop distributions of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. Three cases of the tubes arrangements with various angles of attack, row angles of attack and 90° cone angles were employed at the considered Rea range. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the values of Pdc were increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: wing-shaped tubes, cross-flow cooling, staggered arrangement, CFD

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