Search results for: derivatives
523 The Complete Modal Derivatives
Authors: Sebastian Andersen, Peter N. Poulsen
Abstract:The use of basis projection in the structural dynamic analysis is frequently applied. The purpose of the method is to improve the computational efficiency, while maintaining a high solution accuracy, by projection the governing equations onto a small set of carefully selected basis vectors. The present work considers basis projection in kinematic nonlinear systems with a focus on two widely used basis vectors; the system mode shapes and their modal derivatives. Particularly the latter basis vectors are given special attention since only approximate modal derivatives have been used until now. In the present work the complete modal derivatives, derived from perturbation methods, are presented and compared to the previously applied approximate modal derivatives. The correctness of the complete modal derivatives is illustrated by use of an example of a harmonically loaded kinematic nonlinear structure modeled by beam elements.
Keywords: basis projection, finite element method, kinematic nonlinearities, modal derivativesProcedia PDF Downloads 152
522 Novel Steviosides Analogs Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancers
Authors: Ahmed Malki
Abstract:Breast cancer has been identified as the most lethal form of cancer today. In our study, we designed and screened 16 steviosides derivatives for their cytotoxic activities in MCF-7human breast cancer cells and normal MCF-12a cells. Our data indicated that steviosides derivatives 9 and 15 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells more thannormal breast cells epithelial cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both steviosides, derivatives 9 and 15 arrested the MCF-7 cells in G1 phase, which is further confirmed by the increased expression level of p21. Moreover, both steviosides derivatives increased caspase-9 activity, and the induction of apoptosis was significantly reduced after treating cells with caspase-9 inhibitor LEHD-CHO. Both steviosides derivatives increased Caspase 3 activities and induced Parp-1 cleavage in H1299 cells. Based on previous results, we have identified two novel steviosides derivatives which provoked apoptosis in breast cancer cells by arresting cells in G1 phase and increasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities which merits further development and investigations.
Keywords: steviosides, breast cancer, p53, cell cycleProcedia PDF Downloads 45
521 Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) in the Synthesis of Pyrazolines
Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan
Abstract:Different Pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcone derivatives in presence of hydrazine hydrate. A series of novel 1,3,5-triaryl pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone and phenylhydrazine in the presence of the Fe3O4 NPs, in high yields. The structures of compounds obtained were determined by IR and 1H NMR spectra. Fe3O4 NPs was recycled and no appreciable change in activity was noticed after three cycles.
Keywords: pyrazoline, chalcone, nanoparticles, Fe3O4, catalyst, synthesisProcedia PDF Downloads 339
520 QSAR and Anti-Depressant Studies of Some Novel Phenothiazine Derivatives
Authors: D. L. Tambe, S. Dighe Nachiket
Abstract:Objective: Depression is a common but serious illness and the phenothiazine derivatives shows prominent effect against the depression hence work was undertaken to validate this use scientifically. Material and Methods: Synthesis of phenothiazine derivatives are done by the substitution of various groups, but the basic scheme of synthesis is started with synthesis of 4-(Cyclohexylidene) Benzoic acid using PABA. After that with the further six step of synthesis of 3-(10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)-N, 5-diphenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-amine is done which is final product. Antidepressant activity of all the synthesized compounds was evaluated by despair swim test by using Sprague Dawley Rats. Standard drug imipramine was used as the control. In the despair swim test, all the synthesized derivatives showed antidepressant activity. Results: Among the all phenothiazine derivatives four compounds (6.6-7.2 (14H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine),6.85-8.21(14H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 11.82 (1H – OH), 6.6-7.2 (8H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 4.2 (1H NH) and 6.85-8.21(8H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 3.9 (1H NH) 11.82 (1H – OH) showed significant antidepressant activity comparing with control drug imipramine. Conclusion: Various Novel phenothiazine derivatives show more potent antidepressant activity and it plays more beneficial role in human health for the treatment of depression.
Keywords: antidepressant activities, despair swim test, phenothiazine, Sprague Dawley RatsProcedia PDF Downloads 326
519 Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Some Organic Arylidene Derivatives
Authors: S. Sathiyamoorthi, P. Srinivasan, K. Suganya Devi
Abstract:Arylidene derivatives are the subclass of chalcone derivatives. Chalcone derivatives are studied widely for the past decade because of its nonlinearity. To seek new organic group of crystals which suit for fabrication of optical devices, three-member organic arylidene crystals were synthesized by using Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Good quality crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Optical transparency and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis-IR studies. Thermal stability and melting point were calculated using TGA and DSC. Variation of dielectric loss and dielectric constant with frequency were calculated by dielectric measurement.
Keywords: DSC and TGA studies, nonlinear optic studies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectraProcedia PDF Downloads 242
518 Design, Synthesis and in-vitro Antitumor Evaluation of Some Novel Substituted Quinazoline Derivatives
Authors: Adel S. El-Azab, Alaa A. M. Abdel-Aziz, Ibrahim A. Al-Suwaidan, Amer M. Alanazi
Abstract:A novel series of 2,3,6-trisubstitute quinazolinone were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in-vitro antitumor activity. 3 (Benzylideneamino)-6-chloro-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-One, 2-[(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]-N-(3,4;5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide and 3-(3-benzyl-6-methyl-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) propanamide have shown amazing broad spectrum antitumor activity with mean GI50; 15.8, 3.16, and 7.4 μM respectively compared to known Quinazoline Derivatives antitumor drug 5-FU mean GI50=22.6 μM.
Keywords: quinazoline derivatives, in vitro antitumor, synthesis, 5-FU, NCIProcedia PDF Downloads 468
517 A Study on the Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Hybrid Pyrazoline Integrated with Pyrazole and Thiazole Nuclei
Authors: Desta Gebretekle Shiferaw, Balakrishna Kalluraya
Abstract:Pyrazole is an aromatic five-membered heterocycle with two nitrogen and three carbon atoms in its ring structure. According to the literature, pyrazoline, pyrazole, and thiazole-containing moieties are found in various drug structures and are responsible for nearly all pharmacological effects. The pyrazoline linked to pyrazole moiety carbothioamides was synthesized via the reaction of pyrazole-bearing chalcones (3-(5-chloro-3-methyl-¹-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-¹-(substituted aryl) prop-2-ene-¹-one derivatives) with a nucleophile thiosemicarbohyrazide by heating in ethanol using fused sodium acetate as a catalyst. Then the carbothioamide derivatives were converted into the pyrazoline hybrid to pyrazole and thiazole derivatives by condensing with substituted phenacyl bromide in alcohol in a basic medium. Next, the chemical structure of the newly synthesized molecules was confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, and mass spectral data. Further, they were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity. Compared to butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA)., the antioxidant data showed that the synthesized compounds had good to moderate activity.
Keywords: pyrazoline-pyrazole carbothioamide derivatives, pyrazoline-pyrazole-thiazole derivatives, spectral studies, antioxidant activityProcedia PDF Downloads 17
516 Some Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Body and Hepato-Biliary System under the Influence of Hydrazine Derivatives
Authors: G. Y. Saspugayeva, R. R. Beysenova, M. R. Khanturin, E. T. Abseitov, K. B. Massenov
Abstract:This research is devoted to the problems of rocket fuel and impact of its derivatives on environment and living things. Hydrazine derivatives are used in different spheres, in aero-space activity, medical practice, laboratory-diagnosis practice and etc. For Kazakhstan, which has the cosmodrome "Baikonur", the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is important issue. An unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is mostly used as rocket fuel for launch vehicles which has high toxicity to humans and animals referred to the World Health Organization. The question about influence of hydrazine derivatives on human organism and ways of detoxication is very actual and requires special approaches in solving these problems. In connection with this situation, we set the goal: study the negative influence of hydrazine derivatives-hydrazine sulphur, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), phenylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) on some biochemical parameters of blood, hepatobiliary system and correction of functional damages of organism with “Salsocollin” drugs.
Keywords: isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), AlAT-alanine aminotransferase, AsAT-aspartate aminotransaminaseProcedia PDF Downloads 290
515 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance
Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi
Abstract:This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).
Keywords: binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, molecular docking, pc-3 cell line, staphylococcus aureus, steroidsProcedia PDF Downloads 294
514 An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Corporate Derivatives Use on the Underlying Stock Price Exposure: South African Evidence
Authors: Edson Vengesai
Abstract:Derivative products have become essential instruments in portfolio diversification, price discovery, and, most importantly, risk hedging. Derivatives are complex instruments; their valuation, volatility implications, and real impact on the underlying assets' behaviour are not well understood. Little is documented empirically, with conflicting conclusions on how these instruments affect firm risk exposures. Given the growing interest in using derivatives in risk management and portfolio engineering, this study examines the practical impact of derivative usage on the underlying stock price exposure and systematic risk. The paper uses data from South African listed firms. The study employs GARCH models to understand the effect of derivative uses on conditional stock volatility. The GMM models are used to estimate the effect of derivatives use on stocks' systematic risk as measured by Beta and on the total risk of stocks as measured by the standard deviation of returns. The results provide evidence on whether derivatives use is instrumental in reducing stock returns' systematic and total risk. The results are subjected to numerous controls for robustness, including financial leverage, firm size, growth opportunities, and macroeconomic effects.
Keywords: derivatives use, hedging, volatility, stock price exposureProcedia PDF Downloads 40
513 Overview of Risk Management in Electricity Markets Using Financial Derivatives
Authors: Aparna Viswanath
Abstract:Electricity spot prices are highly volatile under optimal generation capacity scenarios due to factors such as non-storability of electricity, peak demand at certain periods, generator outages, fuel uncertainty for renewable energy generators, huge investments and time needed for generation capacity expansion etc. As a result market participants are exposed to price and volume risk, which has led to the development of risk management practices. This paper provides an overview of risk management practices by market participants in electricity markets using financial derivatives.
Keywords: financial derivatives, forward, futures, options, risk managementProcedia PDF Downloads 415
512 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives
Authors: Hossein Mostafavi
Abstract:A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.
Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibitionProcedia PDF Downloads 76
511 Risk Management of Water Derivatives: A New Commodity in The Market
Authors: Daniel Mokatsanyane, Johnny Jansen Van Rensburg
Abstract:This paper is a concise introduction of the risk management on the water derivatives market. Water, a new commodity in the market, is one of the most important commodity on earth. As important to life and planet as crops, metals, and energy, none of them matters without water. This paper presents a brief overview of water as a tradable commodity via a new first of its kind futures contract on the Nasdaq Veles California Water Index (NQH2O) derivative instrument, TheGeneralised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) statistical model will be the used to measure the water price volatility of the instrument and its performance since it’s been traded. describe the main products and illustrate their usage in risk management and also discuss key challenges with modeling and valuation of water as a traded commodity and finally discuss how water derivatives may be taken as an alternative asset investment class.
Keywords: water derivatives, commodity market, nasdaq veles california water Index (NQH2O, water price, risk managementProcedia PDF Downloads 34
510 QSAR Study and Haptotropic Rearrangement in Estradiol Derivatives
Authors: Mohamed Abd Esselem Dems, Souhila Laib, Nadjia Latelli, Nadia Ouddai
Abstract:In this work, we have developed QSAR model for Relative Binding Affinity (RBA) of a large diverse set of estradiol among these derivatives, the organometallic derivatives. By dividing the dataset into a training set of 24 compounds and a test set of 6 compounds. The DFT method was used to calculate quantum chemical descriptors and physicochemical descriptors (MR and MLOGP) were performed using E-Dragon. All the validations indicated that the QSAR model built was robust and satisfactory (R2 = 90.12, Q2LOO = 86.61, RMSE = 0.272, F = 60.6473, Q2ext =86.07). We have therefore apply this model to predict the RBA, for two isomers β and α wherein Mn(CO)3 complex with the aromatic ring of estradiol, and the two isomers show little appreciation for the estrogenic receptor (RBAβ = 1.812 and RBAα = 1.741).
Keywords: DFT, estradiol, haptotropic rearrangement, QSAR, relative binding affinityProcedia PDF Downloads 221
509 Impact of Regulation on Trading in Financial Derivatives in Europe
Authors: H. Florianová, J. Nešleha
Abstract:Financial derivatives are considered to be risky investment instruments which could possibly bring another financial crisis. As prevention, European Union and its member states have released new legal acts adjusting this area of law in recent years. There have been several cases in history of capital markets worldwide where it was shown that legislature may affect behavior of subjects on capital markets. In our paper we analyze main events on selected European stock exchanges in order to apply them on three chosen markets - Czech capital market represented by Prague Stock Exchange, German capital market represented by Deutsche Börse and Polish capital market represented by Warsaw Stock Exchange. We follow time series of development of the sum of listed derivatives on these three stock exchanges in order to evaluate popularity of those exchanges. Afterwards we compare newly listed derivatives in relation to the speed of development of these exchanges. We also make a comparison between trends in derivatives and shares development. We explain how a legal regulation may affect situation on capital markets. If the regulation is too strict, potential investors or traders are not willing to undertake it and move to other markets. On the other hand, if the regulation is too vague, trading scandals occur and the market is not reliable from the prospect of potential investors or issuers. We see that making the regulation stricter usually discourages subjects to stay on the market immediately although making the regulation vaguer to interest more subjects is usually much slower process.
Keywords: capital markets, financial derivatives, investors' behavior, regulationProcedia PDF Downloads 205
508 Condensed Benzo, Pyrido, Pyrimidino-Imidazole Derivatives as Antidiabetic Agents
Authors: Fatima Doganc, Hakan Goker
Abstract:Benzimidazole moiety is an important pharmacophore and privileged structure for the medicinal chemists, since it exhibits various important biological activities. Some clinically used drugs have benzimidazole moiety, such as omeprazole, astemizole, albendazole and domperidone. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)benzimidazole, is a PGC-1α transcriptional regulator shown to have beneficial effects in diabetic mice. We planned to modify the structure of this compound for developing new antidiabetic drug candidates. Hence, a series of guanidino or amidino, benzo/pyrido/pyrimidino-imidazole derivatives were freshly prepared. Mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques were used for the new derivatives to clarify their structures and their purity was controlled through the elemental analysis. Antidiabetic activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.
Keywords: antidiabetic agents, benzimidazole, imidazopyridine, imidazopyrimidineProcedia PDF Downloads 289
507 Hypergeometric Solutions to Linear Nonhomogeneous Fractional Equations with Spherical Bessel Functions of the First Kind
Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass
Abstract:The use of fractional derivatives to different problems in Engineering and Physics has been increasing in the last decade. For this reason, we have here considered partial derivatives when the integral is a spherical Bessel function of the first kind in both regular and modified ones simple initial conditions have been also considered. In this way, the solution has been found as a combination of hypergeometric functions. The case of a general rational value for α of the fractional derivative α has been solved in a general way for alpha between zero and two. The modified spherical Bessel functions of the first kind have been also considered and how to go from the regular case to the modified one will be also shown.
Keywords: caputo fractional derivatives, hypergeometric functions, linear differential equations, spherical Bessel functionsProcedia PDF Downloads 188
506 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyridine Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
Authors: Dagim Ali Hussen, Adnan A. Bekhit, Ariaya Hymete
Abstract:In this study, several pyridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. Cereus), gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and fungus (C. albican and A niger). The intermediate chalcone derivative 2a,b was synthesized by condensation of pyrazole aldehydes 1a,b with acetophenone in alcoholic KOH. Cyclization of 2a,b with ethyl cyanoacetate ad ammonium acetate resulted in pyridine carbonitrile derivatives 3a,b. Furthermore, condensation of pyridine-4-carboxaldeyhe with different amino-derivatives gave rise to pyridine derivatives 5a,b, 6a,b. The oxadiazole derivative 7a was prepared by cyclization of 6a with acetic anhydride. Characterization of the synthesized compound was performed using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental microanalyses. The antimicrobial results revealed that compounds 5a, 6b and 7a exhibited half fold antibacterial activity compared to ampicillin, against B. cereus. On the other hand, compound 3b showed an equivalent activity compared to miconazole against candida albican (CANDAL 03) and to clotrimazole against the clinical isolate candida albican 6647. Moreover, this compound 3b was further tested for its acute toxicity profile. The results showed that oral LD50 is more that 300 mg/kg and parentral LD50 is more than 100 mg/kg. Compound 3b is a good candidate for antifungal agent with good toxicity profile, and deserves more chemical derivatization and clinical study.
Keywords: antifungal, antimicrobial, Candida albican, pyridineProcedia PDF Downloads 433
505 Usy-Cui Zeolite: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Derivatives Indole Synthesis
Authors: Hassina Harkat, Samiha Taybe, Salima Loucif, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale
Abstract:Indole and its derivatives have attracted great interest because of their importance in the synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry. They are widely used as anti hypertension, anti tubercular, anticancer activity, antiviral, Alzheimer's disease, antioxidant properties, and free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Many drugs and natural products contain indole moiety, such as the vinca alkaloids, fungal metabolites and marine natural products. Generally applicable synthetic methods for indole moiety involve ring closure to form the pyrrole. Indole derivatives can also be accessed by further functionalization of the indole nucleus. Therefore we report a mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of analogues of indole catalyzed via zeolithe USY doped with CuI under solvent-free conditions.
Keywords: indole, zeolithe, USY-CuI, heterogeneous catalysisProcedia PDF Downloads 500
504 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates
Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih
Abstract:Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.
Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesisProcedia PDF Downloads 244
503 The Effects of Seasonal Variation on the Microbial-N Flow to the Small Intestine and Prediction of Feed Intake in Grazing Karayaka Sheep
Authors: Mustafa Salman, Nurcan Cetinkaya, Zehra Selcuk, Bugra Genc
Abstract:The objectives of the present study were to estimate the microbial-N flow to the small intestine and to predict the digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) in grazing Karayaka sheep based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin) by the use of spot urine sampling under field conditions. In the trial, 10 Karayaka sheep from 2 to 3 years of age were used. The animals were grazed in a pasture for ten months and fed with concentrate and vetch plus oat hay for the other two months (January and February) indoors. Highly significant linear and cubic relationships (P<0.001) were found among months for purine derivatives index, purine derivatives excretion, purine derivatives absorption, microbial-N and DOMI. Through urine sampling and the determination of levels of excreted urinary PD and Purine Derivatives / Creatinine ratio (PDC index), microbial-N values were estimated and they indicated that the protein nutrition of the sheep was insufficient. In conclusion, the prediction of protein nutrition of sheep under the field conditions may be possible with the use of spot urine sampling, urinary excreted PD and PDC index. The mean purine derivative levels in spot urine samples from sheep were highest in June, July and October. Protein nutrition of pastured sheep may be affected by weather changes, including rainfall. Spot urine sampling may useful in modeling the feed consumption of pasturing sheep. However, further studies are required under different field conditions with different breeds of sheep to develop spot urine sampling as a model.
Keywords: Karayaka sheep, spot sampling, urinary purine derivatives, PDC index, microbial-N, feed intakeProcedia PDF Downloads 466
502 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents
Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid
Abstract:A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.
Keywords: antimalarial, quinoline, QSAR, PCA, MLR , MNLR, MLRProcedia PDF Downloads 94
501 A DFT-Based QSARs Study of Kovats Retention Indices of Adamantane Derivatives
Authors: Z. Bayat
Abstract:A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structures of 65 Kovats retention index (RI) of adamantane derivatives. Molecular descriptors derived solely from 3D structures of the molecular compounds. The usefulness of the quantum chemical descriptors, calculated at the level of the DFT theories using 6-311+G** basis set for QSAR study of adamantane derivatives was examined. The use of descriptors calculated only from molecular structure eliminates the need to experimental determination of properties for use in the correlation and allows for the estimation of RI for molecules not yet synthesized. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental value. A multi-parametric equation containing maximum Four descriptors at B3LYP/6-31+G** method with good statistical qualities (R2train=0.913, Ftrain=97.67, R2test=0.770, Ftest=3.21, Q2LOO=0.895, R2adj=0.904, Q2LGO=0.844) was obtained by Multiple Linear Regression using stepwise method.
Keywords: DFT, adamantane, QSAR, KovatProcedia PDF Downloads 305
500 On the Grid Technique by Approximating the Derivatives of the Solution of the Dirichlet Problems for (1+1) Dimensional Linear Schrodinger Equation
Authors: Lawrence A. Farinola
Abstract:Four point implicit schemes for the approximation of the first and pure second order derivatives for the solution of the Dirichlet problem for one dimensional Schrodinger equation with respect to the time variable t were constructed. Also, special four-point implicit difference boundary value problems are proposed for the first and pure second derivatives of the solution with respect to the spatial variable x. The Grid method is also applied to the mixed second derivative of the solution of the Linear Schrodinger time-dependent equation. It is assumed that the initial function belongs to the Holder space C⁸⁺ᵃ, 0 < α < 1, the Schrodinger wave function given in the Schrodinger equation is from the Holder space Cₓ,ₜ⁶⁺ᵃ, ³⁺ᵃ/², the boundary functions are from C⁴⁺ᵃ, and between the initial and the boundary functions the conjugation conditions of orders q = 0,1,2,3,4 are satisfied. It is proven that the solution of the proposed difference schemes converges uniformly on the grids of the order O(h²+ k) where h is the step size in x and k is the step size in time. Numerical experiments are illustrated to support the analysis made.
Keywords: approximation of derivatives, finite difference method, Schrödinger equation, uniform errorProcedia PDF Downloads 63
499 Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of 1,3,4-Mercaptooxadiazole Ether Derivatives Analogs as Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Molecular Docking Studies
Authors: Desta Gebretekle Shiferaw, Balakrishna Kalluraya
Abstract:Oxadiazoles and their derivatives with thioether functionalities represent a new and exciting class of physiologically active heterocyclic compounds. Several molecules with these moieties play a vital role in pharmaceuticals because of their diverse biological activities. This paper describes a new class of 1,3,4- oxadiazole-2-thioethers with acetophenone, coumarin, and N-phenyl acetamide residues (S-alkylation), with the hope that the addition of various biologically active molecules will have a synergistic effect on anticancer activity. The structure of the synthesized title compounds was determined by the combined methods of IR, proton-NMR, carbon-13-NMR, and mass spectrometry. Further, all the newly prepared molecules were assessed against their antioxidant activity. Furthermore, four compounds were assessed for their molecular docking interactions and cytotoxicity activity. The synthesized derivatives have shown moderate antioxidant activity compared to the standard BHA. The IC50 of the tilted molecules (11b, 11c, 13b, and 14b) observed for in vitro anti-cancer activities were 11.20, 15.73, 59.61, and 27.66 g/ml at 72-hour treatment time against the A549 cell lines, respectively. The tested compounds' biological evaluation showed that 11b is the most effective molecule in the series.
Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity activity, molecular docking, 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole-2 thioether derivativesProcedia PDF Downloads 19
498 Design, Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Coumarin and Flavone Derivatives Containing 1,4 Dioxane Ring System
Authors: Asif Husain, Shah Alam Khan
Abstract:Coumarins and flavones are oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds which are present in various biologically active compounds. Both the heterocyclic rings are associated with diverse biological actions, therefore considered as an important scaffold for the design of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of few coumrain and flavone derivatives containing 1,4 dioxane ring system. Materials and methods: Coumarin derivatives (3a-d) were synthesized by reacting 7,8 dihydroxy coumarin (2a) and its 4-methyl derivative (2b) with epichlorohydrin/ethylene dibromide. The flavone derivatives (10a-d) were prepared by using quercetin and 3,4 dihydroxy flavones. Compounds of both the series were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and ulcerogenicity in animal models by reported methods. Results and Discussion: The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. Elemental analyses data for each element analyzed (C, H, N) was found to be within acceptable range of ±0.4 %. Flavone derivatives, but in particular quercetin containing 1,4 dioxane ring system (10d) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity along with reduced gastrointestinal toxicity as compared to other synthesized compounds. The results of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of both the series are comparable with the positive control, diclofenac. Conclusion: Compound 10d, a quercetin derivative, emerged as a lead molecule which exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with significant reduced gastric toxicity.
Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, 1, 4 dioxane, coumarin, flavoneProcedia PDF Downloads 257
497 An Adjoint-Based Method to Compute Derivatives with Respect to Bed Boundary Positions in Resistivity Measurements
Authors: Mostafa Shahriari, Theophile Chaumont-Frelet, David Pardo
Abstract:Resistivity measurements are used to characterize the Earth’s subsurface. They are categorized into two different groups: (a) those acquired on the Earth’s surface, for instance, controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and Magnetotellurics (MT), and (b) those recorded with borehole logging instruments such as Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) devices. LWD instruments are mostly used for geo-steering purposes, i.e., to adjust dip and azimuthal angles of a well trajectory to drill along a particular geological target. Modern LWD tools measure all nine components of the magnetic field corresponding to three orthogonal transmitter and receiver orientations. In order to map the Earth’s subsurface and perform geo-steering, we invert measurements using a gradient-based method that utilizes the derivatives of the recorded measurements with respect to the inversion variables. For resistivity measurements, these inversion variables are usually the constant resistivity value of each layer and the bed boundary positions. It is well-known how to compute derivatives with respect to the constant resistivity value of each layer using semi-analytic or numerical methods. However, similar formulas for computing the derivatives with respect to bed boundary positions are unavailable. The main contribution of this work is to provide an adjoint-based formulation for computing derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions. The key idea to obtain the aforementioned adjoint state formulations for the derivatives is to separate the tangential and normal components of the field and treat them differently. This formulation allows us to compute the derivatives faster and more accurately than with traditional finite differences approximations. In the presentation, we shall first derive a formula for computing the derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions for the potential equation. Then, we shall extend our formulation to 3D Maxwell’s equations. Finally, by considering a 1D domain and reducing the dimensionality of the problem, which is a common practice in the inversion of resistivity measurements, we shall derive a formulation to compute the derivatives of the measurements with respect to the bed boundary positions using a 1.5D variational formulation. Then, we shall illustrate the accuracy and convergence properties of our formulations by comparing numerical results with the analytical derivatives for the potential equation. For the 1.5D Maxwell’s system, we shall compare our numerical results based on the proposed adjoint-based formulation vs those obtained with a traditional finite difference approach. Numerical results shall show that our proposed adjoint-based technique produces enhanced accuracy solutions while its cost is negligible, as opposed to the finite difference approach that requires the solution of one additional problem per derivative.
Keywords: inverse problem, bed boundary positions, electromagnetism, potential equationProcedia PDF Downloads 123
496 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives
Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani
Abstract:A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.
Keywords: 3-benzyl substituted coumarin derivative, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), green synthesis, multicomponent reactionProcedia PDF Downloads 311
495 Linear fractional differential equations for second kind modified Bessel functions
Authors: Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin
Abstract:Fractional derivatives have been considered recently as a way to solve different problems in Engineering. In this way, second kind modified Bessel functions are considered here. The order α fractional differential equations of second kind Bessel functions, Kᵥ(x), are studied with simple initial conditions. The Laplace transform and Caputo definition of fractional derivatives are considered. Solutions have been found for ν=1/3, 1/2, 2/3, -1/3, -1/2 and (-2/3). In these cases, the solutions are the sum of two hypergeometric functions. The α fractional derivatives have been for α=1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, and the above values of ν. No convergence has been found for the integer values of ν Furthermore when α has been considered as a rational found m/p, no general solution has been found. Clearly, this case is more difficult to treat than those of first kind Bessel Function.
Keywords: Caputo, modified Bessel functions, hypergeometric, linear fractional differential equations, transform LaplaceProcedia PDF Downloads 262
494 Islamic Financial Instrument, Standard Parallel Salam as an Alternative to Conventional Derivatives
Authors: Alireza Naserpoor
Abstract:Derivatives are the most important innovation which has happened in the past decades. When it comes to financial markets, it has changed the whole way of operations of stock, commodities and currency market. Beside a lot of advantages, Conventional derivatives contracts have some disadvantages too. Some problems have been caused by derivatives contain raising Volatility, increasing Bankruptcies and causing financial crises. Standard Parallel Salam contract as an Islamic financial product meanwhile is a financing instrument can be used for risk management by investors. Standard Parallel Salam is a Shari’ah-Compliant contract. Furthermore, it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. Despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries, This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. In this paper after introducing parallel Salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel Salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument and practical experience in Iran Mercantile Exchange about this instrument. Afterwards, we make a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivative. Standard parallel salam contract as an Islamic financial product, can be used for risk management by investors. SPS is a Shariah-Compliant contract. Furthermore it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries. In this article after introducing parallel salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument containing two main approaches in SPS using, And practical experience in IME about this instrument Afterwards, a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivatives.
Keywords: futures contracts, hedging, shari’ah compliant instruments, standard parallel salamProcedia PDF Downloads 316