Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1644

Search results for: beam–column joints

1644 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa


This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1643 Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections

Authors: N. Zhang, J. S. Kuang, S. Mogili


To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.

Keywords: large-scale tests, RC beam-column knee joints, seismic performance, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1642 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint by Reversible Mixed Technologies of FRP

Authors: Nasser-Eddine Attari


After the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore there exist a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressed axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: fibrereinforced polymers, joints, reinforced concrete, beam columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
1641 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar


This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1640 Seismic Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint by Reversible Mixed Technologies of FRP

Authors: Nasser-Eddine Attari


After the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore, there exist a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressing axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength, and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymers, joints, reinforced concrete, beam columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1639 Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Knee Joints Performance: Numerical and Experimental Comparison

Authors: B. S. Abdelwahed, B. B. Belkassem


Beam-column joints are a critical part in reinforced concrete RC frames designed for inelastic response to several external loads. Investigating the behaviour of the exterior RC beam-column joints has attracted many researchers in the past decades due to its critical influence on the overall behaviour of RC moment-resisting frames subjected to lateral loads. One of the most critical zones in moment-resistant frames is the knee joints because of restraints associated with providing limited anchorage length to the beam and column longitudinal reinforcement in it and consequentially causes a lot of damage in such building frames. Previous numerical simulations focussed mainly on the exterior and interior joints, for knee joint further work is still needed to investigate its behaviour and discuss its affecting parameters. Structural response for an RC knee beam-column joint is performed in this study using LS-DYNA. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of an RC knee beam-column joint are described and verified with experimental results available in literature; this is followed by a parametric study to investigate the influence of the concrete compressive strength, the presence of lateral beams and increasing beam reinforcement ratio. It is shown that the concrete compressive strength has a significant effect on shear capacity, load-deflection characteristics and failure modes of an RC knee beam-column joints but to a certain limit, the presence of lateral beams increased the joint confinement and reduced the rate of concrete degradation in the joint after reaching ultimate joint capacity, added to that an increase in the maximum load resistance. Increasing beam reinforcement ratio is found to improve the flexural resistance of the anchored beam bars and increase the joint maximum load resistance.

Keywords: beam reinforcement ratio, joint confinement, numerical simulation, reinforced concrete beam-column joints, structural performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1638 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Roy Y. C. Huang, J. S. Kuang, Hamdolah Behnam


Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, seismic vulnerability, wide beam-column joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1637 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening with Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Abdulsamee Halahla, Emad Allout


The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) strengthened with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), in terms of the shear strength and maximum displacement using pushover analysis at the tip of the beam. A finite element (F.E) analysis was performed to study three main parameters – the level of the axial load in the column (N), the beam shear reinforcement (Av/s)B, and the effect of using UHPC. The normal concrete at the studied joint region was replaced by UHPC. The model was verified by using experimental results taken from the literature. The results showed that the UHPC contributed to the transference of the plastic hinge from the joint to the beam-column interface. In addition, the strength of the UHPC-strengthened joints was enhanced dramatically from 8% to 38% for the joints subjected to 12.8MPa and zero axial loads, respectively. Moreover, the UHPC contributed in improving the maximum deflection. This improvement amounted to 1% and 176% for the joints subjected to zero and 12.8MPa axial load, respectively.

Keywords: ultra high performance concrete, ductility, reinforced concrete joints, finite element modeling, nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1636 Cyclic Response of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening by FRP

Authors: N. Attari, S. Amziane, M. Chemrouk


A large number of old buildings have been identified as having potentially critical detailing to resist earthquakes. The main reinforcement of lap-spliced columns just above the joint region, discontinuous bottom beam reinforcement, and little or no joint transverse reinforcement are the most critical details of interior beam column joints in such buildings. This structural type constitutes a large share of the building stock, both in developed and developing countries, and hence it represents a substantial exposure. Direct observation of damaged structures, following the Algiers 2003 earthquake, has shown that damage occurs usually at the beam-column joints, with failure in bending or shear, depending on geometry and reinforcement distribution and type. While substantial literature exists for the design of concrete frame joints to withstand this type of failure, after the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore; there exists a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressing axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymers, joints, reinforced concrete, beam columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1635 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim


Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
1634 Determination of Weld Seam Thickness in Welded Connection Subjected to Local Buckling Effects

Authors: Tugrul Tulunay, Iyas Devran Celik


When the materials used in structural steel industry are evaluated, box beam profiles are considerably preferred. As a result of the cross-sectional properties that these profiles possess, the connection of these profiles to each other and to profiles having different types of cross sections is becoming viable by means of additional measures. An important point to note in such combinations is continuous transfer of internal forces from element to element. At the beginning to ensure this continuity, header plate is needed to use. The connection of the plates to the elements works mainly through welds. In this study, it is aimed to determine the ideal welding thickness in box beam under bending effect and the joints exposed to local buckles that will form in the column. The connection with box column and box beam designed in this context was made by means of corner and circular filler welds. Corner welds of different thickness and analysis by types with different lengths depending on plate dimensions in numerical models were made with the help of ANSYS Workbench program and examined behaviours.

Keywords: welding thickness, box beam-column joints, design of steel structures, calculation and construction principles 2016, welded joints under local buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
1633 Experimental Model of the Behaviour of Bolted Angles Connections with Stiffeners

Authors: Abdulkadir Cuneyt Aydin, Mahyar Maali, Mahmut Kılıç, Merve Sağıroğlu


The moment-rotation curves of semi-rigid connections are the visual expressions of the actual behaviour discovered in beam-to-column connections experiments. This research was to determine the behaviour of the connection using full-scale experiments under statically loaded. The stiffeners which are typically attached to beams web or flanges to control local buckling and to increase shear capacity in a beam web are almost always used in modern designs. They must also provide sufficient moment of inertia to control out of plane deformations. This study was undertaken to analyse the influence of stiffeners in the angles and beams on the behaviour of the beam-to-column joints. In addition, the aim was to provide necessary data to improve the Eurocode 3. The main parameters observed are the evolution of the resistance, the stiffness, the rotation capacity, the ductility of a joint and the Energy Dissipation. Experimental tests show that the plastic flexural resistance and the energy dissipation increased when thickness of stiffener beam, thickness of stiffener angles were increased in the test specimens. And also, while stiffness of joints, the bending moment capacity and the maximum bending moment increased with the increasing thickness of stiffener beam, these values decreased with the increasing thickness of stiffener angles. So, it is observed that the beam stiffener of angles are important in improving resistance moment of beam-to-column semi-rigid joints.

Keywords: bolted angles connection, semi-rigid joints, ductility of a joint, angles and beams stiffeners

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1632 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

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1631 Finite Element Simulation of RC Exterior Beam-Column Joints Using Damage Plasticity Model

Authors: A. M. Halahla, M. H. Baluch, M. K. Rahman, A. H. Al-Gadhib, M. N. Akhtar


In the present study, 3D simulation of a typical exterior (RC) beam–column joint (BCJ) strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet are carried out. Numerical investigations are performed using a nonlinear finite element ( FE) analysis by incorporating damage plasticity model (CDP), for material behaviour the concrete response in compression, tension softening were used, linear plastic with isotropic hardening for reinforcing steel, and linear elastic lamina material model for CFRP sheets using the commercial FE software ABAQUS. The numerical models developed in the present study are validated with the results obtained from the experiment under monotonic loading using the hydraulic Jack in displacement control mode. The experimental program includes casting of deficient BCJ loaded to failure load for both un-strengthened and strengthened BCJ. The failure mode, and deformation response of CFRP strengthened and un-strengthened joints and propagation of damage in the components of BCJ are discussed. Finite element simulations are compared with the experimental result and are noted to yield reasonable comparisons. The damage plasticity model was able to capture with good accuracy of the ultimate load and the mode of failure in the beam column joint.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, exterior beam-column joints, concrete damage plasticity model, computational simulation, 3-D finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1630 Investigation on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Retrofitted with CFRP

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni


The aim of this thesis is to provide numerical analyses of reinforced concrete beams-column joints with/without CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) in order to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of strengthened beamcolumn joints. A comprehensive literature survey prior to this study revealed that published studies are limited to a handful only; the results are inconclusive and some are even contradictory. Therefore in order to improve on this situation, following that review, a numerical study was designed and performed as presented in this thesis. For the numerical study, dimensions, end supports, and characteristics of the beam and column models were the same as those chosen in an experimental investigation performed previously where ten beamcolumn joint were tested tofailure. Finite element analysis is a useful tool in cases where analytical methods are not capable of solving the problem due to the complexities associated with the problem. The cyclic behaviour of FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam-columns joints is such a case. Interaction of steel (longitudinal and stirrups), concrete and FRP, yielding of steel bars and stirrups, cracking of concrete, the redistribution of stresses as some elements unload due to crushing or yielding and the confinement of concrete due to the presence of FRP are some of the issues that introduce the complexities into the problem.Numerical solutions, however, can provide further in formation about the behaviour in lieu of the costly experiments or complex closed form solutions. This thesis presents the results of a numerical study on beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loads that are strengthened with CFRP wraps or strrips in a variety of configurations. The analyses are performed by Abaqus finite element program and are calibrated with the experiments. A range of issues in beam-column joints including the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves of joints, are investigated.The numerical results for different configurations of strengthening are compared. Finally, the computed numerical results are compared with those obtained from experiments. the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves obtained from numerical analysis for all joints were in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.The results obtained from the numerical analysis in most cases implies that this method is conservative and therefore can be used in design applications with confidence.

Keywords: numerical analysis, strengthening, CFRP, reinforced concrete joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1629 Effective Slab Width for Beam-End Flexural Strength of Composite Frames with Circular-Section Columns

Authors: Jizhi Zhao, Qiliang Zhou, Muxuan Tao


The calculation of the ultimate loading capacity of composite frame beams is an important step in the design of composite frame structural systems. Currently, the plastic limit theory is mainly used for this calculation in the codes adopted by many countries; however, the effective slab width recommended in most codes is based on the elastic theory, which does not accurately reflect the complex stress mechanism at the beam-column joints in the ultimate loading state. Therefore, the authors’ research group put forward the Compression-on-Column-Face mechanism and Tension-on-Transverse-Beam mechanism to explain the mechanism in the ultimate loading state. Formulae are derived for calculating the effective slab width in composite frames with rectangular/square-section columns under ultimate lateral loading. Moreover, this paper discusses the calculation method of the effective slab width for the beam-end flexural strength of composite frames with circular-section columns. The proposed design formula is suitable for exterior and interior joints. Finally, this paper compares the proposed formulae with available formulae in other literature, current design codes, and experimental results, providing the most accurate results to predict the effective slab width and ultimate loading capacity.

Keywords: composite frame structure, effective slab width, circular-section column, design formulae, ultimate loading capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
1628 Prospective Future of Frame Fire Tests

Authors: Chung-Hao Wu, Tung-Dju Lin, Ming-Chin Ho, Minehiro Nishiyama


This paper discusses reported fire tests of concrete beams and columns, future fire tests of beam/column frames, and an innovative concept for designing a beam/column furnace. The proposed furnace could be designed to maximize the efficiency of fire test procedures and minimize the cost of furnace construction and fuel consumption. ASTM E119 and ISO 834 standards were drafted based on prescriptive codes and have several weaknesses. The first involves a provision allowing the support regions of a test element to be protected from fire exposure. The second deals with the L/30 deflection end point instead of the structural end point (collapse) in order to protect the hydraulic rams from fire damage. Furthermore, designers commonly use the measured fire endurances of interior columns to assess fire ratings of edge and corner columns of the same building. The validity of such an engineering practice is theoretically unsound. Performance-Based Codes (PBC) require verification tests of structural frames including the beam/column joints to overcome these weaknesses but allow the use of element test data as reference only. In the last 30 years, PBC have gained global popularity because the innovative design and flexibility in achieving an ultimate performance goal.

Keywords: fire resistance, concrete structure, beam/column frame, fire tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1627 Recent Studies on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Members by Ferrocement

Authors: E. Lam, Z. D. Yang, B. Li, I. Ho, T. Wong, V. Wong


This paper reports some of the recent studies on strengthening of reinforced concrete members by ferrocement. Using mortar in ferrocement with high tensile strength, tensile properties of (high performance) ferrocement can be enhanced. In the proposed strengthening strategy, defective concrete cover of structural members is replaced by ferrocement so as to increase the load carrying capacity. This has been successfully applied to strengthen columns and beam-column joints. To facilitate the ease of application of the proposed strengthening strategy, mortar in ferrocement is applied through dry spray shotcrete.

Keywords: ferrocement, high performance ferrocement, dry, spray shotcrete, column, beam-column joint, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1626 Behavior of Beam-Column Nodes Reinforced Concrete in Earthquake Zones

Authors: Zaidour Mohamed, Ghalem Ali Jr., Achit Henni Mohamed


This project is destined to study pole junctions of reinforced concrete beams subjected to seismic loads. A literature review was made to clarify the work done by researchers in the last three decades and especially the results of the last two years that were studied for the determination of the method of calculating the transverse reinforcement in the different nodes of a structure. For implementation efforts in the columns and beams of a building R + 4 in zone 3 were calculated using the finite element method through software. These results are the basis of our work which led to the calculation of the transverse reinforcement of the nodes of the structure in question.

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
1625 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1624 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1623 Seismic Behaviour of RC Knee Joints in Closing and Opening Actions

Authors: S. Mogili, J. S. Kuang, N. Zhang


Knee joints, the beam column connections found at the roof level of a moment resisting frame buildings, are inherently different from conventional interior and exterior beam column connections in the way that forces from adjoining members are transferred into joint and then resisted by the joint. A knee connection has two distinct load resisting mechanisms, each for closing and opening actions acting simultaneously under reversed cyclic loading. In spite of many distinct differences in the behaviour of shear resistance in knee joints, there are no special design provisions in the major design codes available across the world due to lack of in-depth research on the knee connections. To understand the relative importance of opening and closing actions in design, it is imperative to study knee joints under varying shear stresses, especially at higher opening-to-closing shear stress ratios. Three knee joint specimens, under different input shear stresses, were designed to produce a varying ratio of input opening to closing shear stresses. The design was carried out in such a way that the ratio of flexural strength of beams with consideration of axial forces in opening to closing actions are maintained at 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0, thereby resulting in the required variation of opening to closing joint shear stress ratios among the specimens. The behaviour of these specimens was then carefully studied in terms of closing and opening capacities, hysteretic behaviour, and envelope curves to understand the differences in joint performance based on which an attempt to suggest design guidelines for knee joints is made emphasizing the relative importance of opening and closing actions. Specimens with relatively higher opening stresses were observed to be more vulnerable under the action of seismic loading.

Keywords: Knee-joints, large-scale testing, opening and closing shear stresses, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1622 Numerical Analysis of End Plate Bolted Connection with Corrugated Beam

Authors: M. A. Sadeghian, J. Yang, Q. F. Liu


Steel extended end plate bolted connections are recommended to be widely utilized in special moment-resisting frame subjected to monotonic loading. Improper design of steel beam to column connection can lead to the collapse and fatality of structures. Therefore comprehensive research studies of beam to column connection design should be carried out. Also the performance and effect of corrugated on the strength of beam column end plate connection up to failure under monotonic loading in horizontal direction is presented in this paper. The non-linear elastic–plastic behavior has been considered through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of vertically and horizontally types of corrugated web was also investigated.

Keywords: corrugated beam, monotonic loading, finite element analysis, end plate connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1621 Analysis of Steel Beam-Column Joints Under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mizam Doğan


Adapazarı railway car factory, the only railway car factory of Turkey, was constructed in 1950. It was a steel design and it had filled beam sections and truss beam systems. Columns were steel profiles and box sections. The factory was damaged heavily on Izmit Earthquake and closed. In this earthquake 90% of damaged structures are reinforced concrete, the others are %7 prefabricated and 3% steel construction. As can be seen in statistical data, damaged industrial buildings in this earthquake were generally reinforced concrete and prefabricated structures. Adapazari railway car factory is the greatest steel structure damaged in the earthquake. This factory has 95% of the total damaged steel structure area. In this paper; earthquake damages on beams and columns of the factory are studied by considering TS648 'Turkish Standard Building Code for Steel Structures' and also damaged connection elements as welds, rivets and bolts are examined. A model similar to the damaged system is made and high-stress zones are searched. These examinations, conclusions, suggestions are explained by damage photos and details.

Keywords: column-beam connection, seismic analysis, seismic load, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1620 Research of Strong-Column-Weak-Beam Criteria of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Biaxial Seismic Excitation

Authors: Chong Zhang, Mu-Xuan Tao


In several earthquakes, numerous reinforced concrete (RC) frames subjected to seismic excitation demonstrated a collapse pattern characterized by column hinges, though designed according to the Strong-Column-Weak-Beam (S-C-W-B) criteria. The effect of biaxial seismic excitation on the disparity between design and actual performance is carefully investigated in this article. First, a modified load contour method is proposed to derive a closed-form equation of biaxial bending moment strength, which is verified by numerical and experimental tests. Afterwards, a group of time history analyses of a simple frame modeled by fiber beam-column elements subjected to biaxial seismic excitation are conducted to verify that the current S-C-W-B criteria are not adequate to prevent the occurrence of column hinges. A biaxial over-strength factor is developed based on the proposed equation, and the reinforcement of columns is appropriately amplified with this factor to prevent the occurrence of column hinges under biaxial excitation, which is proved to be effective by another group of time history analyses.

Keywords: biaxial bending moment capacity, biaxial seismic excitation, fiber beam model, load contour method, strong-column-weak-beam

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1619 Comparing Repaired and Undamaged Specimens Test Results of Post-Tensioned Beam to Column Connections

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


After the 1999 Marmara earthquake in Turkey research by the Turkish Precast Union stated that 24.50% of the precast structures were damaged with some of this damage being observed in the beam to column connections of the structures. Since it is essential to provide those rendered homeless by the earthquake with safe, habitable accommodation repairing medium and slight levels of damage at the connection parts should be undertaken. In order to prove that a repaired connection was sufficiently strong, a precast beam to column post tensioned connection was tested in three phases. In phase one, the middle level damage was observed at 6% drift at these connections. As a result of the extra loads applied, little damage was observed. In the last phase, the four connections tested in the first phase were repaired using epoxy resin and then retested. The results from the tests on the repaired precast and the undamaged specimens showed that the repaired specimens were sufficiently strong, thus proving that repair to damaged precast beam to column post tensioned connections can be undertaken.

Keywords: precast beam to column connection, moment-resisting connection, post-tensioned connections, repair of precast connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1618 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen


Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1617 Comparison of the Effect of Strand Diameters, Providing Beam to Column Connection

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


In this study, the effect of pre-stressed strand diameters, providing the beam-to-column connections, was investigated from both experimental, and analytical aspects. In the experimental studies, the strength and stiffness, the capacities of the precast specimens were compared. The precast specimen with strands of 15.24 mm reached an equal strength of the reference specimen. Parallel results were obtained during the analytical studies from the aspects of strength, and behavior, but in terms of stiffness, it was seen that the initial stiffness of the analytical models was lower than that of the tested specimen.

Keywords: post-tensioned connections, beam to column connections, finite element method, strand diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1616 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar


In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: HSC, beam-column connection, Fiber Reinforcement Polymer, FRP, Finite Element Modeling, FEM

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1615 Pushover Experiment of Traditional Dieh-Dou Timber Frame

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang


In this paper, in order to investigate the joint behaviors of the Dieh-Dou structure. A pushover experiment of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong is implemented. NDI, LVDT and image measurement system are used to measure displacements of joints and deformations of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong. In addition, joint rotation-moment relationships of column restoring force, purlin-supporting, Dou-Shu, Dou-Gong brackets, primary beam-Gua Tong, secondary beam-Gua Tong, Tertiary beam are builied. From Jia-Dong experiments, formulations of joint rotation are proposed.

Keywords: pushover experiment, Dieh-Dou timber frame, image measurement system, joint rotation-moment relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 307