Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8087

Search results for: acid treatment

8087 CO₂ Capture by Clay and Its Adsorption Mechanism

Authors: Jedli Hedi, Hedfi Hachem, Abdessalem Jbara, Slimi Khalifa

Abstract:

Natural and modified clay were used as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. Sample of clay was subjected to acid treatments to improve their textural properties, namely, its surface area and pore volume. The modifications were carried out by heating the clays at 120 °C and then by acid treatment with 3M sulphuric acid solution at boiling temperature for 10 h. The CO2 adsorption capacities of the acid-treated clay were performed out in a batch reactor. It was found that the clay sample treated with 3M H2SO4 exhibited the highest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (16.29–24.68 m2/g) and pore volume (0.056–0.064 cm3/g). After the acid treatment, the CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased. The CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased after the acid treatment. The CO2 adsorption by clay, were characterized by SEM, FTIR, ATD-ATG and BET method. For describing the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption for these materials, the adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. CO2 adsorption isotherm was found attributable to physical adsorption.

Keywords: clay, acid treatment, CO2 capture, adsorption mechanism

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8086 Characteristics of a Dye-Entrapped Polypyrrole Film Prepared in the Presence of a Different Dye

Authors: M. Mominul Haque, Danny KY. Wong

Abstract:

In this paper, we will demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing the azo dye, Acid Red 1, in the presence of a second dye, Indigo Carmine, at conducting polypyrrole films. A long-term goal of this work is to develop an efficient and effective electrochemical treatment of textile effluents that does not yield any toxic by-products. Specifically, pyrrole was initially electrochemically oxidised in the presence of Acid Red 1 to prepare an Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole film. Next, the Acid Red 1 entrapped film was electrochemically reduced to expel the dye from the film. The film was then ready for use in removing the dye in an Acid Red 1 solution. The entrapment efficiency of the film was then studied by spectroscopically determining the change in the absorbance of the dye solution. These experiments were repeated using Indigo Carmine or a mixture of Acid Red 1 and Indigo Carmine, in place of Acid Red 1. Therefore, this has given rise to an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents. In our work, we have also studied the characteristics of Acid Red 1- and Indigo Carmine-entrapped polypyrrole films by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy.

Keywords: azo dye, electrochemical treatment, polypyrrole, Acid Red 1

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8085 Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Upasana Khairnar, Chandrashekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period, serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (Hemoglobin content, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Total iron content), tissue parameters (Lipid peroxidation, Reduced glutathione, Nitric oxide content) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with Protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity. In conclusion Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride-induced splenic toxicity in rats.

Keywords: aniline, spleen toxicity, protocatechuic acid, ascorbic acid, antioxidants

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8084 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil

Abstract:

Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: cardioprotection, doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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8083 Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soil by Proxy-Acid Method

Authors: Reza Samsami

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by proxy-acid method. The amounts of PAHs were determined in a silty-clay soil sample of an aged oil refinery field in Abadan, Iran. Proxy-acid treatment method was investigated. The results have shown that the proxy-acid system is an effective method for degradation of PAHs. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method.

Keywords: proxy-acid treatment, silty-clay soil, PAHs, degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
8082 The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Ismail Borazan, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu, Ali Demir, David Carroll

Abstract:

In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.

Keywords: organic solar cells, PEDOT:PSS, polymer electrodes, resistivity

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8081 Optimization of Process Parameters for Copper Extraction from Wastewater Treatment Sludge by Sulfuric Acid

Authors: Usarat Thawornchaisit, Kamalasiri Juthaisong, Kasama Parsongjeen, Phonsiri Phoengchan

Abstract:

In this study, sludge samples that were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a printed circuit board manufacturing industry in Thailand were subjected to acid extraction using sulfuric acid as the chemical extracting agent. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration (A), the ratio of a volume of acid to a quantity of sludge (B) and extraction time (C) on the efficiency of copper extraction were investigated with the aim of finding the optimal conditions for maximum removal of copper from the wastewater treatment sludge. Factorial experimental design was employed to model the copper extraction process. The results were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance to identify the process variables that were significantly affected the copper extraction efficiency. Results showed that all linear terms and an interaction term between volume of acid to quantity of sludge ratio and extraction time (BC), had statistically significant influence on the efficiency of copper extraction under tested conditions in which the most significant effect was ascribed to volume of acid to quantity of sludge ratio (B), followed by sulfuric acid concentration (A), extraction time (C) and interaction term of BC, respectively. The remaining two-way interaction terms, (AB, AC) and the three-way interaction term (ABC) is not statistically significant at the significance level of 0.05. The model equation was derived for the copper extraction process and the optimization of the process was performed using a multiple response method called desirability (D) function to optimize the extraction parameters by targeting maximum removal. The optimum extraction conditions of 99% of copper were found to be sulfuric acid concentration: 0.9 M, ratio of the volume of acid (mL) to the quantity of sludge (g) at 100:1 with an extraction time of 80 min. Experiments under the optimized conditions have been carried out to validate the accuracy of the Model.

Keywords: acid treatment, chemical extraction, sludge, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
8080 The Impact of Nano Fertilization, Salicylic Acid on Growth and some Anti-Oxidant Contents in Rocket under Salt Stress

Authors: Duraid K. A. Al-Taey, Zahraa J. M. Al-Musawi

Abstract:

This investigation aimed to study the organic fertilizers, Nano-fertilizers, and salicylic acid and illustrated their effect on the growth and yield of Rockets (Eruca sativa L.), the content of active compounds, and antioxidants when plants are exposed to salt stress, the experiment was conducted with the randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to the split-plot system. The main factor was water qualities (1.2 dS.m-1 and 8 dS.m-1 ) as the main plot, and the combination treatments were distributed in Sub-Plot, each treatment included 3 replicates. The treatments irrigated with saline water showed a reduction of Glucosinolate and Ascorbate contents (58 µg.g-1and 105.71 µg.g-1). Salinity led to increasing Glutathione and proline in leaves (1146 and 2.2 µg.g-1) respectively, whilst the fertilization treatments ( Poultry compost + Nano-NPK) and ( Poultry compost + Salicylic acid + Nano-NPK) resulted in an increase in the Glucosinolate content of leaves under salt stress (85.6 and 89.2 µg.g-1) respectively. The (Nano-NPK) treatment achieved a height value of ascorbic acid content of leaves under unstressed conditions (166.73 µg.g-1), while the ( Salicylic acid + Nano-NPK) treatment has been achieved the highest value of ascorbic acid under salt stress (137.4 µg.g-1).The treatment (Salicylic acid + Poultry compost+ Nano-NPK) has been obtained the highest value of Glutathione content in leaves ( 1950 µg.g-1) under stress conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the salt stress and Glutathione + proline, while the salt stress condition had a negative effect on the Glucosinolate, Ascorbate contents, and yield.

Keywords: glutathione, ascorbic acid, salt stress, nano fertilization

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8079 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

Abstract:

Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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8078 Modification of Date Palm Leaflets Fibers Used as Thermoplastic Reinforcement

Authors: K. Almi, S.Lakel, A. Benchabane, A. Kriker

Abstract:

The fiber–matrix compatibility can be improved if suitable enforcements are chosen. Whenever the reinforcements have more thermal stability, they can resist to the main processes for wood–thermoplastic composites. This paper is an investigation of effect of different treatment process on the mechanical proprieties and on the thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers with a view to improve the date palm fiber proprieties used as reinforcement of thermoplastic materials which main processes require extrusion, hot press. To compare the effect of alkali and acid treatment on the date palm leaflets fiber properties, different treatment were used such as Sodium hydroxide NaOH solution, aluminium chloride AlCl3 and acid treatment with HCL solution. All treatments were performed at 70°C for 4h and 48 h. The mechanical performance (tensile strength and elongation) is affected by immersion time in alkaline and acid solutions. The reduction of the tensile strength and elongation of fibers at 48h was higher in acid treatment than in alkali treatment at high concentration. No significant differences were observed in mechanical and thermal proprieties of raw fibers and fibers submerged in AlCl3 at low concentration 1% for 48h. Fibers treated by NaOH at 6% for 4h showed significant increase in the mechanical proprieties and thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers. Hence, soda treatment is necessary to improve the fibers proprieties and consequently optimize the composite performance.

Keywords: date palm fibers, surface treatments, thermoplastic composites, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
8077 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari

Abstract:

Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
8076 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, Neutralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
8075 Alternate Furrow Irrigation and Potassium Fertilizer on Seed Yield, Water Use Efficiency and Fatty Acids of Rapeseed

Authors: A. Bahrani

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of restricted irrigation systems and different potassium fertilizer on water use efficiency and yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), an experiment was conducted in an arid area in Khuzestan, Iran in 2013. The main plots consisted of three irrigation methods: FI (full irrigation), alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) and fixed furrow irrigation (FFI). Each subplot received three rates of K fertiliser application: 0, 150 or 300 kg ha-1. The results showed that the plots receiving the full irrigation resulted in significantly higher grain yields, 1000-kernel weight and grain number per pod than both alternate treatments. However, the highest WUE were obtained in alternate furrow irrigation and 300 kg K ha-1 and the lowest one was found in the FI treatment and 0 kg K ha-1. Potassium application increased RWC in alternate furrow irrigation and fixed furrow irrigation than FI treatment. Maximum oil content was observed in those treatments where full irrigation was applied while minimum oil content was produced in FFI irrigated treatments. Potassium fertilizer also increased grain oil by 15 % than control. Deficit irrigation reduced oleic acid and erucic acid. However, oleic acid and linoleic acid increased with increasing of potassium.

Keywords: erucic acid, irrigation methods, linoleic acid, oil percent, oleic acid

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8074 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristic Acid through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Authors: Hyun Ji Hyun, Hyo Sun Suh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Byung-Mu Lee

Abstract:

Scope: This study is focused on the effect of myristic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods and results: For the experiment, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used. Results showed that treatment with myristic acid can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, myristic acid significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators and down-regulating UVB-induced intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, myristic acid reduced the expression of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α and ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the myristic acid could reduce LPS-induced inflammation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region

Keywords: anti-inflammation, myristic acid, ROS, ultraviolet light

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8073 Simultaneous Production of Forskolin and Rosmarinic Acid in vitro Cultures of Coleus Forskohlii Briq

Authors: Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Madhukar Garg, Mohd. Mujeeb, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

An efficient protocol for simultaneous production of forskolin and rosmarinic acid in in vitro callus derived from the leaves of Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been developed. MS media was used for the establishment of cultures and NAA + 6-BA (1.0 ppm) was found best for callus growth. The callus was further subjected to treatment with various elicitor/precursors viz. chitosan, thidiazuron and methyl jasmonate to observe their effect on production of biomass and accumulation of secondary metabolites. The content of forskolin and rosmarinic acid were estimated by HPTLC, in comparison to natural explant which showed 2 fold and 10 fold rise in forskolin and rosmarinic acid content, respectively. Methy1 jasmonate 50 µM was found best for production of forskolin, whereas thidiazuron showed best results in the yield of rosmarinic acid, separately in static culture. However, combined treatment in suspension culture showed moderated effect for increase in secondary metabolites but the biomass increased significantly as compared to static culture.

Keywords: plant tissue culture, secondary metabolites, coleus, forskolin, rosmarinic acid, HPTLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
8072 Treatment of Acid Mine Lake by Ultrasonically Modified Fly Ash at Different Frequencies

Authors: Burcu Ileri, Deniz Sanliyuksel Yucel, Onder Ayyildiz

Abstract:

The oxidation of pyrite in water results in the formation of acid mine drainage, which typically forms extremely acid mine lake (AML) in the depression areas of abandoned Etili open-pit coal mine site, Northwest Turkey. Nine acid mine lakes of various sizes have been located in the Etili coal mine site. Hayirtepe AML is one of the oldest lake having a mean pH value of 2.9 and conductivity of 4550 μS/cm, and containing elevated concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The water quality of the lake has been deteriorated due to its high chemical composition, in particular, increasing heavy metal pollution. In this study, fly ash (FA), a coal combustion by-product from fluidized bed thermal power plant in the northwestern part of Turkey, was used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Hayirtepe AML. The FA is a relatively abundant and cost effective material, but its use in adsorption processes usually require excessive adsorbent doses. To increase adsorption efficiency and lower the adsorbent dose, we modified the FA by means of ultrasonic treatment (20 kHz and 40 kHz). The images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment not only decreased the size of ash particles but also created pits and cracks on their surfaces which in turn led to a significant increase in the BET surface area. Both FA and modified fly ash were later tested for the removal of heavy metals from the AML. The effect of various operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, pH, ash dose, and adsorption contact time were examined to obtain the optimum conditions for the treatment process. The results have demonstrated that removal of heavy metals by ultrasound-modified fly ash requires much shorter treatment times and lower adsorbent doses than those attained by the unmodified fly ash. This research was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), (Project no: 116Y510).

Keywords: acid mine lake, heavy metal, modified fly ash, ultrasonic treatment

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8071 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung

Abstract:

Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

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8070 Influence of Salicylic Acid Seed Priming on Catalase and Peroxidase in Zea mays L. Plant (Var- Sc.704) under Water Stress Condition and Different Irrigation Regimes

Authors: Arash Azarpanah, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Shorangiz Javanmardi

Abstract:

Abiotic stresses are the principle threat to plant growth and crop productivity all over the world. In order to improve the germination of corn seeds in drought stress conditions, effect of seed priming by various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0.8 and 0.2 mM) on activities of catalase and peroxidase in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) was evaluated at Agriculture Research Center located in Arsenjan city in Iran, during summer 2013. A farm research was done in RCBD as factorial with three replications. We considered four irrigation was carried out once the cumulative evaporation from Pan Class A come to 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm. Results illustrated that drought stress significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase and also treatment with salicylic acid significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. In addition, treatment with salicylic acid enhances drought tolerance in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: catalase, corn, salicylic acid, water deficits stress, cumulative evaporation, Pan Class A

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
8069 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

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8068 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
8067 Supplementation of Corosolic Acid Prevents the Development of Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Chandrasekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to screen the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of corosolic acid in painful diabetic neuropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose of STZ (60mg/kg, i.p). Diabetic rats were tested every week for the development of pain, at 5th week rats showed sensation of pain. At 6th week the rats developed significant neuropathic pain. They were divided into different groups and treated with Corosolic acid (2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o) for further two weeks. Pain was assessed in the diabetic rats by mechano-tactil allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. At the end of treatment period rats were scarified and biochemical changes such as plasma glucose level, endogenous antioxidants (Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in sciatic nerve were evaluated. Further Na+/K+ ATPase and nitric oxide content was also evaluated. Treatment with corosolic acid for two weeks restored the altered body weight and elevated blood sugar level. Further corosolic acid showed dose dependent reduction in pain in neuropathic animals. The level of endogenous antioxidants enzymes, Na+/K+ ATPase and nitric oxide were significantly prevented. In conclusion, the result of the present study suggests the antidiabetic, antioxidant and neuroprotectieve property of corosolic acid in diabetic rats with neuropathic pain.

Keywords: neuropathic pain, diabetes, corosolic acid, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
8066 Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations

Authors: Ragi Poyyara, Vijaya Patnana, Mohammed Alam

Abstract:

When acid is pumped into damaged reservoirs for damage removal/stimulation, distorted inflow of acid into the formation occurs caused by acid preferentially traveling into highly permeable regions over low permeable regions, or (in general) into the path of least resistance. This can lead to poor zonal coverage and hence warrants diversion to carry out an effective placement of acid. Diversion is desirably a reversible technique of temporarily reducing the permeability of high perm zones, thereby forcing the acid into lower perm zones. The uniqueness of each reservoir can pose several challenges to engineers attempting to devise optimum and effective diversion strategies. Diversion techniques include mechanical placement and/or chemical diversion of treatment fluids, further sub-classified into ball sealers, bridge plugs, packers, particulate diverters, viscous gels, crosslinked gels, relative permeability modifiers (RPMs), foams, and/or the use of placement techniques, such as coiled tubing (CT) and the maximum pressure difference and injection rate (MAPDIR) methodology. It is not always realized that the effectiveness of diverters greatly depends on reservoir properties, such as formation type, temperature, reservoir permeability, heterogeneity, and physical well characteristics (e.g., completion type, well deviation, length of treatment interval, multiple intervals, etc.). This paper reviews the mechanisms by which each variety of diverter functions and discusses the effect of various reservoir properties on the efficiency of diversion techniques. Guidelines are recommended to help enhance productivity from zones of interest by choosing the best methods of diversion while pumping an optimized amount of treatment fluid. The success of an overall acid treatment often depends on the effectiveness of the diverting agents.

Keywords: diversion, reservoir, zonal coverage, carbonate, sandstone

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
8065 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
8064 Lipid from Activated Sludge as a Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra

Abstract:

There is increasing interest in utilising low grade or waste biomass for the production of renewable bioenergy vectors i.e. waste to energy. In this study we have chosen to assess, activated sludge, which is a microbial biomass generated during the second stage of waste water treatment as a source of lipid for biodiesel production. To date a significant proportion of biodiesel is produced from used cooking oil and animal fats. It was reasoned that if activated sludge proved a viable feedstock it has the potential to support increase biodiesel production capacity. Activated sludge was obtained at different times of the year and from two different sewage treatment works in the UK. The biomass within the activated sludge slurry was recovered by filtration and the total weight of material calculated by combining the dry weight of the total suspended solid (TSS) and the total dissolved solid (TDS) fractions. Total lipids were extracted from the TSS and TDS using solvent extraction (Folch methods). The classes of lipids within the total lipid extract were characterised using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) by referencing known standards. The fatty acid profile and content of the lipid extract were determined using acid mediated-methanolysis to obtain fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography and HPTLC. The results showed that there were differences in the total biomass content in the activated sludge collected from different sewage works. Lipid yields from TSS obtained from both sewage treatment works differed according to the time of year (between 3.0 and 7.4 wt. %). The lipid yield varied slightly within the same source of biomass but more widely between the two sewage treatment works. The neutral lipid classes identified were acylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols and wax esters while the phospholipid class included phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidycholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid and that unsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant. Following optimisation, the FAME yield was greater than 10 wt. % which was required to have an economic advantage in biodiesel production.

Keywords: activated sludge, biodiesel, lipid, methanolysis

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8063 Neuroprotective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Huamin Xu, Wenting Jia, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie

Abstract:

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural acid that is found in a variety of herbs, such as rosemary and has multiple biological activities such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of RA on dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mice received oral administration of RA before MPTP injection. Results showed that the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in SN reduced and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum decreased in MPTP intoxicated PD mice. Pretreatment with RA significantly inhibited these changes. Further studies demonstrated that MPTP treatment increased the iron content, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with RA. In addition, RA could restore the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by MPTP. This study provides evidence that RA could suppress MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by regulating iron content and the expression of SOD. Thus, RA might be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: rosmarinic acid, Parkinson's disease, MPTP, dopaminergic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
8062 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi

Abstract:

Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
8061 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farnaz Alaeimoghadam, Farzad Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning, natural antioxidant

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8060 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
8059 Treatment of Drug-Induced Oral Ulceration with Hyaluronic Acid Gel: A Case Report

Authors: Meltem Koray, Arda Ozgon, Duygu Ofluoglu, Mehmet Yaltirik

Abstract:

Oral ulcerations can be seen as a side effect of different drugs. These ulcers usually appear within a few weeks following drug treatment. In most of cases, these ulcers resist to conventional treatments, such as anesthetics, antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, cauterization, topical tetracycline and corticosteroid treatment. The diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in patients receiving multiple drug therapies. Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biomaterial that has been introduced as an alternative approach to enhance wound healing and also used for oral ulcer treatment. The aim of this report is to present the treatment of drug-induced oral ulceration on maxillary mucosa with HA gel. 60-year-old male patient was referred to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery complaining of oral ulcerations during few weeks. He had received chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 2014 with the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and he has accompanying systemic diseases such as; cardiological, neurological diseases and gout. He is medicated with Escitalopram (Cipralex® 20mg), Quetiapine (Seroquel® 100mg), Mirtazapine (Zestat® 15mg), Acetylsalicylic acid (Coraspin® 100mg), Ramipril-hydrochlorothiazide (Delix® 2.5mg), Theophylline anhydrous (Teokap Sr® 200mg), Colchicine (Colchicum Dispert® 0.5mg), Spironolactone (Aldactone® 100mg), Levothyroxine sodium (Levotiron® 50mg). He had painful oral ulceration on the right side of maxillary mucosa. The diagnosis was 'drug-induced oral ulceration' and HA oral gel (Aftamed® Oral gel) was prescribed 3 times a day for 2 weeks. Complete healing was achieved within 3 weeks without any side effect and discomfort. We suggest that HA oral gel is a potentially useful local drug which can be an alternative for management of drug-induced oral ulcerations.

Keywords: drug-induced, hyaluronic acid, oral ulceration, maxillary mucosa

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8058 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

Abstract:

One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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