Search results for: CO2 capture
1035 Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review
Authors: Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse, Lukman
Abstract:Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.
Keywords: knowledge capture, ontology, technology, organizationProcedia PDF Downloads 529
1034 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System
Authors: Taekyoon Park, Seokgoo Lee, Sungho Kim, Ung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Chonghun Han
Abstract:CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.
Keywords: CCS, caron dioxide, carbon capture and storage, simulation, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 274
1033 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision
Authors: Najm Alotaibi
Abstract:Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.
Keywords: human motion capture, computer vision, vision-based, trackingProcedia PDF Downloads 258
1032 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized
Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim
Abstract:In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.
Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1031 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems
Abstract:We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.
Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fitProcedia PDF Downloads 257
1030 Atmospheric CO2 Capture via Temperature/Vacuum Swing Adsorption in SIFSIX-3-Ni
Authors: Eleni Tsalaporta, Sebastien Vaesen, James M. D. MacElroy, Wolfgang Schmitt
Abstract:Carbon dioxide capture has attracted the attention of many governments, industries and scientists over the last few decades, due to the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 composition, with several studies being conducted in this area over the last few years. In many of these studies, CO2 capture in complex Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) cycles has been associated with high energy consumption despite the promising capture performance of such processes. The purpose of this study is the economic capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide for its transformation into a clean type of energy. A single column Temperature /Vacuum Swing Adsorption (TSA/VSA) process is proposed as an alternative option to multi column Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) processes. The proposed adsorbent is SIFSIX-3-Ni, a newly developed MOF (Metal Organic Framework), with extended CO2 selectivity and capacity. There are three stages involved in this paper: (i) SIFSIX-3-Ni is synthesized and pelletized and its physical and chemical properties are examined before and after the pelletization process, (ii) experiments are designed and undertaken for the estimation of the diffusion and adsorption parameters and limitations for CO2 undergoing capture from the air; and (iii) the CO2 adsorption capacity and dynamical characteristics of SIFSIX-3-Ni are investigated both experimentally and mathematically by employing a single column TSA/VSA, for the capture of atmospheric CO2. This work is further supported by a technical-economical study for the estimation of the investment cost and the energy consumption of the single column TSA/VSA process. The simulations are performed using gProms.
Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, temperature/vacuum swing adsorption, metal organic frameworks, SIFSIX-3-NiProcedia PDF Downloads 156
1029 A Study on the Establishment of a 4-Joint Based Motion Capture System and Data Acquisition
Authors: Kyeong-Ri Ko, Seong Bong Bae, Jang Sik Choi, Sung Bum Pan
Abstract:A simple method for testing the posture imbalance of the human body is to check for differences in the bilateral shoulder and pelvic height of the target. In this paper, to check for spinal disorders the authors have studied ways to establish a motion capture system to obtain and express motions of 4-joints, and to acquire data based on this system. The 4 sensors are attached to the both shoulders and pelvis. To verify the established system, the normal and abnormal postures of the targets listening to a lecture were obtained using the established 4-joint based motion capture system. From the results, it was confirmed that the motions taken by the target was identical to the 3-dimensional simulation.
Keywords: inertial sensor, motion capture, motion data acquisition, posture imbalanceProcedia PDF Downloads 406
1028 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India
Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg
Abstract:The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.
Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery, geological formations, stakeholdersProcedia PDF Downloads 372
1027 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration
Authors: Ankur Sachan
Abstract:Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.
Keywords: carbon capture, CCUS, sustainability, oilProcedia PDF Downloads 456
1026 Effect of Anion Variation on the CO2 Capture Performance of Pyridinium Containing Poly(ionic liquid)s
Authors: Sonia Zulfiqar, Daniele Mantione, Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar, Alexander Rothenberger, David Mecerreyes
Abstract:Climate change due to escalating carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is an issue of paramount importance that needs immediate attention. CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is a promising route to mitigate climate change and adsorption is the most widely recognized technology owing to possible energy savings relative to the conventional absorption techniques. In this conference, the potential of a new family of solid sorbents for CO2 capture and separation will be presented. Novel pyridinium containing poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) were synthesized with varying anions i.e bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and hexafluorophosphate. The resulting polymers were characterized using NMR, XRD, TGA, BET surface area and microscopic techniques. Furthermore, CO2 adsorption measurements at two different temperatures were also carried out and revealed great potential of these PILs as CO2 scavengers.
Keywords: climate change, CO2 capture, poly(ionic liquid)s, CO2/N2 selectivityProcedia PDF Downloads 299
1025 Analysis of CO₂ Capture Products from Carbon Capture and Utilization Plant
Authors: Bongjae Lee, Beom Goo Hwang, Hye Mi Park
Abstract:CO₂ capture products manufactured through Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) Plant that collect CO₂ directly from power plants require accurate measurements of the amount of CO₂ captured. For this purpose, two tests were carried out on the weight loss test. And one was analyzed using a carbon dioxide quantification device. First, the ignition loss analysis was performed by measuring the weight of the sample at 550°C after the first conversation and then confirming the loss when ignited at 950°C. Second, in the thermogravimetric analysis, the sample was divided into two sections of 40 to 500°C and 500 to 800°C to confirm the reduction. The results of thermal weight loss analysis and thermogravimetric analysis were confirmed to be almost similar. However, the temperature of the ignition loss analysis method was 950°C, which was 150°C higher than that of the thermogravimetric method at a temperature of 800°C, so that the difference in the amount of weight loss was 3 to 4% higher by the heat loss analysis method. In addition, the tendency that the CO₂ content increases as the reaction time become longer is similarly confirmed. Third, the results of the wet titration method through the carbon dioxide quantification device were found to be significantly lower than the weight loss method. Therefore, based on the results obtained through the above three analysis methods, we will establish a method to analyze the accurate amount of CO₂. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and planning (No. 20152010201850).
Keywords: carbon capture and utilization, CCU, CO2, CO2 capture products, analysis methodProcedia PDF Downloads 152
1024 Estimation of Energy Efficiency of Blue Hydrogen Production Onboard of Ships
Authors: Li Chin Law, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Mohd Roslee Othman, Antonis Trakakis
Abstract:The paper introduces an alternative concept of carbon capture for shipping by using pre-combustion carbon capture technology (Pre-CCS), which was proven to be less energy intensive than post-combustion carbon capture from the engine exhaust. Energy assessment on amine-based post-combustion CCS on LNG-fuelled ships showed that the energy efficiency of CCS ships reduced from 48% to 36.6%. Then, an energy assessment was carried out to compare the power and heat requirements of the most used hydrogen production methods and carbon capture technologies. Steam methane reformer (SMR) was found to be 20% more energy efficient and achieved a higher methane conversion than auto thermal reaction and methane decomposition. Next, pressure swing adsorber (PSA) has shown a lower energy requirement than membrane separation, cryogenic separation, and amine absorption in pre-combustion carbon capture. Hence, an integrated system combining SMR and PSA (SMR-PSA) with waste heat integration (WHR) was proposed. This optimized SMR-based integrated system has achieved 65% of CO₂ reduction with less than 7-percentage point of energy penalty (41.7% of energy efficiency). Further integration of post-combustion CCS with the SMR-PSA integrated system improved carbon capture rate to 86.3% with 9-percentage points of energy penalty (39% energy efficiency). The proposed system was shown to be able to meet the carbon reduction targets set by International Maritime Organization (IMO) with certain energy penalties.
Keywords: shipping, decarbonisation, alternative fuels, low carbon, hydrogen, carbon captureProcedia PDF Downloads 17
1023 Statistical Analysis and Optimization of a Process for CO2 Capture
Authors: Muftah H. El-Naas, Ameera F. Mohammad, Mabruk I. Suleiman, Mohamed Al Musharfy, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi
Abstract:CO2 capture and storage technologies play a significant role in contributing to the control of climate change through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The present study evaluates and optimizes CO2 capture through a process, where carbon dioxide is passed into pH adjusted high salinity water and reacted with sodium chloride to form a precipitate of sodium bicarbonate. This process is based on a modified Solvay process with higher CO2 capture efficiency, higher sodium removal, and higher pH level without the use of ammonia. The process was tested in a bubble column semi-batch reactor and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). CO2 capture efficiency and sodium removal were optimized in terms of major operating parameters based on four levels and variables in Central Composite Design (CCD). The operating parameters were gas flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), reactor temperature (10 to 50 oC), buffer concentration (0.2-2.6%) and water salinity (25-197 g NaCl/L). The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial using multiple regression and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained using response optimizer. The optimum conditions were tested experimentally using desalination reject brine with salinity ranging from 65,000 to 75,000 mg/L. The CO2 capture efficiency in 180 min was 99% and the maximum sodium removal was 35%. The experimental and predicted values were within 95% confidence interval, which demonstrates that the developed model can successfully predict the capture efficiency and sodium removal using the modified Solvay method.
Keywords: CO2 capture, water desalination, Response Surface Methodology, bubble column reactorProcedia PDF Downloads 229
1022 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations using the Teacher´s Tablet PC
Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquin Salvachua, Juan Quemada
Abstract:Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced costs and size while at the same time has increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures of a course in our university called “Communications Software”. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.
Keywords: recording system, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recordingProcedia PDF Downloads 209
1021 CO₂ Capture by Membrane Applied to Steel Production Process
Authors: Alexandra-Veronica Luca, Letitia Petrescu
Abstract:Steel production is a major contributor to global warming potential. An average value of 1.83 tons of CO₂ is emitted for every ton of steel produced, resulting in over 3.3 Mt of CO₂ emissions each year. The present paper is focused on the investigation and comparison of two O₂ separation methods and two CO₂ capture technologies applicable to iron and steel industry. The O₂ used in steel production comes from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) using distillation or from air separation using membranes. The CO₂ capture technologies are represented by a two-stage membrane separation process and the gas-liquid absorption using methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA). Process modelling and simulation tools, as well as environmental tools, are used in the present study. The production capacity of the steel mill is 4,000,000 tones/year. In order to compare the two CO₂ capture technologies in terms of efficiency, performance, and sustainability, the following cases have been investigated: Case 1: steel production using O₂ from ASU and no CO₂ capture; Case 2: steel production using O₂ from ASU and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture; Case 3: steel production using O₂ from ASU and membranes for CO₂ capture; Case 4: steel production using O₂ from membrane separation method and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture and Case-5: steel production using membranes for air separation and CO₂ capture. The O₂ separation rate obtained in the distillation technology was about 96%, and about 33% in the membrane technology. Similarly, the O₂ purity resulting in the conventional process (i.e. distillation) is higher compared to the O₂ purity obtained in the membrane unit (e.g., 99.50% vs. 73.66%). The air flow-rate required for membrane separation is about three times higher compared to the air flow-rate for cryogenic distillation (e.g., 549,096.93 kg/h vs. 189,743.82 kg/h). A CO₂ capture rate of 93.97% was obtained in the membrane case, while the CO₂ capture rate for the gas-liquid absorption was 89.97%. A quantity of 6,626.49 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 95.45% is separated from the total 23,352.83 kg/h flue-gas in the membrane process, while with absorption of 6,173.94 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 98.79% is obtained from 21,902.04 kg/h flue-gas and 156,041.80 kg/h MDEA is recycled. The simulation results, performed using ChemCAD process simulator software, lead to the conclusion that membrane-based technology can be a suitable alternative for CO₂ removal for steel production. An environmental evaluation using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was also performed. Considering the electricity consumption, the performance, and environmental indicators, Case 3 can be considered the most effective. The environmental evaluation, performed using GaBi software, shows that membrane technology can lead to lower environmental emissions if membrane production is based on benzene derived from toluene hydrodealkilation and chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced using mixed technologies.
Keywords: CO₂ capture, gas-liquid absorption, Life Cycle Assessment, membrane separation, steel productionProcedia PDF Downloads 175
1020 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito
Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja
Abstract:This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.
Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensorProcedia PDF Downloads 294
1019 Sampling Error and Its Implication for Capture Fisheries Management in Ghana
Authors: Temiloluwa J. Akinyemi, Denis W. Aheto, Wisdom Akpalu
Abstract:Capture fisheries in developing countries provide significant animal protein and directly supports the livelihoods of several communities. However, the misperception of biophysical dynamics owing to a lack of adequate scientific data has contributed to the suboptimal management in marine capture fisheries. This is because yield and catch potentials are sensitive to the quality of catch and effort data. Yet, studies on fisheries data collection practices in developing countries are hard to find. This study investigates the data collection methods utilized by fisheries technical officers within the four fishing regions of Ghana. We found that the officers employed data collection and sampling procedures which were not consistent with the technical guidelines curated by FAO. For example, 50 instead of 166 landing sites were sampled, while 290 instead of 372 canoes were sampled. We argue that such sampling errors could result in the over-capitalization of capture fish stocks and significant losses in resource rents.
Keywords: Fisheries data quality, fisheries management, Ghana, Sustainable FisheriesProcedia PDF Downloads 23
1018 Electrospinning Preparation of Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane/Polystyrene Nanofibrous Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture
Authors: Chia-Yu Chang, Yi-Feng Lin
Abstract:CO2 capture has attracted significant research attention due to global warming. Among the various CO2 capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO2 due to the ease at which this technology can be scaled up, its low energy consumptions, small area requirements and overall environmental friendliness for use by industrial plants. Capturing CO2 is to use a membrane contactor with a combination of water-repellent porous membranes and chemical absorption processes. In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polystyrene (PS) Nanofibrous Membranes and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PS nanofibrous membranes, the PDMS/PS nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.
Keywords: CO2 capture, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, superhydrophobicProcedia PDF Downloads 320
1017 Mobilizing Resources for Social Entrepreneurial Opportunity: A Framework of Engagement Strategy
Authors: Balram Bhushan
Abstract:The emergence of social entrepreneurship challenges the strict categorization of not-for-profit, for-profit and hybrid organizations. Although the blurring of boundaries helps social entrepreneurial organizations (SEOs) make better use of emerging opportunities, it poses a significant challenge while mobilizing money from different sources. Additionally, for monetary resources, the legal framework of the host country may further complicate the issue by imposing strict accounting standards. Under such circumstances, the resource providers fail to recognize the suitable engagement strategy with the SEO of their choice. Based on the process of value creation and value capture, this paper develops a guiding framework for resource providers to design an appropriate mix of engagement with the identified SEOs. Essentially, social entrepreneurship creates value at the societal level, but value capture is a characteristic of an organization. Additionally, SEOs prefer value creation over value capture. The paper argued that the nature of the relationship between value creation and value capture determines the extent of blurred boundaries of the organization. Accordingly, synergistic, antagonistic and sequential relationships were proposed between value capture and value creation. When value creation is synergistically associated with value creation, the preferred nature of such action falls within the nature of for-profit organizations within the strictest legal framework. Banks offering micro-loans are good examples of this category. Opposite to this, the antagonist relationship between value creation and value capture, where value capture opportunities are sacrificed for value creation, dictates non-profit organizational structure. Examples of this category include non-government organizations and charity organizations. Finally, the sequential relationship between value capture opportunities is followed for value creation opportunities and guides the action closer to the hybrid structure. Examples of this category include organizations where a non-for-profit unit controls for-profit units of the organization either legally or structurally. As an SEO may attempt to utilize multiple entrepreneurial opportunities falling across any of the three relationships between value creation and value capture, the resource providers need to evaluate an appropriate mix of these relationships before designing their engagement strategies. The paper suggests three guiding principles for the engagement strategy. First, the extent of investment should be proportional to the synergistic relationship between value capture and value creation. Second, the subsidized support should be proportional to the sequential relationship. Finally, the funding (charity contribution) should be proportional to the antagonistic relationship. Finally, the resource providers are needed to keep a close watch on the evolving relationship between value creation and value capture for introducing appropriate changes in their engagement strategy.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, value creation, value capture, entrepreneurial opportunityProcedia PDF Downloads 69
1016 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams
Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry
Abstract:In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.
Keywords: complex potential, conformal mapping, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principleProcedia PDF Downloads 363
1015 Motion Capture Based Wizard of Oz Technique for Humanoid Robot
Authors: Rafal Stegierski, Krzysztof Dmitruk
Abstract:The paper focuses on robotic tele-presence system build around humanoid robot operated with controller-less Wizard of Oz technique. Proposed solution gives possibility to quick start acting as a operator with short, if any, initial training.
Keywords: robotics, motion capture, Wizard of Oz, humanoid robots, human robot interactionProcedia PDF Downloads 402
1014 Exergy Analysis and Evaluation of the Different Flowsheeting Configurations for CO₂ Capture Plant Using 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol
Authors: Ebuwa Osagie, Vasilije Manovic
Abstract:Exergy analysis provides the identification of the location, sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies, and magnitude in a thermal system. Thus, both the qualitative and quantitative assessment can be evaluated with exergy, unlike energy which is based on quantitative assessment only. The main purpose of exergy analysis is to identify where exergy is destroyed. Thus, reduction of the exergy destruction and losses associated with the capture plant systems can improve work potential. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis of different configurations of the process helps to identify opportunities for reducing the steam requirements for each of the configurations. This paper presents steady-state simulation and exergy analysis of the 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-based post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. Exergy analysis performed for the AMP-based plant and the different configurations revealed that the rich split with intercooling configuration gave the highest exergy efficiency of 73.6%, while that of the intercooling and the reference AMP-based plant were 57.3% and 55.8% respectively.
Keywords: 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, modelling, and simulation, post-combustion capture plant, exergy analysis, flowsheeting configurationsProcedia PDF Downloads 105
1013 Improving Performance of K₂CO₃ Sorbent Using Core/Shell Alumina-Based Supports in a Multicycle CO₂ Capture Process
Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Amir H. Soleimanisalim, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey
Abstract:The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is expected to have great impacts on the climate. In order to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere, an efficient and cost-effective technique is required. Using regenerable solid sorbents, especially K2CO3 is a promising method for low-temperature CO2 capture. Pure K2CO3 is a delinquent substance that requires modifications before it can be used for cyclic operations. For this purpose, various types of additives and supports have been used to improve the structure of K2CO3. However, hydrophilicity and reactivity of the support materials with K2CO3 have a negative effect on the CO2 capture capacity of the sorbents. In this research, two kinds of alumina supports (γ-Alumina and Boehmite) were used. In order to decrease the supports' hydrophilicity and reactivity with K2CO3, nonreactive additives such as Titania, Zirconia and Silisium were incorporated into their structures. These materials provide a shell around the alumina to protect it from undesirable reactions and improve its properties. K2CO3-based core/shell-supported sorbents were fabricated using two preparation steps. The sol-gel method was applied for shelling the supports. Then the shelled supports were impregnated on K2CO3. The physicochemical properties of the sorbents were determined using SEM and BET analyses, and their CO2 capture capacity was quantified using a thermogravimetric analyzer. It was shown that type of the shell's material had an important effect on the water adsorption capacity of the sorbents. Supported K2CO3 modified by Titania shell showed the lowest hydrophilicity among the prepared samples. Based on the obtained results, incorporating nonreactive additives in Boehmite had an outstanding impact on the CO2 capture performance of the sorbent. Incorporation of Titania into the Boehmite-supported K2CO3 enhanced its CO2 capture capacity significantly. Therefore, further study of this novel fabrication technique is highly recommended. In the second phase of this research project, the CO2 capture performance of the sorbents in fixed and fluidized bed reactors will be investigated.
Keywords: CO₂ capture, core/shell support, K₂CO₃, post-combustionProcedia PDF Downloads 90
1012 Tape-Shaped Multiscale Fiducial Marker: A Design Prototype for Indoor Localization
Authors: Marcell Serra de Almeida Martins, Benedito de Souza Ribeiro Neto, Gerson Lima Serejo, Carlos Gustavo Resque Dos Santos
Abstract:Indoor positioning systems use sensors such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi, as well as cameras for image capture, which can be fixed or mobile. These computer vision-based positioning approaches are low-cost to implement, mainly when it uses a mobile camera. The present study aims to create a design of a fiducial marker for a low-cost indoor localization system. The marker is tape-shaped to perform a continuous reading employing two detection algorithms, one for greater distances and another for smaller distances. Therefore, the location service is always operational, even with variations in capture distance. A minimal localization and reading algorithm were implemented for the proposed marker design, aiming to validate it. The accuracy tests consider readings varying the capture distance between [0.5, 10] meters, comparing the proposed marker with others. The tests showed that the proposed marker has a broader capture range than the ArUco and QRCode, maintaining the same size. Therefore, reducing the visual pollution and maximizing the tracking since the ambient can be covered entirely.
Keywords: multiscale recognition, indoor localization, tape-shaped marker, fiducial markerProcedia PDF Downloads 25
1011 Synthesis of Electrospun Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polyvinylidene Fluoriure (PVDF) Nanofibrous Membranes for CO₂ Capture
Authors: Wen-Wen Wang, Qian Ye, Yi-Feng Lin
Abstract:Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase continuously, resulting in climate change and global warming. As a result, CO₂ capture has attracted a large amount of research attention. Among the various CO₂ capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO₂, because it can be scaled up, low energy consumptions and small area requirements for use by the gas separation. Various nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by a simple electrospinning process. The membrane contactor combined with chemical absorption and membrane process in the post-combustion CO₂ capture is used in this study. In a membrane contactor system, the highly porous and water-repellent nanofibrous membranes were used as a gas-liquid interface in a membrane contactor system for CO₂ absorption. In this work, we successfully prepared the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous membranes with an electrospinning process. Afterwards, the as-prepared water-repellent PVDF porous membranes were used for the CO₂ capture application. However, the pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes were wetted by the amine absorbents, resulting in the decrease in the CO₂ absorption flux, the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were added into the PVDF nanofibrous membranes to improve the solvent resistance of the membranes. To increase the hydrophobic properties and CO₂ absorption flux, more hydrophobic surfaces of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes are obtained by the grafting of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the membranes surface. Furthermore, the highest CO₂ absorption flux of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes is reached after the FAS modification with four times. The PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes with 60 wt% PDMS addition can be a long and continuous operation of the CO₂ absorption and regeneration experiments. It demonstrates the as-prepared PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes could potentially be used for large-scale CO₂ absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.
Keywords: CO₂ capture, electrospinning process, membrane contactor, nanofibrous membranes, PDMS/PVDFProcedia PDF Downloads 217
1010 Population Size Estimation Based on the GPD
Authors: O. Anan, D. Böhning, A. Maruotti
Abstract:The purpose of the study is to estimate the elusive target population size under a truncated count model that accounts for heterogeneity. The purposed estimator is based on the generalized Poisson distribution (GPD), which extends the Poisson distribution by adding a dispersion parameter. Thus, it becomes an useful model for capture-recapture data where concurrent events are not homogeneous. In addition, it can account for over-dispersion and under-dispersion. The ratios of neighboring frequency counts are used as a tool for investigating the validity of whether generalized Poisson or Poisson distribution. Since capture-recapture approaches do not provide the zero counts, the estimated parameters can be achieved by modifying the EM-algorithm technique for the zero-truncated generalized Poisson distribution. The properties and the comparative performance of proposed estimator were investigated through simulation studies. Furthermore, some empirical examples are represented insights on the behavior of the estimators.
Keywords: capture, recapture methods, ratio plot, heterogeneous population, zero-truncated countProcedia PDF Downloads 373
1009 Synthesis of Modified Cellulose for the Capture of Uranyl Ions from Aqueous Solutions
Authors: Claudia Vergara, Oscar Valdes, Jaime Tapia, Leonardo Santos
Abstract:The poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) are a class of material introduced by D. Tomalia. Modifications of the PAMAM dendrimer with several functional groups have attracted the attention for new interesting properties and new applications in many fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, and medicine. However, in the last few years, the use of dendrimers in environmental applications has increased due to pollution concerns. In this contribution, we report the synthesis of three new PAMAM derivates modified with asparagine aminoacid supported in cellulose: PG0-Asn (PAMAM-asparagine), PG0-Asn-Trt (with trityl group) and PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt (with tert-butyl oxycarbonyl group). The functionalization of generation 0 PAMAM dendrimer was carried out by amidation reaction by using an EDC/HOBt protocol. In a second step, functionalized dendrimer was covalently supported to the cellulose surface and used to study the capture of uranyl ions from aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy. The structure and purity of the desired products were confirmed by conventional techniques such as FT-IR, MALDI, elemental analysis, and ESI-MS. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the affinity of uranyl ions with the dendrimer in aqueous solution. Firstly, the optimal conditions for uranyl capture were obtained, where the optimum pH for the removal was 6, the contact time was 4 hours, the initial concentration of uranyl was 100 ppm, and the amount of the adsorbent to be used was 2.5 mg. PAMAM significantly increased the capture of uranyl ions with respect to cellulose as the starting substrate, reaching 94.8% of capture (PG0), followed by 91.2% corresponding to PG0-Asn-Trt, then 70.3% PG0-Asn and 24.2% PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt. These results show that the PAMAM dendrimer is a good option to remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions.
Keywords: asparagine, cellulose, PAMAM dendrimer, uranyl ionsProcedia PDF Downloads 78
1008 CO₂ Capture by Clay and Its Adsorption Mechanism
Authors: Jedli Hedi, Hedfi Hachem, Abdessalem Jbara, Slimi Khalifa
Abstract:Natural and modified clay were used as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. Sample of clay was subjected to acid treatments to improve their textural properties, namely, its surface area and pore volume. The modifications were carried out by heating the clays at 120 °C and then by acid treatment with 3M sulphuric acid solution at boiling temperature for 10 h. The CO2 adsorption capacities of the acid-treated clay were performed out in a batch reactor. It was found that the clay sample treated with 3M H2SO4 exhibited the highest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (16.29–24.68 m2/g) and pore volume (0.056–0.064 cm3/g). After the acid treatment, the CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased. The CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased after the acid treatment. The CO2 adsorption by clay, were characterized by SEM, FTIR, ATD-ATG and BET method. For describing the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption for these materials, the adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. CO2 adsorption isotherm was found attributable to physical adsorption.
Keywords: clay, acid treatment, CO2 capture, adsorption mechanismProcedia PDF Downloads 146
1007 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character
Authors: Ismahafezi Ismail, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar
Abstract:The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time.
Keywords: computer animation, humanoid motion, motion capture, motion editingProcedia PDF Downloads 300
1006 Retrofitting Cement Plants with Oxyfuel Technology for Carbon Capture
Authors: Peloriadi Konstantina, Fakis Dimitris, Grammelis Panagiotis
Abstract:Methods for carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play a key role in the reduction of industrial CO₂ emissions, especially in the cement industry, which accounts for 7% of global emissions. Cement industries around the world have committed to address this problem by reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The aim of the work to be presented was to contribute to the decarbonization strategy by integrating the 1st generation oxyfuel technology in cement production plants. This technology has been shown to improve fuel efficiency while providing one of the most cost-effective solutions when compared to other capture methods. A validated simulation of the cement plant was thus used as a basis to develop an oxyfuel retrofitted cement process. The process model for the oxyfuel technology is developed on the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) PLUSTM simulation software. This process consists of an Air Separation Unit (ASU), an oxyfuel cement plant with coal and alternative solid fuel (ASF) as feedstock, and a carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU). A detailed description and analysis of the CPU will be presented, including the findings of a literature review and simulation results, regarding the effects of flue gas impurities during operation. Acknowledgment: This research has been conducted in the framework of the EU funded AC2OCEM project, which investigates first and the second generation oxyfuel concepts.
Keywords: oxyfuel technology, carbon capture and storage, CO₂ processing unit, cement, aspen plusProcedia PDF Downloads 107