Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 449

Search results for: derivatives

449 The Complete Modal Derivatives

Authors: Sebastian Andersen, Peter N. Poulsen


The use of basis projection in the structural dynamic analysis is frequently applied. The purpose of the method is to improve the computational efficiency, while maintaining a high solution accuracy, by projection the governing equations onto a small set of carefully selected basis vectors. The present work considers basis projection in kinematic nonlinear systems with a focus on two widely used basis vectors; the system mode shapes and their modal derivatives. Particularly the latter basis vectors are given special attention since only approximate modal derivatives have been used until now. In the present work the complete modal derivatives, derived from perturbation methods, are presented and compared to the previously applied approximate modal derivatives. The correctness of the complete modal derivatives is illustrated by use of an example of a harmonically loaded kinematic nonlinear structure modeled by beam elements.

Keywords: basis projection, finite element method, kinematic nonlinearities, modal derivatives

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448 Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) in the Synthesis of Pyrazolines

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan


Different Pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcone derivatives in presence of hydrazine hydrate. A series of novel 1,3,5-triaryl pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone and phenylhydrazine in the presence of the Fe3O4 NPs, in high yields. The structures of compounds obtained were determined by IR and 1H NMR spectra. Fe3O4 NPs was recycled and no appreciable change in activity was noticed after three cycles.

Keywords: pyrazoline, chalcone, nanoparticles, Fe3O4, catalyst, synthesis

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447 QSAR and Anti-Depressant Studies of Some Novel Phenothiazine Derivatives

Authors: D. L. Tambe, S. Dighe Nachiket


Objective: Depression is a common but serious illness and the phenothiazine derivatives shows prominent effect against the depression hence work was undertaken to validate this use scientifically. Material and Methods: Synthesis of phenothiazine derivatives are done by the substitution of various groups, but the basic scheme of synthesis is started with synthesis of 4-(Cyclohexylidene) Benzoic acid using PABA. After that with the further six step of synthesis of 3-(10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)-N, 5-diphenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-amine is done which is final product. Antidepressant activity of all the synthesized compounds was evaluated by despair swim test by using Sprague Dawley Rats. Standard drug imipramine was used as the control. In the despair swim test, all the synthesized derivatives showed antidepressant activity. Results: Among the all phenothiazine derivatives four compounds (6.6-7.2 (14H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine),6.85-8.21(14H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 11.82 (1H – OH), 6.6-7.2 (8H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 4.2 (1H NH) and 6.85-8.21(8H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 3.9 (1H NH) 11.82 (1H – OH) showed significant antidepressant activity comparing with control drug imipramine. Conclusion: Various Novel phenothiazine derivatives show more potent antidepressant activity and it plays more beneficial role in human health for the treatment of depression.

Keywords: antidepressant activities, despair swim test, phenothiazine, Sprague Dawley Rats

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446 Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Some Organic Arylidene Derivatives

Authors: S. Sathiyamoorthi, P. Srinivasan, K. Suganya Devi


Arylidene derivatives are the subclass of chalcone derivatives. Chalcone derivatives are studied widely for the past decade because of its nonlinearity. To seek new organic group of crystals which suit for fabrication of optical devices, three-member organic arylidene crystals were synthesized by using Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Good quality crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Optical transparency and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis-IR studies. Thermal stability and melting point were calculated using TGA and DSC. Variation of dielectric loss and dielectric constant with frequency were calculated by dielectric measurement.

Keywords: DSC and TGA studies, nonlinear optic studies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectra

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445 Design, Synthesis and in-vitro Antitumor Evaluation of Some Novel Substituted Quinazoline Derivatives

Authors: Adel S. El-Azab, Alaa A. M. Abdel-Aziz, Ibrahim A. Al-Suwaidan, Amer M. Alanazi


A novel series of 2,3,6-trisubstitute quinazolinone were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in-vitro antitumor activity. 3 (Benzylideneamino)-6-chloro-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-One, 2-[(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]-N-(3,4;5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide and 3-(3-benzyl-6-methyl-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) propanamide have shown amazing broad spectrum antitumor activity with mean GI50; 15.8, 3.16, and 7.4 μM respectively compared to known Quinazoline Derivatives antitumor drug 5-FU mean GI50=22.6 μM.

Keywords: quinazoline derivatives, in vitro antitumor, synthesis, 5-FU, NCI

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444 Some Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Body and Hepato-Biliary System under the Influence of Hydrazine Derivatives

Authors: G. Y. Saspugayeva, R. R. Beysenova, M. R. Khanturin, E. T. Abseitov, K. B. Massenov


This research is devoted to the problems of rocket fuel and impact of its derivatives on environment and living things. Hydrazine derivatives are used in different spheres, in aero-space activity, medical practice, laboratory-diagnosis practice and etc. For Kazakhstan, which has the cosmodrome "Baikonur", the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is important issue. An unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is mostly used as rocket fuel for launch vehicles which has high toxicity to humans and animals referred to the World Health Organization. The question about influence of hydrazine derivatives on human organism and ways of detoxication is very actual and requires special approaches in solving these problems. In connection with this situation, we set the goal: study the negative influence of hydrazine derivatives-hydrazine sulphur, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), phenylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) on some biochemical parameters of blood, hepatobiliary system and correction of functional damages of organism with “Salsocollin” drugs.

Keywords: isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), AlAT-alanine aminotransferase, AsAT-aspartate aminotransaminase

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443 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi


This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, molecular docking, pc-3 cell line, staphylococcus aureus, steroids

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442 Overview of Risk Management in Electricity Markets Using Financial Derivatives

Authors: Aparna Viswanath


Electricity spot prices are highly volatile under optimal generation capacity scenarios due to factors such as non-storability of electricity, peak demand at certain periods, generator outages, fuel uncertainty for renewable energy generators, huge investments and time needed for generation capacity expansion etc. As a result market participants are exposed to price and volume risk, which has led to the development of risk management practices. This paper provides an overview of risk management practices by market participants in electricity markets using financial derivatives.

Keywords: financial derivatives, forward, futures, options, risk management

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441 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi


A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

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440 QSAR Study and Haptotropic Rearrangement in Estradiol Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Abd Esselem Dems, Souhila Laib, Nadjia Latelli, Nadia Ouddai


In this work, we have developed QSAR model for Relative Binding Affinity (RBA) of a large diverse set of estradiol among these derivatives, the organometallic derivatives. By dividing the dataset into a training set of 24 compounds and a test set of 6 compounds. The DFT method was used to calculate quantum chemical descriptors and physicochemical descriptors (MR and MLOGP) were performed using E-Dragon. All the validations indicated that the QSAR model built was robust and satisfactory (R2 = 90.12, Q2LOO = 86.61, RMSE = 0.272, F = 60.6473, Q2ext =86.07). We have therefore apply this model to predict the RBA, for two isomers β and α wherein Mn(CO)3 complex with the aromatic ring of estradiol, and the two isomers show little appreciation for the estrogenic receptor (RBAβ = 1.812 and RBAα = 1.741).

Keywords: DFT, estradiol, haptotropic rearrangement, QSAR, relative binding affinity

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439 Impact of Regulation on Trading in Financial Derivatives in Europe

Authors: H. Florianová, J. Nešleha


Financial derivatives are considered to be risky investment instruments which could possibly bring another financial crisis. As prevention, European Union and its member states have released new legal acts adjusting this area of law in recent years. There have been several cases in history of capital markets worldwide where it was shown that legislature may affect behavior of subjects on capital markets. In our paper we analyze main events on selected European stock exchanges in order to apply them on three chosen markets - Czech capital market represented by Prague Stock Exchange, German capital market represented by Deutsche Börse and Polish capital market represented by Warsaw Stock Exchange. We follow time series of development of the sum of listed derivatives on these three stock exchanges in order to evaluate popularity of those exchanges. Afterwards we compare newly listed derivatives in relation to the speed of development of these exchanges. We also make a comparison between trends in derivatives and shares development. We explain how a legal regulation may affect situation on capital markets. If the regulation is too strict, potential investors or traders are not willing to undertake it and move to other markets. On the other hand, if the regulation is too vague, trading scandals occur and the market is not reliable from the prospect of potential investors or issuers. We see that making the regulation stricter usually discourages subjects to stay on the market immediately although making the regulation vaguer to interest more subjects is usually much slower process.

Keywords: capital markets, financial derivatives, investors' behavior, regulation

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438 Condensed Benzo, Pyrido, Pyrimidino-Imidazole Derivatives as Antidiabetic Agents

Authors: Fatima Doganc, Hakan Goker


Benzimidazole moiety is an important pharmacophore and privileged structure for the medicinal chemists, since it exhibits various important biological activities. Some clinically used drugs have benzimidazole moiety, such as omeprazole, astemizole, albendazole and domperidone. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)benzimidazole, is a PGC-1α transcriptional regulator shown to have beneficial effects in diabetic mice. We planned to modify the structure of this compound for developing new antidiabetic drug candidates. Hence, a series of guanidino or amidino, benzo/pyrido/pyrimidino-imidazole derivatives were freshly prepared. Mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques were used for the new derivatives to clarify their structures and their purity was controlled through the elemental analysis. Antidiabetic activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.

Keywords: antidiabetic agents, benzimidazole, imidazopyridine, imidazopyrimidine

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437 Hypergeometric Solutions to Linear Nonhomogeneous Fractional Equations with Spherical Bessel Functions of the First Kind

Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass


The use of fractional derivatives to different problems in Engineering and Physics has been increasing in the last decade. For this reason, we have here considered partial derivatives when the integral is a spherical Bessel function of the first kind in both regular and modified ones simple initial conditions have been also considered. In this way, the solution has been found as a combination of hypergeometric functions. The case of a general rational value for α of the fractional derivative α has been solved in a general way for alpha between zero and two. The modified spherical Bessel functions of the first kind have been also considered and how to go from the regular case to the modified one will be also shown.

Keywords: caputo fractional derivatives, hypergeometric functions, linear differential equations, spherical Bessel functions

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436 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyridine Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Dagim Ali Hussen, Adnan A. Bekhit, Ariaya Hymete


In this study, several pyridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. Cereus), gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and fungus (C. albican and A niger). The intermediate chalcone derivative 2a,b was synthesized by condensation of pyrazole aldehydes 1a,b with acetophenone in alcoholic KOH. Cyclization of 2a,b with ethyl cyanoacetate ad ammonium acetate resulted in pyridine carbonitrile derivatives 3a,b. Furthermore, condensation of pyridine-4-carboxaldeyhe with different amino-derivatives gave rise to pyridine derivatives 5a,b, 6a,b. The oxadiazole derivative 7a was prepared by cyclization of 6a with acetic anhydride. Characterization of the synthesized compound was performed using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental microanalyses. The antimicrobial results revealed that compounds 5a, 6b and 7a exhibited half fold antibacterial activity compared to ampicillin, against B. cereus. On the other hand, compound 3b showed an equivalent activity compared to miconazole against candida albican (CANDAL 03) and to clotrimazole against the clinical isolate candida albican 6647. Moreover, this compound 3b was further tested for its acute toxicity profile. The results showed that oral LD50 is more that 300 mg/kg and parentral LD50 is more than 100 mg/kg. Compound 3b is a good candidate for antifungal agent with good toxicity profile, and deserves more chemical derivatization and clinical study.

Keywords: antifungal, antimicrobial, Candida albican, pyridine

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435 Usy-Cui Zeolite: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Derivatives Indole Synthesis

Authors: Hassina Harkat, Samiha Taybe, Salima Loucif, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale


Indole and its derivatives have attracted great interest because of their importance in the synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry. They are widely used as anti hypertension, anti tubercular, anticancer activity, antiviral, Alzheimer's disease, antioxidant properties, and free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Many drugs and natural products contain indole moiety, such as the vinca alkaloids, fungal metabolites and marine natural products. Generally applicable synthetic methods for indole moiety involve ring closure to form the pyrrole. Indole derivatives can also be accessed by further functionalization of the indole nucleus. Therefore we report a mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of analogues of indole catalyzed via zeolithe USY doped with CuI under solvent-free conditions.

Keywords: indole, zeolithe, USY-CuI, heterogeneous catalysis

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434 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih


Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesis

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433 The Effects of Seasonal Variation on the Microbial-N Flow to the Small Intestine and Prediction of Feed Intake in Grazing Karayaka Sheep

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Nurcan Cetinkaya, Zehra Selcuk, Bugra Genc


The objectives of the present study were to estimate the microbial-N flow to the small intestine and to predict the digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) in grazing Karayaka sheep based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin) by the use of spot urine sampling under field conditions. In the trial, 10 Karayaka sheep from 2 to 3 years of age were used. The animals were grazed in a pasture for ten months and fed with concentrate and vetch plus oat hay for the other two months (January and February) indoors. Highly significant linear and cubic relationships (P<0.001) were found among months for purine derivatives index, purine derivatives excretion, purine derivatives absorption, microbial-N and DOMI. Through urine sampling and the determination of levels of excreted urinary PD and Purine Derivatives / Creatinine ratio (PDC index), microbial-N values were estimated and they indicated that the protein nutrition of the sheep was insufficient. In conclusion, the prediction of protein nutrition of sheep under the field conditions may be possible with the use of spot urine sampling, urinary excreted PD and PDC index. The mean purine derivative levels in spot urine samples from sheep were highest in June, July and October. Protein nutrition of pastured sheep may be affected by weather changes, including rainfall. Spot urine sampling may useful in modeling the feed consumption of pasturing sheep. However, further studies are required under different field conditions with different breeds of sheep to develop spot urine sampling as a model.

Keywords: Karayaka sheep, spot sampling, urinary purine derivatives, PDC index, microbial-N, feed intake

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432 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid


A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.

Keywords: antimalarial, quinoline, QSAR, PCA, MLR , MNLR, MLR

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431 A DFT-Based QSARs Study of Kovats Retention Indices of Adamantane Derivatives

Authors: Z. Bayat


A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structures of 65 Kovats retention index (RI) of adamantane derivatives. Molecular descriptors derived solely from 3D structures of the molecular compounds. The usefulness of the quantum chemical descriptors, calculated at the level of the DFT theories using 6-311+G** basis set for QSAR study of adamantane derivatives was examined. The use of descriptors calculated only from molecular structure eliminates the need to experimental determination of properties for use in the correlation and allows for the estimation of RI for molecules not yet synthesized. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental value. A multi-parametric equation containing maximum Four descriptors at B3LYP/6-31+G** method with good statistical qualities (R2train=0.913, Ftrain=97.67, R2test=0.770, Ftest=3.21, Q2LOO=0.895, R2adj=0.904, Q2LGO=0.844) was obtained by Multiple Linear Regression using stepwise method.

Keywords: DFT, adamantane, QSAR, Kovat

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430 On the Grid Technique by Approximating the Derivatives of the Solution of the Dirichlet Problems for (1+1) Dimensional Linear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Lawrence A. Farinola


Four point implicit schemes for the approximation of the first and pure second order derivatives for the solution of the Dirichlet problem for one dimensional Schrodinger equation with respect to the time variable t were constructed. Also, special four-point implicit difference boundary value problems are proposed for the first and pure second derivatives of the solution with respect to the spatial variable x. The Grid method is also applied to the mixed second derivative of the solution of the Linear Schrodinger time-dependent equation. It is assumed that the initial function belongs to the Holder space C⁸⁺ᵃ, 0 < α < 1, the Schrodinger wave function given in the Schrodinger equation is from the Holder space Cₓ,ₜ⁶⁺ᵃ, ³⁺ᵃ/², the boundary functions are from C⁴⁺ᵃ, and between the initial and the boundary functions the conjugation conditions of orders q = 0,1,2,3,4 are satisfied. It is proven that the solution of the proposed difference schemes converges uniformly on the grids of the order O(h²+ k) where h is the step size in x and k is the step size in time. Numerical experiments are illustrated to support the analysis made.

Keywords: approximation of derivatives, finite difference method, Schrödinger equation, uniform error

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429 Design, Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Coumarin and Flavone Derivatives Containing 1,4 Dioxane Ring System

Authors: Asif Husain, Shah Alam Khan


Coumarins and flavones are oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds which are present in various biologically active compounds. Both the heterocyclic rings are associated with diverse biological actions, therefore considered as an important scaffold for the design of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of few coumrain and flavone derivatives containing 1,4 dioxane ring system. Materials and methods: Coumarin derivatives (3a-d) were synthesized by reacting 7,8 dihydroxy coumarin (2a) and its 4-methyl derivative (2b) with epichlorohydrin/ethylene dibromide. The flavone derivatives (10a-d) were prepared by using quercetin and 3,4 dihydroxy flavones. Compounds of both the series were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and ulcerogenicity in animal models by reported methods. Results and Discussion: The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. Elemental analyses data for each element analyzed (C, H, N) was found to be within acceptable range of ±0.4 %. Flavone derivatives, but in particular quercetin containing 1,4 dioxane ring system (10d) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity along with reduced gastrointestinal toxicity as compared to other synthesized compounds. The results of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of both the series are comparable with the positive control, diclofenac. Conclusion: Compound 10d, a quercetin derivative, emerged as a lead molecule which exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with significant reduced gastric toxicity.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, 1, 4 dioxane, coumarin, flavone

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428 An Adjoint-Based Method to Compute Derivatives with Respect to Bed Boundary Positions in Resistivity Measurements

Authors: Mostafa Shahriari, Theophile Chaumont-Frelet, David Pardo


Resistivity measurements are used to characterize the Earth’s subsurface. They are categorized into two different groups: (a) those acquired on the Earth’s surface, for instance, controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and Magnetotellurics (MT), and (b) those recorded with borehole logging instruments such as Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) devices. LWD instruments are mostly used for geo-steering purposes, i.e., to adjust dip and azimuthal angles of a well trajectory to drill along a particular geological target. Modern LWD tools measure all nine components of the magnetic field corresponding to three orthogonal transmitter and receiver orientations. In order to map the Earth’s subsurface and perform geo-steering, we invert measurements using a gradient-based method that utilizes the derivatives of the recorded measurements with respect to the inversion variables. For resistivity measurements, these inversion variables are usually the constant resistivity value of each layer and the bed boundary positions. It is well-known how to compute derivatives with respect to the constant resistivity value of each layer using semi-analytic or numerical methods. However, similar formulas for computing the derivatives with respect to bed boundary positions are unavailable. The main contribution of this work is to provide an adjoint-based formulation for computing derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions. The key idea to obtain the aforementioned adjoint state formulations for the derivatives is to separate the tangential and normal components of the field and treat them differently. This formulation allows us to compute the derivatives faster and more accurately than with traditional finite differences approximations. In the presentation, we shall first derive a formula for computing the derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions for the potential equation. Then, we shall extend our formulation to 3D Maxwell’s equations. Finally, by considering a 1D domain and reducing the dimensionality of the problem, which is a common practice in the inversion of resistivity measurements, we shall derive a formulation to compute the derivatives of the measurements with respect to the bed boundary positions using a 1.5D variational formulation. Then, we shall illustrate the accuracy and convergence properties of our formulations by comparing numerical results with the analytical derivatives for the potential equation. For the 1.5D Maxwell’s system, we shall compare our numerical results based on the proposed adjoint-based formulation vs those obtained with a traditional finite difference approach. Numerical results shall show that our proposed adjoint-based technique produces enhanced accuracy solutions while its cost is negligible, as opposed to the finite difference approach that requires the solution of one additional problem per derivative.

Keywords: inverse problem, bed boundary positions, electromagnetism, potential equation

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427 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani


A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.

Keywords: 3-benzyl substituted coumarin derivative, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), green synthesis, multicomponent reaction

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426 Linear fractional differential equations for second kind modified Bessel functions

Authors: Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin


Fractional derivatives have been considered recently as a way to solve different problems in Engineering. In this way, second kind modified Bessel functions are considered here. The order α fractional differential equations of second kind Bessel functions, Kᵥ(x), are studied with simple initial conditions. The Laplace transform and Caputo definition of fractional derivatives are considered. Solutions have been found for ν=1/3, 1/2, 2/3, -1/3, -1/2 and (-2/3). In these cases, the solutions are the sum of two hypergeometric functions. The α fractional derivatives have been for α=1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, and the above values of ν. No convergence has been found for the integer values of ν Furthermore when α has been considered as a rational found m/p, no general solution has been found. Clearly, this case is more difficult to treat than those of first kind Bessel Function.

Keywords: Caputo, modified Bessel functions, hypergeometric, linear fractional differential equations, transform Laplace

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425 Islamic Financial Instrument, Standard Parallel Salam as an Alternative to Conventional Derivatives

Authors: Alireza Naserpoor


Derivatives are the most important innovation which has happened in the past decades. When it comes to financial markets, it has changed the whole way of operations of stock, commodities and currency market. Beside a lot of advantages, Conventional derivatives contracts have some disadvantages too. Some problems have been caused by derivatives contain raising Volatility, increasing Bankruptcies and causing financial crises. Standard Parallel Salam contract as an Islamic financial product meanwhile is a financing instrument can be used for risk management by investors. Standard Parallel Salam is a Shari’ah-Compliant contract. Furthermore, it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. Despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries, This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. In this paper after introducing parallel Salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel Salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument and practical experience in Iran Mercantile Exchange about this instrument. Afterwards, we make a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivative. Standard parallel salam contract as an Islamic financial product, can be used for risk management by investors. SPS is a Shariah-Compliant contract. Furthermore it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries. In this article after introducing parallel salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument containing two main approaches in SPS using, And practical experience in IME about this instrument Afterwards, a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivatives.

Keywords: futures contracts, hedging, shari’ah compliant instruments, standard parallel salam

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424 Synthesis and Analgesic activity of 2-(p-Substituted phenyl)-3-[4-(N-Substituted amino) methyl-2-oxo indoilin-3-ylidene]benzenesulfonyl Quinazolin-4(3H)-One Derivatives

Authors: N. Gopal, K. Jaasminerjiit, L. Z. Xiang


Quinazoline-4(3H)-one ring system has been consistently regarded as promising privileged structural icon owing to its pharmacodynamic versatility in many of its synthetic derivatives as well as in several naturally occurring alkaloids. The literature reveals that 2nd & 3rd positions of the quinazolin-4(3H)-one pharmacophore are the target for substitution with other moieties. On the other hand, sulphanilamide derivatives and isatin moiety also displayed valuable biological activities. Hence, it was thought worthwhile to study the effects of three pharmacophoric moieties like quinazolinone, sulphanilamide and isatin in a single molecule for the better analgesic activity with lower toxicity. Series of novel 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives have been synthesised from the intermediate Schiff base of 2-(4’-substitutedphenyl)-3-[(N-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-4”-sulphonamidophenyl]-quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives, which was prepared from reacting 2-(substituted phenyl)-4H-benzo[d][1,3]-oxazin-4-one with sulphanilamide. The required benzoxazinone derivatives were prepared by reacting anthranilic acid with benzoyl chloride. All the compounds structure was characterised by using H1 NMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy. The intermediate Schiff base and final Mannich base compounds were evaluated for their analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing method at the dose of 25mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg (bw) and Diclofenac (25mg/kg of body weight) will be used as the reference drugs. From the results of the study, it has been observed that final Mannich base showed a better analgesic activity when compared to the parent Schiff bases, it was found that compound substituted with N-methyl piperazine at 1st position of the indole nucleus of the final quinazolinone derivatives (GA4B1) i.e. 2-(4’-methoxy phenyl)-3-[4-(N-(1-N-methyl piperazine amine) methyl-2-oxo indoilin-3-ylidene] benzenesulfonyl quinazolin-4(3H)-one increases the analgesic activity and among the synthesised compounds, GA4B1 exhibited quite superior analgesic activity. The remaining Schiff bases and Mannich base derivatives exhibited moderate analgesic activity. All the compounds showed a dose dependent activity. None of the synthesised compound showed ulcer index whereas the standard drug, diclofenac [25 mg/kg (bw)] showed significantly higher gross ulcer index values.

Keywords: analgesic activity, isatin, mannich base, quinazolin-4(3H)-one

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423 Chemometric Estimation of Inhibitory Activity of Benzimidazole Derivatives by Linear Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks Modelling

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Stela Jokić


The subject of this paper is to correlate antibacterial behavior of benzimidazole derivatives with their molecular characteristics using chemometric QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships) approach. QSAR analysis has been carried out on the inhibitory activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus. The data were processed by linear least squares (LLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The LLS mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for prediction of the inhibitory activity. The quality of the models was validated by leave one out (LOO) technique and by using external data set. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory acivities indicated the good quality of the derived models. These results are part of the CMST COST Action No. CM1306 "Understanding Movement and Mechanism in Molecular Machines".

Keywords: Antibacterial, benzimidazoles, chemometric, QSAR.

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422 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Helmi Temimi


In this paper, we study the super-convergence properties of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method applied to one-dimensional mth-order ordinary differential equations without introducing auxiliary variables. We found that nth−derivative of the DG solution exhibits an optimal O (hp+1−n) convergence rates in the L2-norm when p-degree piecewise polynomials with p≥1 are used. We further found that the odd-derivatives and the even derivatives are super convergent, respectively, at the upwind and downwind endpoints.

Keywords: discontinuous, galerkin, superconvergence, higherorder, error, estimates

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421 Price Heterogeneity in Establishing Real Estate Composite Price Index as Underlying Asset for Property Derivatives in Russia

Authors: Andrey Matyukhin


Russian official statistics have been showing a steady decline in residential real estate prices for several consecutive years. Price risk in real estate markets is thus affecting various groups of economic agents, namely, individuals, construction companies and financial institutions. Potential use of property derivatives might help mitigate adverse consequences of negative price dynamics. Unless a sustainable price indicator is developed, settlement of such instruments imposes constraints on counterparties involved while imposing restrictions on real estate market development. The study addresses geographical and classification heterogeneity in real estate prices by means of variance analysis in various groups of real estate properties. In conclusion, we determine optimal sample structure of representative real estate assets with sufficient level of price homogeneity. The composite price indicator based on the sample would have a higher level of robustness and reliability and hence improving liquidity in the market for property derivatives through underlying standardization. Unlike the majority of existing real estate price indices, calculated on country-wide basis, the optimal indices for Russian market shall be constructed on the city-level.

Keywords: price homogeneity, property derivatives, real estate price index, real estate price risk

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420 Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives as Bacterial Type IIA Topoisomerases Inhibitors

Authors: Paweł Stączek, Tomasz Plech, Aleksandra Strzelczyk, Katarzyna Dzitko, Monika Wujec, Edyta Kuśmierz, Piotr Paneth, Agata Paneth


In this contribution, we will describe the inhibitory potency of nine thiosemicarbazide derivatives against bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, their antibacterial profile, and molecular modeling evaluation. We have found that one of the tested compounds, 4-benzoyl-1-(2-methyl-furan-3-ylcarbonyl) thiosemicarbazide, remarkably inhibits the activity of S. aureus DNA gyrase with the IC50 below 5 μM. Besides, this compound displays antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus spp. and E. faecalis at non-cytotoxic concentrations in mammalian cells, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values at 25 μg/mL. Based on the enzymatic and molecular modeling studies we propose two factors, i.e. geometry of molecule and hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance as important molecular properties for developing thiosemicarbazide derivatives as potent Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase inhibitors.

Keywords: bioactivity, drug design, topoisomerase, molecular modeling

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