Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 512

Search results for: Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh

512 Degemination in Emirati Pidgin Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Authors: Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh, Abdul Salam Mohamad Alnamer, Sulafah Abdul Salam Alnamer

Abstract:

This study examines the production of gemination in Emirati Pidgin Arabic (EPA) spoken by blue-collar workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A simple naming test was designed to test the production of geminates and a follow-up discussion was conducted with some of the participants to obtain the complementary qualitative analysis. The goal of the test was to determine whether the EPA speakers would produce a geminated or degeminated phoneme. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a subset of the study cohort to obtain participants’ own explanation where they degeminated the consonants. Our findings suggest that the exercising of this choice functions as a sociolinguistic strategy in a similar manner to that observed by Labov in his study of Martha’s Vineyard. The findings also show that speakers of EPA are inclined to degeminate consonantal geminates to establish themselves as members of a particular social group. Reasons for wanting to achieve this aim were given as: to claim privileges only available to members of this group (such as employment) and to distinguish themselves from the dominant cultural group. The study concludes that degemination in EPA has developed into a sociolinguistic solidarity marker.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, morphophonology, degemination, solidarity, Emirati pidgin Arabic

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511 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim

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Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: geogrid, soil, interface, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

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510 In vitro Susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis to the Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus Leaves

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Abdel Khalig Muddather, Hiba Abdel Rahman Ali, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub

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Anogeissusleiocarpus (Combretaceae) is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, for treating many human diseases mainly skin diseases and infections.Mycetoma disease is a fungal and/ or bacterial skin infection, mainly cause by Madurella mycetomatis fungus.This study was carried out in vitro to investigate the antifungal activity of Anogeissusleiocarpus leaf extracts against the isolated pathogenicMadurellamycetomatis, by using the NCCLS modified method compared to Ketoconazole standard drug and MTT assay. The bioactive fraction was subjected to chemical analysis implementing different chromatographic analytical methods (TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS). The results showed significance antifungal activity of A. leiocarpus leaf extractsagainst the isolated pathogenicM. mycetomatis, compared to negative and positive controls. The chloroform fraction showed the highest antifungal activity.The chromatographic analysis of the chloroform fraction with the highest activity showed the presence of important bioactive compounds such as ellagic and flavellagic acids derivatives, flavonoids and stilbenoid, which are well known for their antifungal activity.

Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpus, crude extracts and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus, in vitrosusceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella mycetomatis

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509 Finite Element Method for Solving the Generalized RLW Equation

Authors: Abdel-Maksoud Abdel-Kader Soliman

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The General Regularized Long Wave (GRLW) equation is solved numerically by giving a new algorithm based on collocation method using quartic B-splines at the mid-knot points as element shape. Also, we use the Fourth Runge-Kutta method for solving the system of first order ordinary differential equations instead of finite difference method. Our test problems, including the migration and interaction of solitary waves, are used to validate the algorithm which is found to be accurate and efficient. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the algorithm.

Keywords: generalized RLW equation, solitons, quartic b-spline, nonlinear partial differential equations, difference equations

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508 Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of New Series of Oil Sorbers Based on Maleate Esters

Authors: Nora A. Hamad, Ayman M. Atta, Adel A. H. Abdel-Rahman

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Two malice anhydride esters were prepared using long chain aliphatic alcohols (C8H17OH and C12H25OH, 1:1 mole ratio). Three series of crosslinked homo and copolymers of maleate esters with octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid were prepared respectively through suspension copolymerization. The monomers were mixed with 0.02 Wt% of BP initiator, PVA 1% (170 ml for each 100g of monomers) and different weight ratios of DVB crosslinked (1% and 4%) in cyclohexane. The prepared crosslinked homo and copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly (ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene.

Keywords: acrylic acid, crosslinked copolymers, maleate ester, poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET), oil absorbency, octadecyl acrylat

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507 Student Attendance System Applying Reed Solomon ECC

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Armandurni Abd Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Md Rizal Md Hendry

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The article reports an automated student attendance system modeled and developed for use at a Vocational school. This project focuses on developing an application using a QR code utilizing the Reed-Solomon error correction code using a smartphone scanned through a webcam. This system enables us to speed up the process of taking attendance and would save us valuable teaching time. This is planned to help students avoid consequences that may result from poor attendances which will eventually penalize them from sitting their final examination as required.

Keywords: QR code, Reed-Solomon, error correction, system design.

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506 N₂O₂ Salphen-Like Ligand and Its Pd(II), Ag(I) and Cu(II) Complexes as Potentially Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis, Antimicrobial, CT-DNA Binding and Molecular Docking

Authors: Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Shaker S. Adam, Ahmed M. Abu-Dief, Hanan El-Sayed Ahmed

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In this investigation, Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes with the tetra-dentate DSPH Schiff base ligand were synthesized. The DSPH Schiff base and its complexes were characterized by using different physicochemical and spectral analysis. The results revealed that the metal ions coordinated with DSPH ligand through azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen. Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes are present in a 1:1 molar ratio. Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes have square planar geometries while, Cu(II) has a distorted octahedral (Oh) geometry. All investigated complexes are nonelectrolytes. The investigated compounds were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Both prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganism. Moreover, the interaction of investigated complexes with CT-DNA was studied via various techniques and the binding modes are mainly intercalative and grooving modes. Operating Environment MOE package was used to do docking studies for the investigated complexes to explore the potential binding mode and energy. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of the investigated compounds was examined on some cancer cells lines.

Keywords: tetradentate, antimicrobial, CT-DNA interaction, docking, anticancer

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505 Spectrum Allocation Using Cognitive Radio in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Ayoub Alsarhan, Ahmed Otoom, Yousef Kilani, Abdel-Rahman al-GHuwairi

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Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged recently to improve internet access and other networking services. WMNs provide network access to the clients and other networking functions such as routing, and packet forwarding. Spectrum scarcity is the main challenge that limits the performance of WMNs. Cognitive radio is proposed to solve spectrum scarcity problem. In this paper, we consider a cognitive wireless mesh network where unlicensed users (secondary users, SUs) can access free spectrum that is allocated to spectrum owners (primary users, PUs). Although considerable research has been conducted on spectrum allocation, spectrum assignment is still considered an important challenging problem. This problem can be solved using cognitive radio technology that allows SUs to intelligently locate free bands and access them without interfering with PUs. Our scheme considers several heuristics for spectrum allocation. These heuristics include: channel error rate, PUs activities, channel capacity and channel switching time. Performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows that the scheme is able to allocate the unused spectrum for SUs efficiently.

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, spectrum management, spectrum sharing, wireless mesh networks

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504 Chemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of Isolated Compounds and Essential Oil from Callistemon citrinus Leaf

Authors: Manal M. Hamed, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Abdel-Aleem H. Abdel-Aleem, Amal M. Saad, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Asmaa H. Hadad

Abstract:

Natural products derived from medicinal plants provide unlimited opportunities for a new medication leads because of the unmatched accessibility of chemical variation. Six compounds were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Callistemon citrinus (Family Myrtaceae), they were identified as; nepetolide (1), callislignan A (2), 6,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dimethyl-3-methyleneisochroman-1-one (3), 3-methyl-7-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), 5, 7, 3', 5'-tetrahydroxy-6, 8-di-C-methyl flavanone (5), and (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-tetrahydropyran (6). The isolated compounds were evaluated as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were determined using DPPH-radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. The results indicated that compound (5) was most active in its capacity to scavenge free radicals in the DPPH assay [SC50 value, 4.65 ± 0.74μg/mL] compared to the standard ascorbic acid and exhibited the highest activity in the TAC assay (610.45 ± 1.67mg AAE/g compound). The pure isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Also, the GC/MS analysis of its leaves essential oil presented nine identified compounds representing 91% of the total oil constituents. The outcomes got from this study give a reasonable justification for the medicinal uses of Callistemon citrinus plant.

Keywords: Callistemon citrinus, flavanone, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Myrtaceae

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503 History on the Screen: Nasser and the Biographical Film in Egyptian Cinema

Authors: Omar Khalifah

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The emergence of Muhammad Fadel’s 1996 film ‘Nasser 56’ ushered in a new era in Egyptian cinema. Not only was it the first biographical film of late Egyptian president Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser (1918-1970); it also broke a long-accepted taboo against cinematic depiction of modern political leaders. Passionately received by Egyptians and Arabs throughout the world, the success of ‘Nasser 56’ empowered other filmmakers to follow Fadel’s suit. Interestingly, the three biographical films that followed had, completely or partially, a Nasser dimension. In addition to another biographical film of Nasser, Anwar al-Qawadri’s ‘Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser’ (1999); Muhammad Khan’s ‘Ayyam al-Sadat (Days of Sadat)’ (2001), and Sherif Arafa’s ‘Halim (Halim)’ (2006) portray, as the titles clearly suggest, two significant figures whose lives thoroughly intersected with Nasser’s - Nasser’s successor Anwar al-Sadat and the legendary singer Abdel Halim Hafiz. Expectedly, therefore, Nasser himself is abundantly referenced in those films, albeit differently. This paper seeks to examine the ways in which Egyptian filmmakers impersonate Nasser on the screen. Starting with scholarly definitions of the biopic, the paper will first ponder the reasons that have made the biopic an unattractive genre to Egyptian filmmakers. It will then argue that the popularity of Nasser and his wide appeal to the public has transformed the status of the biopic genre in Egyptian cinema. However, the impersonation of Nasser in the four films above proved a daunting mission to filmmakers. As this paper will show, unless he is the main character, the reenactment of Nasser in films will constantly pose dilemmas to filmmakers, a few of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Ahmad Zaki, bio-pictures, Egyptian cinema, Nasser, Nasser 56

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502 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak

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A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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501 Reliability of Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns: Part 1

Authors: Metwally Abdel Aziz Ahmed, Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr, Inas Mohamed Saleh

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The main objective of structural design is to ensure safety and functional performance requirements of a structural system for its target reliability levels. In this study, the reliability index for the reinforcement concrete slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the loads, the concrete compressive strength, the steel yield strength, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, the reinforcement ratio, and the location of steel placement. Risk analysis program was used to perform the analytical study. The effect of load eccentricity on the reliability index of reinforced concrete slender column was studied and presented. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

Keywords: reliability, reinforced concrete, safety, slender column

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500 The Antimicrobial Activity of Marjoram Essential Oil Against Some Antibiotic Resistant Microbes Isolated from Hospitals

Authors: R. A. Abdel Rahman, A. E. Abdel Wahab, E. A. Goghneimy, H. F. Mohamed, E. M. Salama

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Infectious diseases are a major cause of death worldwide. The treatment of infections continues to be problematic in modern time because of the severe side effects of some drugs and the growing resistance to antimicrobial agents. Hence, the search for newer, safer and more potent antimicrobials is a pressing need. Herbal medicines have received much attention as a source of new antibacterial drugs since they are considered time-tested and comparatively safe both for human use and the environment. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) essential oil on some gram positive and gram negative reference bacteria, as well as some hospital resistant microbes, was tested. Marjoram oil was extracted and the oil chemical constituents were identified using GC/MS analysis. Staphylococcus aureas ATCC 6923, Pseudomonus auregonosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, E. coli ATCC 8736 and two hospital resistant microbes isolates 16 and 21 were used. The two isolates were identified by biochemical tests and 16s rRNA as proteus spp. and Enterococcus facielus. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils on bacterial growth was tested using agar disk diffusion assay method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations and using micro dilution method to determine the minimum bactericidal concentrations. Marjoram oil was found to be effective against both reference and hospital resistance strains. Hospital strains were more resistant to marjoram oil than reference strains. P. auregonosa growth was completely inhibited at a low concentration of oil (4µl/ml). The other reference strains showed sensitivity to marjoram oil at concentrations ranged from 5 to 7µl/ml. The two hospital strains showed sensitivity at media containing 10 and 15µl/ml oil. The major components of oil were terpineol, cis-beta (23.5%), 1,6 – octadien –3-ol,3,7-dimethyl, 2 aminobenzoate (10.9%), alpha terpieol (8.6%) and linalool (6.3%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis were used to determine the difference between treated and untreated hospital strains. SEM results showed that treated cells were smaller in size than control cells. TEM data showed that cell lysis has occurred to treated cells. Treated cells have ruptured cell wall and appeared empty of cytoplasm compared to control cells which shown to be intact with normal volume of cytoplasm. The results indicated that marjoram oil has a positive antimicrobial effect on hospital resistance microbes. Natural crude extracts can be perfect resources for new antimicrobial drugs.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil, hospital resistance microbes, marjoram

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499 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie

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Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: Spent bleaching earth, reactivation, regeneration, thermal treatment, dye removal, thermodynamic

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498 Effect of Pollution and Ethylene-Diurea on Bean Plants Grown in KSA

Authors: Abdel Rahman A. Alzandi

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The primary objectives of this investigation were to examine the interactive effects of three air quality treatments, ethylene-diurea (EDU) and two irrigation conditions on physiological characteristics of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during its whole growth. These plants were grown in 12-open top chambers (OTC's). Ethylene-diurea (EDU) was used as a factor to evaluate O3 pollution impact on plant growth. The air quality treatments consisted of charcoal filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air and ambient air (AA) were irrigated and non- irrigated. Leaf samples were collected from upper canopy positions six times (pre- EDU addition, week after four EDU's addition, at the time of harvesting). Maximal differences in leaf carbohydrate, N contents, pigments and total lipids were observed in response to moisture conditions in presence and absence of EDU applications. Significant reduction were noted for air quality treatments regarding carbohydrate and pigment fractions but not for all cases of leaf N and lipid contents under O3 effects only. Minimal differences were found for first EDU application while maximal ones were recorded at 200 mg l-1 of treatments. The EDU treatments stimulated carbohydrate and pigment contents at the upper canopy position with higher levels for both NF and AA compared to untreated conditions. The NF and AA treatments caused lower total carbohydrate and pigment contents in the canopy position before harvesting of EDU applications. The stimulation in leaf carbohydrates by the EDU treatment, compared to the non-treated EDU of AA and NF treatments, provides a rational explanation for the counteracting effects of EDU against moderate exposures to O3 regarding grain yields in C3 plants.

Keywords: leaf contents, moisture relations, EDU additions, global climate change, kidney bean

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497 ICT Training Programs in Tourism and Hospitality Institutes: An Analytical Study of Types, Effectiveness, and Graduate Perceived Importance

Authors: Magdy Abdel-Aleem Abdel-Ati Mayouf, Islam Al Sayed Hussein Al Sayed

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Development of tourism and hospitality faculties' graduates is a key to the future health of hospitality and tourism sectors. Meanwhile information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly become the driving engine for productivity improvement and business opportunities in tourism and hospitality industry. Tourism and hospitality education and training must address these developments to enhance the ability of future managers to adopt a variety of ICT tools and strategies to increase their organization's efficiency and competitiveness. Therefore, this study aims to explore the types and effectiveness of ICT training offered by faculties of tourism and hotels in Egypt, and evaluating the importance of that training from the graduate's point of view. The study targets the graduates who graduated in the present ten years from three different faculties of tourism and hotels. Results argued the types, levels and effectiveness of ICT training offered in these faculties and the extent to which training programs were appreciated by graduates working in different fields, and finally, it recommended particular practices to enhance the training efficiency and raising the perceived benefits of it for workers in tourism and hospitality fields.

Keywords: training, IT, graduated, tourism and hospitality, education

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496 Paradigm Shift in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Developing Countries: Focus on Behavioral Changes

Authors: Bishal Saha, Musah Ahmed Rufai Muhyedeen, Jubeyer Hossain Joy, Muhammad Muhitur Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman, Md Arif Hasan, Syed Masiur Rahman

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Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the critical problems of today’s world. Many countries have been taking many short- and long-term plans to reduce climate change mitigation. However, the potential of behavioral changes in addressing this problem is promising, as reported by many researchers. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that focuses on ways to influence people’s behavior in their homes, workplace, and transportation to mitigate the emission directly or indirectly. This study will investigate different theories pertinent to planned behavior and the key elements for modifying behavior like biophilia, reinforcement to use optimum energy and recyclable products, proper application of greenhouse tax, modern technology, and sustainable design adaptation, transportation sharing, social and community norms, proper education and information, and financial incentives. There is a number of challenges associated with behavioral changes. Behavioral interventions have different actions varied by their type and need to combine various policy tools and great social marketing. Many interventions can reduce GHG emissions without any compromise with household well-being. This study will develop a landscape of prevailing theories of environmental psychology by identifying and reviewing the key themes and findings of this field of study. It will support especially the developing countries to reduce GHG emissions without significant capital investment. It is also expected that the behavioral changes will lead to the successful adoption of climate-friendly policies easily. This study will also generate new research questions and directions.

Keywords: behavioral changes, climate change mitigation, environmental psychology, greenhouse gas emission

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495 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

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Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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494 Predicting Stem Borer Density in Maize Using RapidEye Data and Generalized Linear Models

Authors: Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman, Tobias Landmann, Richard Kyalo, George Ong’amo, Bruno Le Ru

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Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food crop in Africa, particularly in the eastern region of the continent. The maize growing area in Africa spans over 25 million ha and 84% of rural households in Africa cultivate maize mainly as a means to generate food and income. Average maize yields in Sub Saharan Africa are 1.4 t/ha as compared to global average of 2.5–3.9 t/ha due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In East Africa, yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% to 40% of the total production. The objective of the present study was therefore to predict stem borer larvae density in maize fields using RapidEye reflectance data and generalized linear models (GLMs). RapidEye images were captured for a test site in Kenya (Machakos) in January and in February 2015. Stem borer larva numbers were modeled using GLMs assuming Poisson (Po) and negative binomial (NB) distributions with error with log arithmetic link. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were employed to assess the models performance using a leave one-out cross-validation approach. Results showed that NB models outperformed Po ones in all study sites. RMSE and RPD ranged between 0.95 and 2.70, and between 2.39 and 6.81, respectively. Overall, all models performed similar when used the January and the February image data. We conclude that reflectance data from RapidEye data can be used to estimate stem borer larvae density. The developed models could to improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers using various integrated pest management (IPM) protocols.

Keywords: maize, stem borers, density, RapidEye, GLM

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493 Comparison of Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers in Characterizing Threatened Tree Species Using Eight Bands of WorldView-2 Imagery in Dukuduku Landscape, South Africa

Authors: Galal Omer, Onisimo Mutanga, Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman, Elhadi Adam

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Threatened tree species (TTS) play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and services, land use dynamics, and other socio-economic aspects. Such aspects include ecological, economic, livelihood, security-based, and well-being benefits. The development of techniques for mapping and monitoring TTS is thus critical for understanding the functioning of ecosystems. The advent of advanced imaging systems and supervised learning algorithms has provided an opportunity to classify TTS over fragmenting landscape. Recently, vegetation maps have been produced using advanced imaging systems such as WorldView-2 (WV-2) and robust classification algorithms such as support vectors machines (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). However, delineation of TTS in a fragmenting landscape using high resolution imagery has widely remained elusive due to the complexity of the species structure and their distribution. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the utility of the advanced WV-2 data for mapping TTS in the fragmenting Dukuduku indigenous forest of South Africa using SVM and ANN classification algorithms. The results showed the robustness of the two machine learning algorithms with an overall accuracy (OA) of 77.00% (total disagreement = 23.00%) for SVM and 75.00% (total disagreement = 25.00%) for ANN using all eight bands of WV-2 (8B). This study concludes that SVM and ANN classification algorithms with WV-2 8B have the potential to classify TTS in the Dukuduku indigenous forest. This study offers relatively accurate information that is important for forest managers to make informed decisions regarding management and conservation protocols of TTS.

Keywords: artificial neural network, threatened tree species, indigenous forest, support vector machines

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492 Beta-Carotene Attenuates Cognitive and Hepatic Impairment in Thioacetamide-Induced Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy via Mitigation of MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Authors: Marawan Abd Elbaset Mohamed, Hanan A. Ogaly, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed-Farid O.A., Marwa S. Khattab, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

Liver fibrosis is a severe worldwide health concern due to various chronic liver disorders. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of its most common complications affecting liver and brain cognitive function. Beta-Carotene (B-Car) is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in fungi, plants, and fruits. The study attempted to know B-Car neuroprotective potential against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive decline in HE in rats. Hepatic encephalopathy was induced by TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) three times per week for two weeks. B-Car was given orally (10 or 20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks after TAA injections. Organ body weight ratio, Serum transaminase activities, liver’s antioxidant parameters, ammonia, and liver histopathology were assessed. Also, the brain’s mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), antioxidant parameters, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression were measured. The brain’s cognitive functions (Spontaneous locomotor activity, Rotarod performance test, Object recognition test) were assessed. B-Car prevented alteration of the brain’s cognitive function in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological outcomes supported these biochemical evidences. Based on these results, it could be established that B-Car could be assigned to treat the brain’s neurotoxicity consequences of HE via downregualtion of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.

Keywords: beta-carotene, liver injury, MAPK, NF-κB, rat, thioacetamide

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491 Regression of Fibrosis by Apigenin in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rat Model through Suppression of HIF-1/FAK Pathway

Authors: Hany M. Fayed, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F. Hessin, Hanan A. Ogaly, Gihan F. Asaad, Abeer A. A. Salama, Sahar Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Marwan Abd Elbaset Mohamed

Abstract:

Liver fibrosis is a serious global health problem that occurs as a result of a variety of chronic liver disorders. Apigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has several pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic efficacy of apigenin (APG) against experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats via using thioacetamide (TAA) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given three times each week for two weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After TAA injections, APG was given orally (5 and 10 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Biochemical, molecular, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on blood and liver tissue samples. The functioning of the liver, oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver fibrosis indicators were all evaluated. The findings showed that TAA markedly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with a reduction in albumin, total protein, A/G ratio, GSH content and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, TAA elevated the content of collagen I, α -smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline in the liver. The treatment with APG in a dose-dependent manner has obviously prevented these alterations and amended the harmful effects induced by TAA. The histopathological and immunohistochemical observations supported this biochemical evidence. The higher dose of APG produced the most significant antifibrotic effect. As a result of these data, APG appears to be a promising antifibrotic drug and could be used as a new herbal medication or dietary supplement in the future for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This effect might be related to the inhibition of the HIF-1/FAK signaling pathway.

Keywords: apigenin, FAK, HIF-1, liver fibrosis, rat, thioacetamide

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490 The Impact of Motivation on English Language Learning: A Study of HSC Students of Jatir Janak Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Government College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Farina Yasmin

Abstract:

Motivation is an important issue in an EFL setting where very little exposure to English in everyday life is clearly evident. In Bangladesh, English is taught as a foreign language. Language teachers cannot effectively teach a language if they do not understand the relationship between motivation and its effect on foreign language learning. The main purpose of this research is to explore the fact why HSC students are less motivated towards English language learning, what factors are affecting motivation, how to motivate them and the role of motivation in their success. The research questions were (a) what are the reasons of lack of motivation? and (b) what are the impacts of motivation on English language learning? The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The data was collected via pretest - posttest, interviews, and a questionnaire on the five point Likert scale. Triangulation of the data was made for the validity of the research. The population of this research consisted of 50 HSC level students from Jatir Janak Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Government College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The data was analyzed with means, comparison and t-test. The results showed that there is a strong relation between motivation and success in foreign language learning. Finally, some pedagogical implications and suggestions were presented to arouse the students’ motivation to learn English.

Keywords: EFL, HSC, motivation, success

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489 Developing Mathematical Relationships to Evaluate the Amount of Added Ease to the Basic Pattern of Weft Knitting Fabrics and Its Fitting to the Upper Part of Egyptian Women's Bodies

Authors: Hebatullah Ali Abdel-Aleem Abdel-Hamid, Camellia Mousa Mohamed Elzean

Abstract:

Knitted garments recently became a key component in wardrobes of the Egyptian woman. Many Egyptian women depend on garments made of knitted fabrics in their outer appearance because of its specific properties including flexibility. Through observation and application, it was noticed that knitwear blocks that used for knitted fabrics somehow does not fit the figures of the Egyptian women. Moreover, the pattern makers are usually confused and unable to choose the suitable blocks for different knitting fabrics taking into consideration its physical and mechanical properties. This study seeks to develop mathematical relationships for evaluation of the amount of added- or subtracted ease to Aldrich’s basic fitting blocks for some weft knitting fabrics and its fitting to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. To achieve this goal, 12 samples were used to evaluate fitting of Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. The samples were evaluated before and after alterations, through wear trials on the standard mannequins of size 48 and 56, and judged by experienced assessors using fit evaluation scale. The data obtained were statistically analyzed to identify the efficiency of the adjustments. The Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block was selected because his method is known internationally and easy to use.

Keywords: Aldrich basic fitting block, clothing industry, knitted fabrics, pattern construction

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488 Factors Controlling Durability of Some Egyptian Non-Stylolitic Marbleized Limestone to Salt Weathering

Authors: H. El Shayab, G. M. Kamh, N. G. Abdel Ghafour, M. L. Abdel Latif

Abstract:

Nowadays, marbleized limestone becomes one of the most important sources of the mineral wealth in Egypt as they have beautiful colors (white, grey, rose, yellow and creamy, etc.) make it very suitable for decoration purposes. Non-styolitic marbleized limestone which not contains styolitic surfaces. The current study aims to study different factors controlling durability of non-styolitic marbleized limestone against salt crystallization weathering. The achievement aim of the research was required nine representative samples were collected from the studied areas. Three samples from each of the studied areas. The studied samples was characterized by various instrumental methods before salt weathering, to determine its mineralogical composition, chemical composition and pore physical properties respectively. The obtained results revealed that both of Duwi and Delga studied samples nearly have the same average ∆M% 1.63 and 1.51 respectively and consequently A.I. stage of deformation. On the other hand, average ∆M% of Wata studied samples is 0.29 i.e. lower than two other studied areas. Wata studied samples are more durable against salt crystallization test than Duwi and Delga. The difference in salt crystallization durability may be resulted from one of the following factors: Microscopic textural effect as both of micrite and skeletal percent are in directly proportional to durability of stones to salt weathering. Dolomite mineral present as a secondary are in indirectly proportional to durability of stones to salt weathering. Increase in MgO% also associated with decrease the durability of studied samples against salt crystallization test. Finally, all factors affecting positively against salt crystallization test presents in Wadi Wata studied samples rather than others two areas.

Keywords: marbleized limestone, salt weathering, Wata, salt weathering

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487 Neuroprotective Effect of Vildagliptin against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

The burden of stroke is intensely increasing worldwide. Brain injury following transient or permanent focal cerebral ischemia develops ischemic stroke as a consequence of a complex series of pathophysiological events. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent on its insulinotropic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anaesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO. The other three groups were orally administered vildagliptin at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) for 3 successive weeks before subjected to left focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and till the end of the study. Neurological deficit scores and motor activity were assessed 24h following reperfusion. 48h following reperfusion, rats were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were harvested and used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical investigations. Vildagliptin pretreatment improved neurological score deficit, locomotor activity and motor coordination in MCAO rats. Moreover, vildagliptin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), phosphotylinosital 3 kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated of protein kinase B (p-AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) brain contents in addition to reducing protein expression of caspase-3. Also, vildagliptin showed a dose-dependent attenuation in neuronal cell loss and histopathological alterations in MCAO rats. This study proves that vildagliptin exerted the neuroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner as shown in amelioration of neuronal cell loss and histopathological damage in MCAO rats, which may be mediated by attenuating neuronal and motor deficits, it’s anti-oxidant property, activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its anti-apoptotic effect.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, oxidative stress, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, rats, vildagliptin

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486 Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase and Regulatory T Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Iman M. Mansour, Rania A. Zayed, Fadwa S. Abdel-Azim, Lamyaa H. Abdel-Latif

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: The microenvironment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is suppressive for immune cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized to play a role in helping leukemic cells to evade immunesurveillance. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential contributors in immunomodulation of the microenvironment as they can promote differentiation of Tregs via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the expression of IDO in bone marrow derived MSCs and to study its correlation to percentage of Tregs. Methods: 37 adult bone marrow samples were cultured in appropriate culture medium to isolate MSCs. Successful harvest of MSCs was determined by plastic adherence, morphology and positive expression of CD271 and CD105; negative expression of CD34 and CD45 using flowcytometry. MSCs were examined for IDO expression by immunocytochemistry using anti-IDO monoclonal antibody. CD4+ CD25+ cells (Tregs) were measured in bone marrow samples by flowcytometry. Results: MSCs were successfully isolated from 20 of the 37 bone marrow samples cultured. MSCs showed higher expression of IDO and Tregs percentage was higher in AML patients compared to control subjects (p=0.002 and p<0.001 respectively). A positive correlation was found between IDO expression and Tregs percentage (p value=0.012, r=0.5). Conclusion: In this study, we revealed an association between high IDO expression in MSCs and elevated levels of Tregs which has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, providing immunosuppressive microenvironment.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, mesenchymal stem cells, T regulatory cells

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485 Original and the Translated: A Comparative Evaluation of Native and Non-Native English Translations of Faiz

Authors: Anam Nawaz

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to compare the translations of Faiz’s poetry made by native and non-native translators, to determine the role of the translator in terms of preserving the cultural ethos of the original text. Peter Newmark and Katharine Reiss’s approaches to translation criticism have been used to provide a theoretical framework for the study. This study also emphasizes those cultural and semantic aspects of the original which are translated more convincingly by a native translator, and contrasting those features which the non-natives can tackle more ably. The research also highlights the linguistic sockets, ignored by the interpreters in the translation process. The analysis showed that both native and non-native translators have made an admirable effort to stay as close to the original as possible. The natives with their advantage of belonging to the same culture have excelled in preserving the original subject matter, whereas the non-native renderings have been presented in a much rhythmic and poetic manner with an excellent choice of words. Though none of the four translators has been successfully able to recreate Faiz’s magic, however V. G. Kiernan and Sarvat Rahman’s translations can be regarded as the closest to the original. Whereas V. G. Kiernan with his outstanding command over English mesmerizes the readers, Sarvat Rahman’s profound understanding of cultural ties helps establish her translations as a brilliant example of faithful re-renderings.

Keywords: comparative translations, linguistic and cultural constraints, native translators, non-native translators, poetry and translation, Faiz Ahmad Faiz

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484 Geospatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation to Predict Landslide Hazard Potential in the Catchment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Authors: Abdel Rahman Khider Hassan

Abstract:

This paper describes a multi-criteria geospatial model for prediction of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for Lake Naivasha catchment (Kenya), based on spatial analysis of integrated datasets of location intrinsic parameters (slope stability factors) and external landslides triggering factors (natural and man-made factors). The intrinsic dataset included: lithology, geometry of slope (slope inclination, aspect, elevation, and curvature) and land use/land cover. The landslides triggering factors included: rainfall as the climatic factor, in addition to the destructive effects reflected by proximity of roads and drainage network to areas that are susceptible to landslides. No published study on landslides has been obtained for this area. Thus, digital datasets of the above spatial parameters were conveniently acquired, stored, manipulated and analyzed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using a multi-criteria grid overlay technique (in ArcGIS 10.2.2 environment). Deduction of landslide hazard zonation is done by applying weights based on relative contribution of each parameter to the slope instability, and finally, the weighted parameters grids were overlaid together to generate a map of the potential landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for the lake catchment. From the total surface of 3200 km² of the lake catchment, most of the region (78.7 %; 2518.4 km²) is susceptible to moderate landslide hazards, whilst about 13% (416 km²) is occurring under high hazards. Only 1.0% (32 km²) of the catchment is displaying very high landslide hazards, and the remaining area (7.3 %; 233.6 km²) displays low probability of landslide hazards. This result confirms the importance of steep slope angles, lithology, vegetation land cover and slope orientation (aspect) as the major determining factors of slope failures. The information provided by the produced map of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) could lay the basis for decision making as well as mitigation and applications in avoiding potential losses caused by landslides in the Lake Naivasha catchment in the Kenya Highlands.

Keywords: decision making, geospatial, landslide, multi-criteria, Naivasha

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483 Fabrication of Cheap Novel 3d Porous Scaffolds Activated by Nano-Particles and Active Molecules for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery Applications

Authors: Mostafa Mabrouk, Basma E. Abdel-Ghany, Mona Moaness, Bothaina M. Abdel-Hady, Hanan H. Beherei

Abstract:

Tissue engineering became a promising field for bone repair and regenerative medicine in which cultured cells, scaffolds and osteogenic inductive signals are used to regenerate tissues. The annual cost of treating bone defects in Egypt has been estimated to be many billions, while enormous costs are spent on imported bone grafts for bone injuries, tumors, and other pathologies associated with defective fracture healing. The current study is aimed at developing a more strategic approach in order to speed-up recovery after bone damage. This will reduce the risk of fatal surgical complications and improve the quality of life of people affected with such fractures. 3D scaffolds loaded with cheap nano-particles that possess an osteogenic effect were prepared by nano-electrospinning. The Microstructure and morphology characterizations of the 3D scaffolds were monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physicochemical characterization was investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The Physicomechanical properties of the 3D scaffold were determined by a universal testing machine. The in vitro bioactivity of the 3D scaffold was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF). The bone-bonding ability of novel 3D scaffolds was also evaluated. The obtained nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated promising microstructure, physicochemical and physicomechanical features appropriate for enhanced bone regeneration. Therefore, the utilized nanomaterials loaded with the drug are greatly recommended as cheap alternatives to growth factors.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cheap scaffolds, nanomaterials, active molecules

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