Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1842

Search results for: shearing force

1842 Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model

Authors: Prathuang Usaborisut, Dithaporn Thungsotanon


Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated to sugarcane productivity. Soil beneath the tractor’s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help to understand such effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with increase of number of tire’s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force, the maximum error was about 16%.

Keywords: draft force, soil compaction model, stress state, tractive tire

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1841 A New Correlation Between SPT-N and SSPT-N values for Various Soil Types in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Abdull Halim


The Standard Penetration Test (SPT-N) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. The Shearing Seismic Standard Penetration Test (SSPT-N), on the other hand, is a new method using shearing wave with propagation exponent equation between the shearing wave, Vs., and hardness, N values without any need for borehole data. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained, the SSPT has found many applications such as in the field rectification buried pipe line, the acid tank settlement and foundation design analyses, and the quality control assessment. Many geotechnical regimes and properties have attempted to correlate both the SSPT and the SPT-N values. Various foundation design methods have been developed based on the outcomes of these tests. Hence, it is pertinent to correlate these tests so that either one of the test can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SSPT-N and SPT-N values for different types of cohesive soil in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected from four different sites, and the correlations were established between the hardness N values, principal stress-strain Mohr circle curve, cohesion, friction angle and vertical effective stress. A positive exponent relationship was found between the shearing wave, sVs., and the hardness N values of the soil. In general, the SSPT-N value was slightly lower than the SPT-N value due to the upper limit boundary of the soil layer.

Keywords: InsituSoil determination; shearing wave; hardness; correlation, SSPT-N, SPT-N

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1840 Treatment of Interferograms Image of Perturbation Processes in Metallic Samples by Optical Method

Authors: Daira Radouane, Naim Boudmagh, Hamada Adel


The but of this handling is to use the technique of the shearing with a mechanism lapping machine of image: a prism of Wollaston. We want to characterize this prism in order to be able to employ it later on in an analysis by shearing. A prism of Wollaston is a prism produced in a birefringent material i.e. having two indexes of refraction. This prism is cleaved so as to present the directions associated with these indices in its face with entry. It should be noted that these directions are perpendicular between them.

Keywords: non destructive control, aluminium, interferometry, treatment of image

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1839 Cement Bond Characteristics of Artificially Fabricated Sandstones

Authors: Ashirgul Kozhagulova, Ainash Shabdirova, Galym Tokazhanov, Minh Nguyen


The synthetic rocks have been advantageous over the natural rocks in terms of availability and the consistent studying the impact of a particular parameter. The artificial rocks can be fabricated using variety of techniques such as mixing sand and Portland cement or gypsum, firing the mixture of sand and fine powder of borosilicate glass or by in-situ precipitation of calcite solution. In this study, sodium silicate solution has been used as the cementing agent for the quartz sand. The molded soft cylindrical sandstone samples are placed in the gas-tight pressure vessel, where the hardening of the material takes place as the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and the silicate solution progresses. The vessel allows uniform disperse of carbon dioxide and control over the ambient gas pressure. Current paper shows how the bonding material is initially distributed in the intergranular space and the surface of the sand particles by the usage of Electron Microscopy and the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. During the study, the strength of the cement bond as a function of temperature is observed. The impact of cementing agent dosage on the micro and macro characteristics of the sandstone is investigated. The analysis of the cement bond at micro level helps to trace the changes to particles bonding damage after a potential yielding. Shearing behavior and compressional response have been examined resulting in the estimation of the shearing resistance and cohesion force of the sandstone. These are considered to be main input values to the mathematical prediction models of sand production from weak clastic oil reservoir formations.

Keywords: artificial sanstone, cement bond, microstructure, SEM, triaxial shearing

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1838 Laser-TIG Welding-Brazing for Dissimilar Metals between Aluminum Alloy and Steel

Authors: Xiangfang Xu, Bintao Wu, Yugang Miao, Duanfeng Han


Experiments were conducted on 5A06 aluminum alloy and Q235 steel using the laser-TIG hybrid heat source welding-brazing method to realize the reliable connection of Al/Fe dissimilar metals and the welding characteristics were analyzed. It was found that the joints with uniform seam and high tensile strength could be obtained using such a method, while the welding process demanded special welding parameters. Spectrum measurements showed that the Al and Fe atoms diffused more thoroughly at the brazing interface and formed a 3μm-thick intermetallic compound layer at the Al/Fe joints brazed connection interface. Shearing tests indicated that the shearing strength of the Al/Fe welding-brazed joint was 165MPa. The fracture occurred near the melting zone of aluminum alloy, which belonged to the mixed mode with the ductile fracture as the base and the brittle fracture as the supplement.

Keywords: Al/Fe dissimilar metals, laser-TIG hybrid heat source, shearing strength, welding-brazing method

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1837 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa


This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

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1836 Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System

Authors: S. Pushkar, O. Verbitsky


Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected. Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities, and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs, whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area + Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design, neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bio-climatic and passive solar aspects.

Keywords: green rating system, urban community, sustainable design, standardization, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture

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1835 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

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1834 A Method to Determine Cutting Force Coefficients in Turning Using Mechanistic Approach

Authors: T. C. Bera, A. Bansal, D. Nema


During performing turning operation, cutting force plays a significant role in metal cutting process affecting tool-work piece deflection, vibration and eventually part quality. The present research work aims to develop a mechanistic cutting force model and to study the mechanistic constants used in the force model in case of turning operation. The proposed model can be used for the reliable and accurate estimation of the cutting forces establishing relationship of various force components (cutting force and feed force) with uncut chip thickness. The accurate estimation of cutting force is required to improve thin-walled part accuracy by controlling the tool-work piece deflection induced surface errors and tool-work piece vibration.

Keywords: turning, cutting forces, cutting constants, uncut chip thickness

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1833 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh


This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1832 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song


An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024 aluminum, friction stir joining

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1831 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Sheng-Che Chen, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chih-Han Chang


Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors, occlusal force, piezoelectric

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1830 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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1829 Behavior of Beam-Column Nodes Reinforced Concrete in Earthquake Zones

Authors: Zaidour Mohamed, Ghalem Ali Jr., Achit Henni Mohamed


This project is destined to study pole junctions of reinforced concrete beams subjected to seismic loads. A literature review was made to clarify the work done by researchers in the last three decades and especially the results of the last two years that were studied for the determination of the method of calculating the transverse reinforcement in the different nodes of a structure. For implementation efforts in the columns and beams of a building R + 4 in zone 3 were calculated using the finite element method through software. These results are the basis of our work which led to the calculation of the transverse reinforcement of the nodes of the structure in question.

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

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1828 Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor

Authors: ByoungJoon Yu, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park


The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, PSC girder, EM sensor simulation, cross section loss

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1827 Research on Robot Adaptive Polishing Control Technology

Authors: Yi Ming Zhang, Zhan Xi Wang, Hang Chen, Gang Wang


Manual polishing has problems such as high labor intensity, low production efficiency and difficulty in guaranteeing the consistency of polishing quality. It is more and more necessary to replace manual polishing with robot polishing. Polishing force directly affects the quality of polishing, so accurate tracking and control of polishing force is one of the most important conditions for improving the accuracy of robot polishing. The traditional force control strategy is difficult to adapt to the strong coupling of force control and position control during the robot polishing process. Therefore, based on the analysis of force-based impedance control and position-based impedance control, this paper proposed a new type of adaptive controller. Based on force feedback control of active compliance control, the controller can adaptively estimate the stiffness and position of the external environment and eliminate the steady-state force error produced by traditional impedance control. The simulation results of the model shows that the adaptive controller has good adaptability to changing environmental positions and environmental stiffness, and can accurately track and control polishing force.

Keywords: robot polishing, force feedback, impedance control, adaptive control

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1826 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1825 Comparative Analysis of Residual Shear Depiction and Grain Distribution Characteristics of Slide Soil Profile Sections

Authors: Ephrem Getahun, Shengwen Qi, Songfeng Guo, Yu Zou, Melesse Alemayehu


Residual shear characteristics of slide soil profile sections (SSPS) were examined using ring shear tests to know the relative residual shear behaviors among the sections of slide soil. The multistage-multiphase shearing techniques were employed to perform the experiment for each soil specimen continuously towards large displacements. The grain distribution analysis of SSPS samples was characterized by coarsening upward from bottom slip to the top sections; however, the slip surface was considered as a sheared zone that endorses their low shear resistance for failure. There is an average range of 1-2.5 mm axial displacement on each stage of loadings and phases of shearing that depicts the significant effect of dilation and compression of soil specimen. The middle section has the largest consolidation percentage (10-29%), and vertical displacement compared to other sections and showed high shear strengthening behavior having maximum shear stress of 189kPa at 240kPa loading compared to basal and top sections. It is found that the middle section of SSPS has relatively high shear resistance behavior for large displacement shearing. The residual shear assessment indicates that there is a significant influence of large displacement and rate on the friction coefficient behaviors; it resulted in shear weakening effect to attain their residual condition.

Keywords: comparison, displacements, residual shear stress, shear behavior, slide soils

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1824 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly


The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

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1823 Slope Stability of an Earthen Levee Strengthened by HPTRM under Turbulent Overtopping Conditions

Authors: Fashad Amini, Lin Li


High performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is one of the most advanced flexible armoring technologies for severe erosion challenges. The effect of turbulence on the slope stability of an earthen levee strengthened by high performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is investigated in this study for combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. The results show that turbulence has strong influence on the slope stability during the combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. Among the surge height, peak wave force and turbulent force. The turbulent force has the ability to stabilize the earthen levee at the large wave force the turbulent force has strongest effect on the FS. The surge storm acts as an independent force on the slope stability of the earthen levee. It just adds to the effects of the turbulent force and wave force on the slope stability of HPTRM strengthened levee.

Keywords: slope stability, strength reduction method, HPTRM, levee, overtopping

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1822 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1821 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

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1820 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene


This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: mathematical model, Matlab, PMLSM, control, linearization, estimator, force, load, current

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1819 Development of a Force-Sensing Toothbrush for Gum Recession Measurement Using Programmable Automation Controller

Authors: Sorayya Kazemi, Hamed Kharrati, Mehdi Abedinpour Fallah


This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel electric pressure-sensitive toothbrush, capable of measuring the forces applied to the head of the brush. The developed device is used for gum recession measurement. In particular, the percentage of gum recession is measured by a Programmable Automation controller (PAC). Moreover, the brushing forces are measured by a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) sensor. These forces are analog inputs of PAC. According to the applied forces during patient’s brushing and the patient’s percentage of gum recession, dentist sets the standard force range. The instrument alarms when the patient applies a force over the set range.

Keywords: gum recession, force sensing resistor, controller, toothbrush

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1818 Modeling and Behavior of Structural Walls

Authors: Salima Djehaichia, Rachid Lassoued


Reinforced concrete structural walls are very efficient elements for protecting buildings against excessive early damage and against collapse under earthquake actions. It is therefore of interest to develop a numerical model which simulates the typical behavior of these units, this paper presents and describes different modeling techniques that have been used by researchers and their advantages and limitations mentioned. The earthquake of Boumerdes in 2003 has demonstrated the fragility of structures and total neglect of sismique design rules in the realization of old buildings. Significant damage and destruction of buildings caused by this earthquake are not due to the choice of type of material, but the design and the study does not congruent with seismic code requirements and bad quality of materials. For idealizing the failure of rules, a parametric study focuses on: low rate of reinforcements, type of reinforcement, resistance moderate of concrete. As an application the modeling strategy based on finite elements combined with a discretization of wall more solicited by successive thin layers. The estimated performance level achieved during a seismic action is obtained from capacity curves under incrementally increasing loads. Using a pushover analysis, a characteristic non linear force-displacement relationship can be determined. The results of numeric model are confronted with those of Algerian Para seismic Rules (RPA) in force have allowed the determination of profits in terms of displacement, shearing action, ductility.

Keywords: modeling, old building, pushover analysis, structural walls

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1817 Identification of Force Vector on an Elastic Solid Using an Embeded PVDF Senor Array

Authors: Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Jie Pan


Identifying the magnitude and direction of a force on an elastic solid is highly desirable, as this allows for investigation and continual monitoring of the dynamic loading. This was traditionally conducted by connecting the solid to the supporting structure by multi-axial force transducer, providing that the transducer will not change the mounting conditions. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is a versatile force transducer that can be easily embedded in structures. Here a PVDF sensor array is embedded inside a simple structure in an effort to determine the force vector applied to the structure is an inverse problem. In this paper, forces of different magnitudes and directions where applied to the structure with an impact hammer, and the output of the PVDF was captured and processed to gain an estimate of the forces applied by the hammer. The outcome extends the scope of application of PVDF sensors for measuring the external or contact force vectors.

Keywords: embedded sensor, monitoring, PVDF, vibration

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1816 Accurate Cortical Reconstruction in Narrow Sulci with Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) Vector Field

Authors: Somojit Saha, Rohit K. Chatterjee, Sarit K. Das, Avijit Kar


A new force field is designed for propagation of the parametric contour into deep narrow cortical fold in the application of knowledge based reconstruction of cerebral cortex from MR image of brain. Designing of this force field is highly inspired by the Generalized Gradient Vector Flow (GGVF) model and markedly differs in manipulation of image information in order to determine the direction of propagation of the contour. While GGVF uses edge map as its main driving force, the newly designed force field uses the map of distance between zero valued pixels and their nearest non-zero valued pixel as its main driving force. Hence, it is called Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) force field. The objective of this force field is forceful propagation of the contour beyond spurious convergence due to partial volume effect (PVE) in to narrow sulcal fold. Being function of the corresponding non-zero pixel value, the force field has got an inherent property to determine spuriousness of the edge automatically. It is effectively applied along with some morphological processing in the application of cortical reconstruction to breach the hindrance of PVE in narrow sulci where conventional GGVF fails.

Keywords: deformable model, external force field, partial volume effect, cortical reconstruction, MR image of brain

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1815 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar


The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

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1814 A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors

Authors: Nicolay Zarutskiy, Roman Bulkin


The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality.

Keywords: automation, calibration, calibration device, calibration method, force-torque sensors

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1813 Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing

Authors: Hassam Ahmed, Yuanzhi Liu, Yassine Selami, Wei Tao, Hui Zhao


The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.

Keywords: bearing, force measurement, IoT, strain gauge

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