Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2024

Search results for: biomass fuel

2024 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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2023 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir


Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
2022 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada


A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

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2021 Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Six Tropical Hardwood Timber Species for Briquettes

Authors: Stephen J. Mitchual, Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah, Nicholas A. Darkwa


The fuel potential of six tropical hardwood species namely: Triplochiton scleroxylon, Ceiba pentandra, Aningeria robusta, Terminalia superba, Celtis mildbreadii and Piptadenia africana were studied. Properties studied include the species density, gross calorific value, volatile matter, ash, organic carbon, N, H, S, Cu, Pb, As and Cd content. Fuel properties were determined using standard laboratory methods. The result indicates that the Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of the species ranged from 20.16 to 22.22 MJ/kg and they slightly varied from each other. Additionally, the GCV of the biomass materials were higher than that of other biomass materials like; wheat straw, rice straw, maize straw and sugar cane. The ash and volatile matter content varied from 0.6075 to 5.0407%, and 75.23% to 83.70% respectively. The overall rating of the properties of the six biomass materials suggest that Piptadenia africana has the best fuel property to be used as briquettes and Aningeria robusta the worse. This study therefore suggests that a holistic assessment of a biomass material needs to be done before selecting it for fuel purpose.

Keywords: ash content, briquette, calorific value, elemental composition, species, volatile matter

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2020 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: biomass fuels, temperature, advanced downdraft gasifier, tar, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2019 Combustion Characteristics of Wet Woody Biomass in a Grate Furnace: Including Measurements within the Bed

Authors: Narges Razmjoo, Hamid Sefidari, Michael Strand


Biomass combustion is a growing technique for heat and power production due to the increasing stringent regulations with CO2 emissions. Grate-fired systems have been regarded as a common and popular combustion technology for burning woody biomass. However, some grate furnaces are not well optimized and may emit significant amount of unwanted compounds such as dust, NOx, CO, and unburned gaseous components. The combustion characteristics inside the fuel bed are of practical interest, as they are directly related to the release of volatiles and affect the stability and the efficiency of the fuel bed combustion. Although numerous studies have been presented on the grate firing of biomass, to the author’s knowledge, none of them have conducted a detailed experimental study within the fuel bed. It is difficult to conduct measurements of temperature and gas species inside the burning bed of the fuel in full-scale boilers. Results from such inside bed measurements can also be applied by the numerical experts for modeling the fuel bed combustion. The current work presents an experimental investigation into the combustion behavior of wet woody biomass (53 %) in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler, by focusing on the gas species distribution along the height of the fuel bed. The local concentrations of gases (CO, CO2, CH4, NO, and O2) inside the fuel bed were measured through a glass port situated on the side wall of the furnace. The measurements were carried out at five different heights of the fuel bed, by means of a bent stainless steel probe containing a type-k thermocouple. The sample gas extracted from the fuel bed, through the probe, was filtered and dried and then was analyzed using two infrared spectrometers. Temperatures of about 200-1100 °C were measured close to the grate, indicating that char combustion is occurring at the bottom of the fuel bed and propagates upward. The CO and CO2 concentration varied in the range of 15-35 vol % and 3-16 vol %, respectively, and NO concentration varied between 10-140 ppm. The profile of the gas concentrations distribution along the bed height provided a good overview of the combustion sub-processes in the fuel bed.

Keywords: experimental, fuel bed, grate firing, wood combustion

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2018 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar


Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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2017 Research Facility Assessment for Biomass Combustion in Moving Grate Furnaces

Authors: Francesco Gallucci, Mariangela Salerno, Ettore Guerriero, Manfredi Amalfi, Giancarlo Chiatti, Fulvio Palmieri


The paper deals with the experimental activities on a biomass combustion test-bed. More in detail, experimental campaigns have been devoted to investigate the operation of a biomass moving grate furnace. A research-oriented facility based on a moving grate furnace (350kW) has been set up in order to perform experimental activities in a wide range of test configurations. The paper reports the description of the complete biomass-plant and the assessment of the system operation. As the first step, the chemical and physical properties of the used wooden biomass have been preliminarily investigated. Once the biomass fuel has been characterized, investigations have been devoted to point out the operation of the furnace. It has been operated at full load, highlighting the influence of biomass combustion parameters on particulate matter and gaseous emission.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, experimental, pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2016 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
2015 Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment

Authors: Mahidin, Yanna Syamsuddin, Samsul Rizal


In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.

Keywords: biomass, low-rank coal, bio-briquette, new and renewable energy, palm kernel shell

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2014 Production and Characterization of Biochars from Torrefaction of Biomass

Authors: Serdar Yaman, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma


Biomass is a CO₂-neutral fuel that is renewable and sustainable along with having very huge global potential. Efficient use of biomass in power generation and production of biomass-based biofuels can mitigate the greenhouse gasses (GHG) and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are also other beneficial effects of biomass energy use such as employment creation and pollutant reduction. However, most of the biomass materials are not capable of competing with fossil fuels in terms of energy content. High moisture content and high volatile matter yields of biomass make it low calorific fuel, and it is very significant concern over fossil fuels. Besides, the density of biomass is generally low, and it brings difficulty in transportation and storage. These negative aspects of biomass can be overcome by thermal pretreatments that upgrade the fuel property of biomass. That is, torrefaction is such a thermal process in which biomass is heated up to 300ºC under non-oxidizing conditions to avoid burning of the material. The treated biomass is called as biochar that has considerably lower contents of moisture, volatile matter, and oxygen compared to the parent biomass. Accordingly, carbon content and the calorific value of biochar increase to the level which is comparable with that of coal. Moreover, hydrophilic nature of untreated biomass that leads decay in the structure is mostly eliminated, and the surface properties of biochar turn into hydrophobic character upon torrefaction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of torrefaction process on biomass properties, several biomass species such as olive milling residue (OMR), Rhododendron (small shrubby tree with bell-shaped flowers), and ash tree (timber tree) were chosen. The fuel properties of these biomasses were analyzed through proximate and ultimate analyses as well as higher heating value (HHV) determination. For this, samples were first chopped and ground to a particle size lower than 250 µm. Then, samples were subjected to torrefaction in a horizontal tube furnace by heating from ambient up to temperatures of 200, 250, and 300ºC at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. The biochars obtained from this process were also tested by the methods applied to the parent biomass species. Improvement in the fuel properties was interpreted. That is, increasing torrefaction temperature led to regular increases in the HHV in OMR, and the highest HHV (6065 kcal/kg) was gained at 300ºC. Whereas, torrefaction at 250ºC was seen optimum for Rhododendron and ash tree since torrefaction at 300ºC had a detrimental effect on HHV. On the other hand, the increase in carbon contents and reduction in oxygen contents were determined. Burning characteristics of the biochars were also studied using thermal analysis technique. For this purpose, TA Instruments SDT Q600 model thermal analyzer was used and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves were compared and interpreted. It was concluded that torrefaction is an efficient method to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass and the biochars from which have superior characteristics compared to the parent biomasses.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, fuel upgrade, torrefaction

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2013 The Environmental and Economic Analysis of Extended Input-Output Table for Thailand’s Biomass Pellet Industry

Authors: Prangvalai Buasan, Boonrod Sajjakulnukit, Thongchart Bowonthumrongchai


The biomass pellet demand in the power sector has increased since 2020. The revised national power development plan also aims to promote biomass fuel consumption by around 485 MW by 2030. The replacement of solid fossil fuel with biomass pellets will affect medium-term and long-term national benefits for all industries throughout the supply chain. Therefore, the evaluation of environmental and economic impacts throughout the biomass pellet supply chain needs to be performed to provide better insight into the goods and financial flow of this activity and provide information for decision-making on increasing biomass consumption in Thailand. This study extended the national input-output table for the biomass pellet industry and applied the input-output analysis (IOA) method, a sort of macroeconomic analysis, to interpret the result of transactions between industries in the monetary unit when the revised national power development plan was adopted and enforced. The extended environmental input-output analysis (EEIOA) was integrated to estimate the potential of greenhouse gas reduction in the power generation sector as well as industrial sectors which has a high ability to consume biomass pellets as fuel. The finding indicates that increasing biomass pellets consumption in the power sector increases the price of biomass pellets and biomass feedstock. Biomass production and management should be considered along with enhancing biomass production capability to reach the most productive condition at the minimum production cost. Business tax and import price play an important role in production cost on the supply side meanwhile national policy and market price are the key factors in driving demand-led growth of private consumption on the demand side. Environmental benefits of greenhouse gas reduction from renewable energy consumption such as carbon credit and renewable energy certificate (REC) could be used as an incentive in promoting biomass fuel consumption on the demand side. The study results are beneficial to policymakers and/or project implementers in the decision-making process toward mobilizing financial resources to invest in renewable energy and sustainable development of the energy sector.

Keywords: renewable energy, biomass pellets, input-output analysis, macroeconomic planning, environmental extended input-output analysis

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2012 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng


Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

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2011 Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy in Environmental Control

Authors: Subir Kundu, Sukhendra Singh, Sumedha Ojha, Kanika Kundu


The continuous decline of petroleum and natural gas reserves and non linear rise of oil price has brought about a realisation of the need for a change in our perpetual dependence on the fossil fuel. A day to day increased consumption of crude and petroleum products has made a considerable impact on our foreign exchange reserves. Hence, an alternate resource for the conversion of energy (both liquid and gas) is essential for the substitution of conventional fuels. Biomass is the alternate solution for the present scenario. Biomass can be converted into both liquid as well as gaseous fuels and other feedstocks for the industries.

Keywords: bioenergy, biomass conversion, biorefining, efficient utilisation of night soil

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2010 Characterization of Forest Fire Fuel in Shivalik Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Authors: Neha Devi, P. K. Joshi


Fire fuel map is one of the most critical factors for planning and managing the fire hazard and risk. One of the most significant forms of global disturbance, impacting community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and local and regional climate across a wide range of ecosystems ranging from boreal forests to tropical rainforest is wildfire Assessment of fire danger is a function of forest type, fuelwood stock volume, moisture content, degree of senescence and fire management strategy adopted in the ground. Remote sensing has potential of reduction the uncertainty in mapping fuels. Hyperspectral remote sensing is emerging to be a very promising technology for wildfire fuels characterization. Fine spectral information also facilitates mapping of biophysical and chemical information that is directly related to the quality of forest fire fuels including above ground live biomass, canopy moisture, etc. We used Hyperion imagery acquired in February, 2016 and analysed four fuel characteristics using Hyperion sensor data on-board EO-1 satellite, acquired over the Shiwalik Himalayas covering the area of Champawat, Uttarakhand state. The main objective of this study was to present an overview of methodologies for mapping fuel properties using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Fuel characteristics analysed include fuel biomass, fuel moisture, and fuel condition and fuel type. Fuel moisture and fuel biomass were assessed through the expression of the liquid water bands. Fuel condition and type was assessed using green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil as Endmember for spectral mixture analysis. Linear Spectral Unmixing, a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil.

Keywords: forest fire fuel, Hyperion, hyperspectral, linear spectral unmixing, spectral mixture analysis

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2009 Designing, Manufacturing and Testing a Portable Tractor Unit Biocoal Harvester Combine of Agriculture and Animal Wastes

Authors: Ali Moharrek, Hosein Mobli, Ali Jafari, Ahmad Tabataee Far


Biomass is a material generally produced by plants living on soil or water and their derivatives. The remains of agricultural and forest products contain biomass which is changeable into fuel. Besides, you can obtain biogas and ethanol from the charcoal produced from biomass through specific actions. this technology was designed for as a useful Native Fuel and Technology in Energy disasters Management Due to the sudden interruption of the flow of heat energy One of the problems confronted by mankind in the future is the limitations of fossil energy which necessitates production of new energies such as biomass. In order to produce biomass from the remains of the plants, different methods shall be applied considering factors like cost of production, production technology, area of requirement, speed of work easy utilization, ect. In this article we are focusing on designing a biomass briquetting portable machine. The speed of installation of the machine on a tractor is estimated as 80 MF 258. Screw press is used in designing this machine. The needed power for running this machine which is estimated as 17.4 kW is provided by the power axis of tractor. The pressing speed of the machine is considered to be 375 RPM Finally the physical and mechanical properties of the product were compared with utilized material which resulted in appropriate outcomes. This machine is designed for Gathering Raw materials of the ground by Head Section. During delivering the raw materials to Briquetting section, they Crushed, Milled & Pre Heated in Transmission section. This machine is a Combine Portable Tractor unit machine and can use all type of Agriculture, Forest & Livestock Animals Resides as Raw material to make Bio fuel. The Briquetting Section was manufactured and it successfully made bio fuel of Sawdust. Also this machine made a biofuel with Ethanol of sugarcane Wastes. This Machine is using P.T.O power source for Briquetting and Hydraulic Power Source for Pre Processing of Row Materials.

Keywords: biomass, briquette, screw press, sawdust, animal wastes, portable, tractors

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2008 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction by Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida


Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gasses. In Japan, 'The National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization' and 'The Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development' were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Costs were estimated on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. Greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: global warming countermeasure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2007 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian


Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

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2006 Comparison of MODIS-Based Rice Extent Map and Landsat-Based Rice Classification Map in Determining Biomass Energy Potential of Rice Hull in Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Klathea Sevilla, Marjorie Remolador, Bryan Baltazar, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion Ang


The underutilization of biomass resources in the Philippines, combined with its growing population and the rise in fossil fuel prices confirms demand for alternative energy sources. The goal of this paper is to provide a comparison of MODIS-based and Landsat-based agricultural land cover maps when used in the estimation of rice hull’s available energy potential. Biomass resource assessment was done using mathematical models and remote sensing techniques employed in a GIS platform.

Keywords: biomass, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing, renewable energy

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2005 "Gurza Incinerator" : Biomass Incinerator Powered by Empty Bunch of Palm Oil Fruits as Electrical Biomass Base Development

Authors: Andi Ismanto


Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world. The increasing number of palm oil extensification in Indonesia started on 2000-2011. Based on preliminary figures from the Directorate General of Plantation, palm oil area in Indonesia until 2011 is about 8.91 million hectares.On 2011 production of palm oil CPO reaches 22.51 million tons. In the other hands, the increasing palm oil production has impact to environment. The Empty Bunch of Palm Oil (EBPO)waste was increased to 20 million tons in 2009. Utilization of waste EBPO currently only used as an organic fertilizer for plants. But, it was not a good solution, because TKKS that used as organic compost has high content of carbon and hydrogen compound. The EBPO waste has potential used as fuel by gasification because it has short time of decomposition. So, the process will be more efficient in time. Utilization of urban wastehas been created using an incinerator used as a source of electrical energy for household.Usually, waste burning process by incinerator is using diesel fuel and kerosene. It is certainly less effective and not environment friendly, considering the waste incineration process using Incinerator tools are continuously. Considering biomass is a renewable source of energy and the world's energy system must be switch from an energy based on fossil resources into the energy based on renewable resources, the "Gurza Incinerator": Design Build Powerful Biomass Incinerator Empty Bunch of Palm Oil (EBPO) as Elecrical Biomass Base Development, a renewable future technology. The tools is using EBPO waste as source of burning to burn garbage inside the Incinerator hopper. EBPO waste will be processed by means of gasification. Gasification isa process to produce gases that can be used as fuel for electrical power. Hopefully, this technology could be a renewable future energy and also as starting point of electrical biomass base development.

Keywords: incinerator, biomass, empty bunch palm oil, electrical energy

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2004 Feasibility of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ghaffar Doggar, Farah


The primary objective of this feasibility study is to conduct a techno-financial assessment for installation of biomass based power plant in Faisalabad division. The study involves identification of best site for power plant followed by an assessment of biomass resource potential in the area and propose power plant of suitable size. The study also entailed comprehensive supply chain analysis to determine biomass fuel pricing, transportation and storage. Further technical and financial analyses have been done for selection of appropriate technology for the power plant and its financial viability, respectively. The assessment of biomass resources and the subsequent technical analysis revealed that 20 MW biomass power plant could be implemented at one of the locations near Faisalabad city i.e. AARI Site, Near Chak Jhumra district Faisalabad, Punjab province. Three options for steam pressure; namely, 70 bar, 90 bar and 100 bar boilers have been considered. Using international experience and prices on power plant technology and local prices on locally available equipment, the study concludes biomass fuel price of around 50 US dollars (USD) per ton when delivered to power plant site. The electricity prices used for feasibility calculations were 0.13 USD per KWh for electricity from a locally financed project and 0.11 USD per KWh for internationally financed power plant. For local financing the most viable choice is the 70 bar solution and with international financing, the most feasible solution is using a 90 bar boiler. Between the two options, the internationally financed 90 bar boiler setup gives better financial results than the locally financed 70 bar boiler project. It has been concluded that 20 MW with 90 bar power plant and internationally financed would have an equity IRR of 23% and a payback period of 7 years. This will be a cheap option for installation of power plants.

Keywords: AARI, Ayub agriculture research institute, biomass - crops residue, KWh - electricity Units, MG - Muhammad Ghaffar

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2003 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando


Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, fluidized bed

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2002 Reburning Characteristics of Biomass Syngas in a Pilot Scale Heavy Oil Furnace

Authors: Sang Heon Han, Daejun Chang, Won Yang


NOx reduction characteristics of syngas fuel were numerically investigated for the 2MW pilot scale heavy oil furnace of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology). The secondary fuel and syngas was fed into the furnace with two purposes- partial replacement of main fuel and reburning of NOx. Some portion of syngas was fed into the flame zone to partially replace the heavy oil, while the other portion was fed into the furnace downstream to reduce NOx generation. The numerical prediction was verified by comparing it with the experimental results. Syngas of KITECH’s experiment, assumed to be produced from biomass, had very low calorific value and contained 3% hydrocarbon. This study investigated the precise behavior of NOx generation and NOx reduction as well as thermo-fluidic characteristics inside the furnace, which was unavailable with experiment. In addition to 3% hydrocarbon syngas, 5%, and 7% hydrocarbon syngas were numerically tested as reburning fuels to analyze the effect of hydrocarbon proportion to NOx reduction. The prediction showed that the 3% hydrocarbon syngas is as much effective as 7% hydrocarbon syngas in reducing NOx.

Keywords: syngas, reburning, heavy oil, furnace

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2001 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy


Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potential

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2000 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel


Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

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1999 Increasing the Efficiency of the Biomass Gasification Technology with Using the Organic Rankin Cycle

Authors: Jaroslav Frantík, Jan Najser


This article deals with increasing the energy efficiency of a plant in terms of optimizing the process. The European Union is striving to achieve the climate-energy package in the area increasing of energy efficiency. The goal of energy efficiency is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% within the EU until 2020. The objective of saving energy consumption in the Czech Republic was set at 47.84 PJ (13.29 TWh). For reducing electricity consumption, it is possible to choose: a) mandatory increasing of energy efficiency, b) alternative scheme, c) combination of both actions. The Czech Republic has chosen for reducing electricity consumption using-alternative scheme. The presentation is focused on the proposal of a technological unit dealing with the gasification process of processing of biomass with an increase of power in the output. The synthesis gas after gasification of biomass is used as fuel in a cogeneration process of reciprocating internal combustion engine with the classic production of heat and electricity. Subsequently, there is an explanation of the ORC system dealing with the conversion of waste heat to electricity with the using closed cycle of the steam process with organic medium. The arising electricity is distributed to the power grid as a further energy source, or it is used for needs of the partial coverage of the technological unit. Furthermore, there is a presented schematic description of the technology with the identification of energy flows starting from the biomass treatment by drying, through its conversion to gaseous fuel, producing of electricity and utilize of thermal energy with minimizing losses. It has been found that using of ORC system increased the efficiency of the produced electricity by 7.5%.

Keywords: biomass, efficiency, gasification, ORC system

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1998 Control of Indoor Carbon through Soft Approaches in Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


The mountainous regions are very crucial for a country because of their importance for weather, water supply, forests, and various other socio-economic benefits. But the increasing population and its demand for energy and infrastructure have contributed very high loadings of air pollution. Various activities such as cooking, heating, manufacturing, transport, etc. contribute various particulate and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. This study was focused upon indoor air pollution and was carried out in four rural households of the Baggi village located in the Hamirpur District of the Himachal Pradesh state. The residents of Baggi village use biomass as fuel for cooking on traditional stove (Chullah). The biomass types include wood (mainly Beul, Grewia Optiva), crop residue and dung cakes. This study aimed to determine the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), major cations and anions in the indoor air of each household. During non-cooking hours, it was found that the indoor air contained OC and EC as low as 21µg/m³ and 17µg/m³ respectively. But during cooking hours (with biomass burning), the levels of OC and EC were raised significantly by 91.2% and 85.4% respectively. Then the residents were advised to switch over as per our soft approach options. In the first approach change, they were asked to prepare the meal partially on Chullah using biomass and partially with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). By doing this change, a considerable reduction in OC (53.1%) and in EC (41.8%) was noticed. The second change of approach included the cooking of entire meal by using LPG. This resulted in the reduction of OC (84.1%) and EC (73.3%) as compared to the values obtained during cooking entirely with biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol levels were higher in the morning hours than in the evening hours because of more biomass burning activity in the morning. According to a general survey done with the residents, the study provided them an awareness about the air pollution and the harmful effects of biomass burning. Some of them correlated their ailments like weakened eyesight, fatigue and respiratory problems with indoor air pollution. This study demonstrated that by replacing biomass with clean fuel such as LPG, the indoor concentrations of EC and OC can be reduced substantially.

Keywords: biomass burning, carbonaceous aerosol, elemental carbon, organic carbon, LPG

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1997 Development of a Feedback Control System for a Lab-Scale Biomass Combustion System Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: Samuel O. Alamu, Seong W. Lee, Blaise Kalmia, Marc J. Louise Caballes, Xuejun Qian


The application of combustion technologies for thermal conversion of biomass and solid wastes to energy has been a major solution to the effective handling of wastes over a long period of time. Lab-scale biomass combustion systems have been observed to be economically viable and socially acceptable, but major concerns are the environmental impacts of the process and deviation of temperature distribution within the combustion chamber. Both high and low combustion chamber temperature may affect the overall combustion efficiency and gaseous emissions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a control system which measures the deviations of chamber temperature from set target values, sends these deviations (which generates disturbances in the system) in the form of feedback signal (as input), and control operating conditions for correcting the errors. In this research study, major components of the feedback control system were determined, assembled, and tested. In addition, control algorithms were developed to actuate operating conditions (e.g., air velocity, fuel feeding rate) using ladder logic functions embedded in the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The developed control algorithm having chamber temperature as a feedback signal is integrated into the lab-scale swirling fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) to investigate the temperature distribution at different heights of the combustion chamber based on various operating conditions. The air blower rates and the fuel feeding rates obtained from automatic control operations were correlated with manual inputs. There was no observable difference in the correlated results, thus indicating that the written PLC program functions were adequate in designing the experimental study of the lab-scale SFBC. The experimental results were analyzed to study the effect of air velocity operating at 222-273 ft/min and fuel feeding rate of 60-90 rpm on the chamber temperature. The developed temperature-based feedback control system was shown to be adequate in controlling the airflow and the fuel feeding rate for the overall biomass combustion process as it helps to minimize the steady-state error.

Keywords: air flow, biomass combustion, feedback control signal, fuel feeding, ladder logic, programmable logic controller, temperature

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1996 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna


There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

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1995 Indoor Air Pollution Effects on Physical Growth of Children under 5 Years from Solid Fuel Combustion

Authors: Nayomi Ranathunga, Priyantha Perera, Sumal Nandasena, Nalini Sathiakumar, Anuradhini Kasthuriratne, Rajitha Wikremasinghe


Solid fuel combustion is an important source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries that has adverse health impacts particularly in children. This study was conducted to determine the effect of IAP due to solid fuel combustion on physical growth of children under five in a Sri Lankan setting. A prospective study was conducted in a mixed population comprising urban and semi urban residents. The study included 240 children under 5 who were permanent residents of the area. Physical growth was assessed by measuring anthropometric indices based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and standards. Exposure levels were defined according to the main type of fuel used for cooking at home: children residing in households using biomass fuel or kerosene as the main type of fuel for cooking were classified as the “high exposure” group and children resident in households using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or electricity for cooking were classified as the “low exposure” group. Sixty percent of the children were classified as from the “high” exposure group and 40% of the children were classified as from the “low” exposure group; 54% of the children were male. At baseline, the prevalence of wasting was 17.1% and the prevalence of stunting was 10.4%; the mean z-score for weight for height was - 0.85, weight for age was - 0.46 and height for age was -0.38. At baseline, children from the “high” exposure group had a significantly lower mean weight for height z-score (p=0.02) and a mean height for age z-score (p=0.001) as compared to children from the “low” exposure group after adjusting for confounding factors such as father’s education, mother’s education and family income. Poor maternal education was significantly associated with lower height for age z-scores (p=0.04) after adjusting for exposure status. IAP due to combustion of biomass fuel leads to chronic malnutrition.

Keywords: children, growth, indoor air pollution, solid fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 225