Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: Salam Khalifa

115 Implementation of 'Bay Al-Salam' in Agricultural Banking of Bangladesh: An Islamic Banking Perspective

Authors: M. Obydul Haque Kamaly

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a brief discussion on bay al-salam as a method of implementing Islamic Banking in the agricultural arena of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the nature and conditions of bay al-salam contracts will be first discussed. Next, the paper will focus on the comparison between conventional banks and Islamic banks and should answer how bay al-salam can be used as a popular method in agricultural transactions in the country. The paper is based on secondary data which is to describe bay al-salam as future proceedings for Islamic banking. Evidence suggests Islamic banking is very much practiced like modern conventional banking with certain restrictions imposed by Sharia and addresses a large number of business requirements successfully. Thus, it’s time for us to implement Islamic banking (bay al-salam) on our agricultural arena and to get most benefits from them.

Keywords: bay al-salam, agricultural banking, Islamic banking, implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
114 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
113 Islamic Financial Instrument, Standard Parallel Salam as an Alternative to Conventional Derivatives

Authors: Alireza Naserpoor

Abstract:

Derivatives are the most important innovation which has happened in the past decades. When it comes to financial markets, it has changed the whole way of operations of stock, commodities and currency market. Beside a lot of advantages, Conventional derivatives contracts have some disadvantages too. Some problems have been caused by derivatives contain raising Volatility, increasing Bankruptcies and causing financial crises. Standard Parallel Salam contract as an Islamic financial product meanwhile is a financing instrument can be used for risk management by investors. Standard Parallel Salam is a Shari’ah-Compliant contract. Furthermore, it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. Despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries, This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. In this paper after introducing parallel Salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel Salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument and practical experience in Iran Mercantile Exchange about this instrument. Afterwards, we make a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivative. Standard parallel salam contract as an Islamic financial product, can be used for risk management by investors. SPS is a Shariah-Compliant contract. Furthermore it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries. In this article after introducing parallel salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument containing two main approaches in SPS using, And practical experience in IME about this instrument Afterwards, a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivatives.

Keywords: futures contracts, hedging, shari’ah compliant instruments, standard parallel salam

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112 Temporally Coherent 3D Animation Reconstruction from RGB-D Video Data

Authors: Salam Khalifa, Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

We present a new method to reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from single or multi-view RGB-D video data using unbiased feature point sampling. Given RGB-D video data, in form of a 3D point cloud sequence, our method first extracts feature points using both color and depth information. In the subsequent steps, these feature points are used to match two 3D point clouds in consecutive frames independent of their resolution. Our new motion vectors based dynamic alignment method then fully reconstruct a spatio-temporally coherent 3D animation. We perform extensive quantitative validation using novel error functions to analyze the results. We show that despite the limiting factors of temporal and spatial noise associated to RGB-D data, it is possible to extract temporal coherence to faithfully reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from RGB-D video data.

Keywords: 3D video, 3D animation, RGB-D video, temporally coherent 3D animation

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111 Degemination in Emirati Pidgin Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Authors: Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh, Abdul Salam Mohamad Alnamer, Sulafah Abdul Salam Alnamer

Abstract:

This study examines the production of gemination in Emirati Pidgin Arabic (EPA) spoken by blue-collar workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A simple naming test was designed to test the production of geminates and a follow-up discussion was conducted with some of the participants to obtain the complementary qualitative analysis. The goal of the test was to determine whether the EPA speakers would produce a geminated or degeminated phoneme. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a subset of the study cohort to obtain participants’ own explanation where they degeminated the consonants. Our findings suggest that the exercising of this choice functions as a sociolinguistic strategy in a similar manner to that observed by Labov in his study of Martha’s Vineyard. The findings also show that speakers of EPA are inclined to degeminate consonantal geminates to establish themselves as members of a particular social group. Reasons for wanting to achieve this aim were given as: to claim privileges only available to members of this group (such as employment) and to distinguish themselves from the dominant cultural group. The study concludes that degemination in EPA has developed into a sociolinguistic solidarity marker.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, morphophonology, degemination, solidarity, Emirati pidgin Arabic

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
110 Effect of Different Concentrations of Polluted Water on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Two Green Algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Cosmarium leave

Authors: Yahia Mosleh

Abstract:

Both Scenedesmus obliquus and Cosmarium leave were subjected to different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 80 %) of highly polluted water collected from Haddows drainage, which receives high amount of domestic sewage, and also the increasing agriculture run off and industrial effluent, then disbursed it in El-Salam fresh water canal. The water in that canal dramatically used as drinking water alongside using in irrigation. A total of 25 physicochemical parameters were determined within the drainage polluted water and also up-stream of El-Salam fresh water canal's water. The effect of five concentrations of the tested polluted water were determined on growth density, dry algal biomass, net photosynthetic oxygen production, catalase activity and ascorbic acid content on the two algae "Scenedesmus obliquus and Cosmarium leave". The result reveal that, low concentration support the growth and the physiological activities of both algae. However, the situation is different in the case of high concentrations, where it encourage the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus , meanwhile the same concentration were inhibited the growth and physiological activities of Cosmarium leave. Which indicated that, Scenedesmus obliquus tolerated high pollution better than Cosmarium leave. Finally it can be concluded that, different organisms, however, have different sensitivities to the same pollutants and the same organisms may be more or less damaged by different pollutant. Also, the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of different species varied with concentrations.

Keywords: catalase activity, ascorbic acid content, Scenedesmus, Cosmarium, pollution, biomass

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109 Impact of Cd and Pb Impregnation on the Health of an Adult Population Neighbouring a Landfill

Authors: M. Cabral, A. Verdin, G. Garçon, A. Touré, C. Diop, M. Fall, S. Bouhsina, D. Dewaele, F.Cazier, A. Tall Dia, P. Shirali, A. Diouf

Abstract:

This case-control study dealt with the health adverse effects within the population neighboring the Mbeubeuss waste dump, which is located near the district of Malika (Diamalaye II) in Dakar (Senegal). All the household and industrial waste arising from Dakar are stored in this open landfill without being covered and are therefore possible sources of Pb and Cd contaminated air emissions and lixiviates. The objective of this study is part of improving the health of the population neighboring Mbeubeuss by determining Pb and Cd concentrations both in environment and humans, and studying possible renal function alterations within the adults. Soil and air samples were collected in the control site (Darou Salam) and the waste dump neighboring site (Diamalaye II). Control and exposed adults were recruited as living in Darou Salam (n = 52) and in Diamalaye II (n = 77). Pb and Cd concentrations in soil, air and biological samples were determined. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing some impregnation (zinc protoporphyrin, d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malonedialdehyde, gluthatione status), in addition to several nephrotoxicity parameters (creatinuria, proteinuria, lactate dehydrogenase, CC16 protein, glutathione S-transferase-alpha and retinol binding protein) in blood and/or urine. The results showed the significant Pb and Cd contamination of the soil and air samples derived from the landfill, and therefore of the neighboring population of adults. This critical exposure to environmental Pb and Cd had some harmful consequences for their health, as shown by the reported oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity signs.

Keywords: Pb and Cd environmental exposure, impregnation markers, landfill, nephrotoxicity markers

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108 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa

Abstract:

This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

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107 A Semantic E-Learning and E-Assessment System of Learners

Authors: Wiem Ben Khalifa, Dalila Souilem, Mahmoud Neji

Abstract:

The evolutions of Social Web and Semantic Web lead us to ask ourselves about the way of supporting the personalization of learning by means of intelligent filtering of educational resources published in the digital networks. We recommend personalized courses of learning articulated around a first educational course defined upstream. Resuming the context and the stakes in the personalization, we also suggest anchoring the personalization of learning in a community of interest within a group of learners enrolled in the same training. This reflection is supported by the display of an active and semantic system of learning dedicated to the constitution of personalized to measure courses and in the due time.

Keywords: Semantic Web, semantic system, ontology, evaluation, e-learning

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106 The Influence of Cage versus Floor Pen Management of Broilers

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalifa

Abstract:

There has been an interest in raising poultry in environmentally controlled cages rather than on floor, because poultry raised on floor are more susceptible to environmental stress including pathogens and heat stress. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of managerial environmental conditions on body weight gain of Cobb 500 broiler breed. Broilers were raised in cages and on floor in two separate rooms. Body weight at different ages of the broilers was monitored. It was found that body weight at slaughter age (5weeks) for boilers raised in batteries were significantly higher than those raised on the floor.

Keywords: broilers, cages, floor, poultry

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105 A Framework for Embedding Industry 4.0 in the UAE Defence Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Khalifa Al Baloushi, Hongwei Zhang, Terrence Perera

Abstract:

Over the last few decades, the government of the UAE has been taking actions to consolidate defense manufacturing entities with the view to build a coherent and modern defense manufacturing base. Whilst these actions have significantly improved the overall capabilities of defense manufacturing; further opportunities exist to radically transform the sector. A comprehensive literature review and data collected from a survey identified three potential areas of improvements, (a) integration of Industry 4.0 technologies and other smart technologies, (b) stronger engagement of small and Medium-sized defense manufacturing companies and (c) Enhancing the national defense policies by embedding best practices from other nations. This research paper presents the design and development of a conceptual framework for the UAE defense industrial ecosystem.

Keywords: industry 4.0, defense manufacturing, eco-systems, integration

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104 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla

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Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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103 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser

Abstract:

The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.

Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymus

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102 A Robotic Cube to Preschool Children for Acquiring the Mathematical and Colours Concepts

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Tamer M. Ismail, M. Abd El Salam

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This work presents a robot called Conceptual Robotic Cube, CR-Cube. The robot can be used as an educational tool for children from the age of three. It has a cube shape attached with a camera colours sensor. In addition, it contains four wheels to move smoothly. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to measure the efficiency of the robot. The design and the questionnaire was presented to 11 experts who agreed that the robot is appropriate for learning numbering and colours for preschool children.

Keywords: CR-Cube, robotic cube, conceptual robot, conceptual cube, colour concept, early childhood education

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101 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

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100 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi

Abstract:

The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
99 Bank's Role in Economic Growth: Case of Africa

Authors: S. Khalifa, R. Chkoundali

Abstract:

The specific role of banks in economic development varies, depending on scope. Firstly, the participation of banks in economic development focus around providing credit and services to generate revenues, which are then invested back into a local, national or international community. The specific roles banks play in the economic development of a small community differ from the role banks play in national or international economic development. Although the role can vary, factors such as access to credit and bank investment policies or practices remain constant, no matter the scope of economic development. This paper provides an overview of the economic situation of Africa and its short-term outlook. He referred to the progress made in the implementation of the Medium-Term Strategy (2008-2012) and some major achievements of the Bank, as the speed and flexibility with which she responded to the oil crisis, food and financial.

Keywords: economic growth, bank, Africa, economic development

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98 Day/Night Detector for Vehicle Tracking in Traffic Monitoring Systems

Authors: M. Taha, Hala H. Zayed, T. Nazmy, M. Khalifa

Abstract:

Recently, traffic monitoring has attracted the attention of computer vision researchers. Many algorithms have been developed to detect and track moving vehicles. In fact, vehicle tracking in daytime and in nighttime cannot be approached with the same techniques, due to the extreme different illumination conditions. Consequently, traffic-monitoring systems are in need of having a component to differentiate between daytime and nighttime scenes. In this paper, a HSV-based day/night detector is proposed for traffic monitoring scenes. The detector employs the hue-histogram and the value-histogram on the top half of the image frame. Experimental results show that the extraction of the brightness features along with the color features within the top region of the image is effective for classifying traffic scenes. In addition, the detector achieves high precision and recall rates along with it is feasible for real time applications.

Keywords: day/night detector, daytime/nighttime classification, image classification, vehicle tracking, traffic monitoring

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97 CO₂ Capture by Clay and Its Adsorption Mechanism

Authors: Jedli Hedi, Hedfi Hachem, Abdessalem Jbara, Slimi Khalifa

Abstract:

Natural and modified clay were used as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. Sample of clay was subjected to acid treatments to improve their textural properties, namely, its surface area and pore volume. The modifications were carried out by heating the clays at 120 °C and then by acid treatment with 3M sulphuric acid solution at boiling temperature for 10 h. The CO2 adsorption capacities of the acid-treated clay were performed out in a batch reactor. It was found that the clay sample treated with 3M H2SO4 exhibited the highest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (16.29–24.68 m2/g) and pore volume (0.056–0.064 cm3/g). After the acid treatment, the CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased. The CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased after the acid treatment. The CO2 adsorption by clay, were characterized by SEM, FTIR, ATD-ATG and BET method. For describing the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption for these materials, the adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. CO2 adsorption isotherm was found attributable to physical adsorption.

Keywords: clay, acid treatment, CO2 capture, adsorption mechanism

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96 In vitro Biological Activity of Some Synthesized Monoazo Heterocycles Based On Thiophene and Thiazolyl-Thiophene Analogue

Authors: Mohamed E. Khalifa, Adil A. Gobouri

Abstract:

Potential synthesis of a series of 3-amino-4-arylazothiophene derivatives from reaction of 2-cyano-2-phenylthiocarbamoyl acetamide and the appropriate α-halogenated reagents, followed by coupling with different aryl diazonium salts (Japp-Klingemann reaction), and another series of 5-arylazo-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl-thiophene derivatives from base-catalyzed intramolecular condensation of 5-arylazo-2-(N-chloroacetyl)amino-thiazole with selected B-keto compounds (Thorpe-Ziegler reaction) was performed. The biological activity of the two series was studied in vitro. Their versatility for pharmaceutical purposes was reported, where they displayed remarkable activities against selected pathogenic microorganisms; Bacillus subtilize, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria) and Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans (fungi) with various degrees related to their chemical structures.

Keywords: thiophene, 2-aminothiazole, compounds, antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial

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95 Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery

Abstract:

Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.

Keywords: rheology, polyelectrolyte, settling volume index, turbidity

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94 Relative Intensity Noise of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Subject to Variable Polarization-Optical Feedback

Authors: Salam Nazhan Ahmed

Abstract:

Influence of variable polarization angle (θp) of optical feedback on the Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) has been experimentally investigated. The RIN is a minimum at θp = 0° for the dominant polarization mode (XP), and at θp = 90° for the suppressed polarization mode (YP) of VCSEL. Furthermore, the RIN of the XP mode increases rapidly with increasing θp, while for the YP mode, it increases slightly to θp = 45° and decreases for angles greater than 45°.

Keywords: lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical switching, optical polarization feedback, relative intensity noise

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93 External Strengthening of RC Continuous Beams Using FRP Plates: Finite Element Model

Authors: Mohammed A. Sakr, Tarek M. Khalifa, Walid N. Mansour

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Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) installation is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. This technique attracted the concerning of researchers during the last two decades. This paper presents a simple uniaxial nonlinear finite element model (UNFEM) able to accurately estimate the load-carrying capacity, different failure modes and the interfacial stresses of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers. Results of the proposed finite element (FE) model are verified by comparing them with experimental measurements available in the literature. The agreement between numerical and experimental results is very good. Considering fracture energy of adhesive is necessary to get a realistic load carrying capacity of continuous RC beams strengthened with FRP. This simple UNFEM is able to help design engineers to model their strengthened structures and solve their problems.

Keywords: continuous beams, debonding, finite element, fibre reinforced polymer

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92 A Numerical Model Simulation for an Updraft Gasifier Using High-Temperature Steam

Authors: T. M. Ismail, M. A. El-Salam

Abstract:

A mathematical model study was carried out to investigate gasification of biomass fuels using high-temperature air and steam as a gasifying agent using high-temperature air up to 1000°C. In this study, a 2D computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the gasification process in an updraft gasifier, considering drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification reactions. The gas and solid phases were resolved using a Euler−Euler multiphase approach, with exchange terms for the momentum, mass, and energy. The standard k−ε turbulence model was used in the gas phase, and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The results show that the present model giving a promising way in its capability and sensitivity for the parameter effects that influence the gasification process.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, gasification, biomass fuel, fixed bed gasifier

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91 A Proposed Program for Postgraduates in Egypt to Acquire the Skills and Techniques for Producing Concept Cartoons for Kindergarten Children

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, M. Abd El Salam

Abstract:

The current study presents a proposed program for acquisition the skills and techniques needed to produce concept cartoon. The proposed program has been prepared for non-specialist students who have never used neither graphics nor animating software. It was presented to postgraduates in Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University, during the spring term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The program works in three different aspects: Drawing and images editing, sound manipulation, and creating animation. In addition, the researchers have prepared a questionnaire for measuring the quality of the concept cartoons produced by the students. The questionnaire was used as a pre-test and post-test, and at the end of the study, a significant difference was determined in favour of post-test results.

Keywords: cartoon, concept cartoon, kindergarten, animation

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90 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Plates

Authors: Ghusen al-Kafri, Mohammed Ali Abdallah Elsageer, Ahmed Mohamed Hadya Alsdaai, Abdeimanam Salhien Salih Khalifa

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In this paper, external reinforcement to enhance a reinforced concrete structure performance has been done using externally bonded steel plate. This technique has been reported effective in enhancing the strength of reinforced concrete beam, a study to determine the effectiveness of steel plate as an external reinforcement was carried out. A total of two groups of beams and one group content five beams, each 750 mm long, 150 mm wide, and 150 mm deep were cast, strengthened and tested till failure under two point loads. One beam was act as a control beam without strengthening and other four beams were strengthened with steel plate at a different arrangement. Other group beams were strengthened with steel plate in shear zone and also strengthened at bottom as first group. The behaviours of the strengthened beams were studied through their load-deflection characteristic upon bending, cracking and mode of failure. The results confirmed that all steel plate arrangements enhanced the strength of the reinforced concrete beam, the positioning of the steel plate affect the moment carrying capacity of the beam.

Keywords: beams, bending, beflection, steel plates

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89 Feminist Evaluation: The Case of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

Authors: Salam Abukhadrah

Abstract:

This research advocates for the use of feminist evaluation (FE) as a tool of great potential in policy and program assessment in relation to women’s empowerment. This research explores the journey of women’s place into the evaluation and international development. Moreover, this research presents a case example of the use of FE on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), in Ganaparthi village in rural India, in Andhra Pradesh state (AP). This evaluation is formed on the basis of women’s empowerment framework that seeks to examine empowerment as a process and an end in itself rather than as just simplified quantifiable outcomes. This framework is used to conduct in-depth semi-structured interviews that are later cross-validated by a focus group discussion. In addition, this evaluation draws on secondary data from the MGNREGA website and on extracted data from the National Family Health Survey of AP.

Keywords: feminist evaluation, MGNREGA, women’s empowerment, case example, India

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88 Cost-Effective, Accuracy Preserving Scalar Characterization for mmWave Transceivers

Authors: Mohammad Salah Abdullatif, Salam Hajjar, Paul Khanna

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The development of instrument grade mmWave transceivers comes with many challenges. A general rule of thumb is that the performance of the instrument must be higher than the performance of the unit under test in terms of accuracy and stability. The calibration and characterizing of mmWave transceivers are important pillars for testing commercial products. Using a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) with a mixer option has proven a high performance as an approach to calibrate mmWave transceivers. However, this approach comes with a high cost. In this work, a reduced-cost method to calibrate mmWave transceivers is proposed. A comparison between the proposed method and the VNA technology is provided. A demonstration of significant challenges is discussed, and an approach to meet the requirements is proposed.

Keywords: mmWave transceiver, scalar characterization, coupler connection, magic tee connection, calibration, VNA, vector network analyzer

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87 Financial Instruments of Islamic Banking: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Rukhsana Shaheen, Tahira Ifraq

Abstract:

Interest based transactions led the advent of Islamic banking. In order to provide an alternative to Interest based banking, financial transactions found in classical books of fiqh were employed. Musharakah, Mudarabah, Murabahah Salam, Ijara, and some other modes were adopted. These modes were modified so that they can be adopted for banking and satisfy the needs of customers. Since the inception of Islamic banking, these modes are being used and with the passage of time, are being molded and experimented with to cater different kinds of customers and requirements. Human efforts cannot be errorless. These modes too bear legal defects which need an in-depth scrutiny and refinement. The aim of this paper is to dig the basis and rulings of these modes in classical books of fiqh and analyze its modification and adoption in Islamic banking and the legal defects that these modes are bearing. Paper will prove itself fruitful by providing remedies for the legal defects.

Keywords: financial instruments, legal defects, remedies, Islamic banking

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86 Urban Landscape for Walkability

Authors: Sara Khalifa, Dina Salem

Abstract:

Cities have become overly automobile-oriented which clearly accommodates driving at the expense of walking in an age of global concerns about emerging health issues (obesity, cancer, heart disease) and environmental disasters (global warming, depletion of resources) which makes sustainable solutions a necessity not an option. One of these sustainable solutions is creating walkable communities. Walking is a distinctive and fundamental human activity that plays an important role in achieving urban sustainability and yields incredible benefits to people and environment with its influence on transportation infrastructure, public health, economic development, and social equity. Considerable research supports the idea that the presence of green, natural settings and quality urban landscapes can enhance walking and other physical activity and travel behaviour. Stepping towards a sustainable future, requires rethinking our communities in terms of walkability enhancement for this purpose, this paper starts with defining walkable communities and their characteristics, benefits and related concepts then discusses the contribution of urban landscape quality in promoting walkability.

Keywords: walkability, walkable community, liveable communities, urban landscape qualities

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