Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 193

Search results for: Richard G. Carranza

193 Fin Efficiency of Helical Fin with Fixed Fin Tip Temperature Boundary Condition

Authors: Richard G. Carranza, Juan Ospina

Abstract:

The fin efficiency for a helical fin with a fixed fin tip (or arbitrary) temperature boundary condition is presented. Firstly, the temperature profile throughout the fin is determined via an energy balance around the fin itself. Secondly, the fin efficiency is formulated by integrating across the entire surface of the helical fin. An analytical expression for the fin efficiency is presented and compared with the literature for accuracy.

Keywords: efficiency, fin, heat, helical, transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
192 On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu

Abstract:

Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, Richard's, stochastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
191 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas

Abstract:

Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
190 Analyzing Mexican Adaptation of Shakespeare: A Study of Onstage Violence in Richard III and Its Impact on Mexican Viewers

Authors: Nelya Babynets

Abstract:

Shakespeare and Mexican theatregoers have enjoyed quite a complex relationship. Shakespearean plays have appeared on the Mexican stage with remarkable perseverance, yet with mixed success. Although Shakespeare has long been a part of the global cultural marketplace and his works are celebrated all around the world, the adaptation of his plays on the contemporary Mexican stage is always an adventure, since the works of this early modern author are frequently seen as the legacy of a ‘high’, but obsolete, culture, one that is quite distant from the present-day viewers’ daily experiences and concerns. Moreover, Mexican productions of Shakespeare are presented mostly in Peninsular Spanish, a language similar yet alien to the language spoken in Mexico, one that does not wholly fit into the viewers’ cultural praxis. This is the reason why Mexican dramatic adaptations of Shakespearean plays tend to replace the cultural references of the original piece with ones that are more significant and innate to Latin American spectators. This paper analyses the new Mexican production of Richard III adapted and directed by Mauricio Garcia Lozano, which employs onstage violence - a cultural force that is inherent to all human beings regardless of their beliefs, ethnic background or nationality - as the means to make this play more relevant to a present-day audience. Thus, this paper addresses how the bloody bombast of staged murders helps to avoid the tyranny of a rigid framework of fixed meanings that denies the possibility of an intercultural appropriation of this European play written over four hundred years ago. The impact of violence displayed in Garcia Lozano’s adaptation of Richard III on Mexican audiences will also be examined. This study is particularly relevant in Mexico where the term ‘tragedy’ has become a commonplace and where drug wars and state-sanctioned violence have already taken the lives of many people.

Keywords: audience, dramatic adaptation, Shakespeare, viewer

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189 Transcending the Boundary of Traumas: Spatial Trauma in Richard Powers' 'The Echo Maker'

Authors: Nodi Islam

Abstract:

This paper critically reads Richard Powers’ novel The Echo Maker to read and understand the personal traumas of the characters in the novel depending on the various situations they face throughout the story. Also, the paper attempts to read different traumas and disorders due to their different situations. With a focus on the individual experiences, this paper addresses the core issues of trauma, which triggers their reactions and reads the novel through theories of Freud, Caruth, and other critics in this field. While transcending the boundary of personal and collective trauma, this paper suggests that traumas not only arise from the core mental issues, from both past or present memories; it also depends on places too which can be called, according to Yi-Fu Tuan, topophobia. Intimate places such as home provoke not only attachment and expectation but also produce fear in a person. Failure in identifying with such places means losing a central piece of identity of the individual. In order to analyse the traumas in the novel, the characters’ association with homes and places has been provided. This paper attempts to suggest that people are not traumatised because of what Freud explained as unpleasant memories of the past but also intimacy and lost identities related to a place can trigger trauma.

Keywords: spatial trauma, traumatic stress disorder, identity and place, core mental issues

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188 Experimental Investigation of Tip-Speed-Ratio Effects on Wake Dynamics of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Paul Bayron, Richard Kelso, Rey Chin

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments were performed in the KC closed-circuit wind tunnel in the University of Adelaide to study the influence of tip-speed-ratio (

Keywords: hotwire anemometry, wake dynamics, wind tunnel, wind turbines

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187 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
186 A Joinpoint Regression Analysis of Trends in Tuberculosis Notifications in Two Urban Regions in Namibia

Authors: Anna M. N. Shifotoka, Richard Walker, Katie Haighton, Richard McNally

Abstract:

An analysis of trends in Case Notification Rates (CNR) can be used to monitor the impact of Tuberculosis (TB) control interventions over time in order to inform the implementation of current and future TB interventions. A retrospective analysis of trends in TB CNR for two urban regions in Namibia, namely Khomas and Erongo regions, was conducted. TB case notification data were obtained from annual TB reports of the national TB programme, Ministry of Health and Social Services, covering the period from 1997 to 2015. Joinpoint regression was used to analyse trends in CNR for different types of TB groups. A trend was considered to be statistically significant when a p-value was less than 0.05. During the period under review, the crude CNR for all forms of TB declined from 808 to 400 per 100 000 population in Khomas, and from 1051 to 611 per 100 000 population in Erongo. In both regions, significant change points in trends were observed for all types of TB groups examined. In Khomas region, the trend for new smear positive pulmonary TB increased significantly by an annual rate of 4.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.3% to 8.2%) during the period 1997 to 2004, and thereafter declined significantly by -6.2% (95%CI: -7.7% to -4.3%) per year until 2015. Similarly, the trend for smear negative pulmonary TB increased significantly by 23.7% (95%CI: 9.7 to 39.5) per year from 1997 to 2004 and thereafter declined significantly by an annual change of -26.4% (95%CI: -33.1% to -19.8%). The trend for all forms of TB CNR in Khomas region increased significantly by 8.1% (95%CI: 3.7 to 12.7) per year from 1997 to 2004 and thereafter declined significantly a rate of -8.7% (95%CI: -10.6 to -6.8). In Erongo region, the trend for smear positive pulmonary TB increased at a rate of 1.2% (95%CI: -1.2% to 3.6%) annually during the earlier years (1997 to 2008), and thereafter declined significantly by -9.3% (95%CI: -13.3% to -5.0%) per year from 2008 to 2015. Also in Erongo, the trend for all forms of TB CNR increased significantly by an annual rate of 4.0% (95%CI: 1.4% to 6.6%) during the years between 1997 to 2006 and thereafter declined significantly by -10.4% (95%CI: -12.7% to -8.0%) per year during 2006 to 2015. The trend for extra-pulmonary TB CNR declined but did not reach statistical significance in both regions. In conclusion, CNRs declined for all types of TB examined in both regions. Further research is needed to study trends for other TB dimensions such as treatment outcomes and notification of drug resistant TB cases.

Keywords: epidemiology, Namibia, temporal trends, tuberculosis

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185 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Authors: Ali Moafi, Kourosh Kalantarzadeh, Richard Kaner, Parviz Parvin, Ebrahim Asl Soleimani, Dougal McCulloch

Abstract:

In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.

Keywords: in situ Raman Spectroscopy, EELS, TEM, graphene oxide, graphene, atomic hydrogen

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184 Postmodern Communication Through Semiology

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

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This paper takes a semiological approach to show, that the meaning is not located in the art object nor it is exclusively in the mind of the perceiver, but rather lies in the relationship of the two. The ultimate intention of making art is to be presented and perceived by subjective human beings. But there will be as many different interpretations of the art presented to them, as they are individuals in the audience. To support this claim, the latest research from neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and Neo-Darwinism is used. This paper draws on Richard Dawkins’ concept of memes as one of the main tools for explaining how differences get created within various socio-cultural environments. Analyzing pitfalls of the modernist worldview, the author proposes postmodern methods as more efficient ways of understanding today’s complexities in the art, culture, and the world. Deconstructing how these differences have come about, presents a possibility for the transgression of the opposing and many times adamant viewpoints.

Keywords: semiology, music, meme, postmodern

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183 Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems

Authors: Richard Joseph, Nerey Mvungi

Abstract:

An electric power system includes a generating, a transmission, a distribution and consumers subsystems. An electrical power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines, capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of power systems from generation level to end user levels was determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E) version 30.3.2.

Keywords: automation, distribution subsystem, generating subsystem, PSS/E, TANESCO, transmission subsystem

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182 Modeling of Landslide-Generated Tsunamis in Georgia Strait, Southern British Columbia

Authors: Fatemeh Nemati, Lucinda Leonard, Gwyn Lintern, Richard Thomson

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In this study, we will use modern numerical modeling approaches to estimate tsunami risks to the southern coast of British Columbia from landslides. Wave generation is to be simulated using the NHWAVE model, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations due to the more complex behavior of flow near the landslide source; far-field wave propagation will be simulated using the simpler model FUNWAVE_TVD with high-order Boussinesq-type wave equations, with a focus on the accurate simulation of wave propagation and regional- or coastal-scale inundation predictions.

Keywords: FUNWAVE-TVD, landslide-generated tsunami, NHWAVE, tsunami risk

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181 Do Formalization and Centralization Influence Self-Efficacy and Its Outcomes? A Study of Direct and Moderating Effects

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa, Richard Glavee-Geo

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This study examined the relationship between traditional variables of organizational structure (formalization and centralization), employee work related self-efficacy and employee subjective performance. The study further explored the moderating role of formalization and centralization on the link between employee self-efficacy and job performance. Five hypotheses were tested using a sample of employees from a large public organization in Pakistan. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between employee self-efficacy and job performance. Regarding the direct effects of formalization and centralization on self-efficacy, the results showed that formalization relates positively while centralization has a negative impact on self-efficacy. However, the results revealed no empirical evidence to confirm the hypotheses that formalization and centralization strengthen or weaken the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance.

Keywords: centralization, formalization, job performance, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
180 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone

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Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: mobile applications, SUS, star rating, usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
179 Injury Prediction for Soccer Players Using Machine Learning

Authors: Amiel Satvedi, Richard Pyne

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Injuries in professional sports occur on a regular basis. Some may be minor, while others can cause huge impact on a player's career and earning potential. In soccer, there is a high risk of players picking up injuries during game time. This research work seeks to help soccer players reduce the risk of getting injured by predicting the likelihood of injury while playing in the near future and then providing recommendations for intervention. The injury prediction tool will use a soccer player's number of minutes played on the field, number of appearances, distance covered and performance data for the current and previous seasons as variables to conduct statistical analysis and provide injury predictive results using a machine learning linear regression model.

Keywords: injury predictor, soccer injury prevention, machine learning in soccer, big data in soccer

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178 Kiira EV Project Transition from Student to Professional Team through Project-Based Skills Development

Authors: Doreen Orishaba, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Richard Madanda, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa

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The world of academia tends to be a very insular place. Consequently, scholars who successfully completed their undergraduate and graduate studies are unpleasantly surprised at how challenging the transition to corporate life can get. This is a global trend even as the students who juggle work with attending some of the most demanding and best graduate programs may not easily adjust to and confirm to the professionalism required for corporate management of the industry. This paper explores the trends in the transition of Kiira EV Project from a predominantly student team to a professional team of a national pride program through mentorship and apprenticeship. The core disciplines within the Kiira EV Project include Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Industrial Design.

Keywords: mentorship, apprenticeship, professional, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
177 Influence of Decolourisation Condition on the Physicochemical Properties of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner F) Butter

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Mohagir, Ahmat-Charfadine Mahamat, Nde Divine Bup, Richard Kamga, César Kapseu

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In this investigation, kinetics studies of adsorption of colour material of shea butter showed a peak at the wavelength 440 nm and the equilibrium time was found to be 30 min. Response surface methodology applying Doehlert experimental design was used to investigate decolourisation parameters of crude shea butter. The decolourisation process was significantly influenced by three independent parameters: contact time, decolourisation temperature and adsorbent dose. The responses of the process were oil loss, acid value, peroxide value and colour index. Response surface plots were successfully made to visualise the effect of the independent parameters on the responses of the process.

Keywords: decolourisation, doehlert experimental design, physicochemical characterisation, RSM, shea butter

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176 Dividend Policy, Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

Authors: Richard Fairchild, Abdullah Al-Ghazali, Yilmaz Guney

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This study analyses the relationship between managerial overconfidence, dividends, and firm value by developing theoretical models that examine the condition under which managerial overconfident, dividends, and firm value may be positive or negative. Furthermore, the models incorporate moral hazard, in terms of managerial effort shirking, and the potential for the manager to choose negative NPV projects, due to private benefits. Our models demonstrate that overconfidence can lead to higher dividends (when the manager is overconfident about his current ability) or lower dividends (when the manager is overconfident about his future ability). The models also demonstrate that higher overconfidence may result in an increase or a decrease in firm value. Numerical examples are illustrated for both models which interestingly support the models’ propositions.

Keywords: behavioural corporate finance, dividend policy, overconfidence, moral hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
175 The Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Bonded Joint between AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

Authors: Richard E. Miller

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12.7-mm thick plates of 6061-T6511 aluminum alloy and high hardness steel (528 HV) were successfully joined by a friction stir bonding process using a tungsten-rhenium stir tool. Process parameter variation experiments, which included tool design geometry, plunge and traverse rates, tool offset, spindle tilt, and rotation speed, were conducted to develop a parameter set which yielded a defect free joint. Laboratory tensile tests exhibited yield stresses which exceed the strengths of comparable AA6061-to-AA6061 fusion and friction stir weld joints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis also show atomic diffusion at the material interface region.

Keywords: dissimilar materials, friction stir, welding, materials science

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
174 Failure Mode Analysis of a Multiple Layer Explosion Bonded Cryogenic Transition Joint

Authors: Richard Colwell, Thomas Englert

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In cryogenic liquefaction processes, brazed aluminum core heat exchangers are used to minimize surface area/volume of the exchanger. Aluminum alloy (5083-H321; UNS A95083) piping must transition to higher melting point 304L stainless steel piping outside of the heat exchanger kettle or cold box for safety reasons. Since aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel cannot be directly welded to together, a transition joint consisting of 5 layers of different metals explosively bonded are used. Failures of two of these joints resulted in process shut-down and loss of revenue. Failure analyses, FEA analysis, and mock-up testing were performed by multiple teams to gain a further understanding into the failure mechanisms involved.

Keywords: explosion bonding, intermetallic compound, thermal strain, titanium-nickel Interface

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173 Solution Growth of Titanium Nitride Nanowires for Implantation Application

Authors: Roaa Sait, Richard Cross

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The synthesis and characterization of one dimensional nanostructure such as nanowires has received considerable attention. Much effort has concentrated on TiN material especially in the biological field due to its useful and unique properties in this field. Therefore, for the purpose of this project, synthesis of Titanium Nitride (TiN) nanowires (NWs) will be presented. They will be synthesised by growing titanium dioxide (Ti) NWs in an aqueous solution at low temperatures under atmospheric pressure. Then the grown nanowires will undergo a 'Nitrodation process' in which results in the formation of TiN NWs. The structure, morphology and composition of the grown nanowires will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Obtaining TiN NWs is a challenging task since it has not been formulated before, as far as we acknowledge. This might be due to the fact that nitriding Ti NWs can be difficult in terms of optimizing experimental parameters.

Keywords: nanowires, dissolution-growth, nucleation, PECVD, deposition, spin coating, scanning electron microscopic analysis, cyclic voltammetry analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
172 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin

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This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: neural network, self-organizing map, rule extraction, rule insertion

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171 Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Seung Ki Lee, Richard Kyung

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In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.

Keywords: blades, drag force, national advisory committee for aeronautics airfoils, turbine

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170 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

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Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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169 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu

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This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

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168 The Theotokos of the Messina Missal as a Byzantine Icon in Norman Sicily: A Study on Patronage and Devotion

Authors: Jesus Rodriguez Viejo

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The aim of this paper is to study cross-cultural interactions between the West and Byzantium, in the fields of art and religion, by analyzing the decoration of one luxury manuscript. The Spanish National Library is home to one of the most extraordinary examples of illuminated manuscript production of Norman Sicily – the Messina Missal. Dating from the late twelfth century, this liturgical book was the result of the intense activity of artistic patronage of an Englishman, Richard Palmer. Appointed bishop of the Sicilian city in the second half of the century, Palmer set a painting workshop attached to his cathedral. The illuminated manuscripts produced there combine a clear Byzantine iconographic language with a myriad of elements imported from France, such as a large number of decorated initials. The most remarkable depiction contained in the Missal is that of the Theotokos (fol. 80r). Its appearance immediately recalls portative Byzantine icons of the Mother of God in South Italy and Byzantium and implies the intervention of an artist familiar with icon painting. The richness of this image is a clear proof of the prestige that Byzantine art enjoyed in the island after the Norman takeover. The production of the school of Messina under Richard Palmer could be considered a counterpart in the field of manuscript illumination of the court art of the Sicilian kings in Palermo and the impressive commissions for the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalù. However, the ethnic composition of Palmer’s workshop has never been analyzed and therefore, we intend to shed light on the permanent presence of Greek-speaking artists in Norman Messina. The east of the island was the last stronghold of the Greeks and soon after the Norman conquest, the previous exchanges between the cities of this territory and Byzantium restarted again, mainly by way of trade. Palmer was not a Norman statesman, but a churchman and his love for religion and culture prevailed over the wars and struggles for power of the Sicilian kingdom in the central Mediterranean. On the other hand, the representation of the Theotokos can prove that Eastern devotional approaches to images were still common in the east of the island more than a century after the collapse of Byzantine rule. Local Norman lords repeatedly founded churches devoted to Greek saints and medieval Greek-speaking authors were widely copied in Sicilian scriptoria. The Madrid Missal and its Theotokos are doubtless the product of Western initiative but in a land culturally dominated by Byzantium. Westerners, such as Palmer and his circle, could have been immersed in this Hellenophile culture and therefore, naturally predisposed to perform prayers and rituals, in both public and private contexts, linked to ideas and practices of Greek origin, such as the concept of icon.

Keywords: history of art, byzantine art, manuscripts, norman sicily, messina, patronage, devotion, iconography

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167 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III

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Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: dip coating, light-scattering, metal nanoparticles, nanosphere lithography

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166 Stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness up to Zonal Harmonic J₄ of Both Primaries

Authors: Kanshio Richard Tyokyaa, Jagadish Singh

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In this paper, we examined the location and stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of an infinitesimal body when both primaries are taken as oblate spheroids with oblateness up to zonal harmonic J₄. The positions of the Equilibrium points L₆,₇ and their stability depend on the oblateness of the primaries and the eccentricity of their orbits. We explored the problem numerically to show the effects of parameters involved in the position and stability of the Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points for the systems: HD188753 and Gliese 667. It is found that their positions are affected by the oblateness of the primaries, eccentricity and the semi-major axis of the orbits, but its stability behavior remains unchanged and is unstable.

Keywords: out-of-plane, equilibrium points, stability, elliptic restricted three-body problem, oblateness, zonal harmonic

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165 A Knowledge-As-A-Service Support Framework for Ambient Learning in Kenya

Authors: Lucy W. Mburu, Richard Karanja, Simon N. Mwendia

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Over recent years, learners have experienced a constant need to access on demand knowledge that is fully aligned with the paradigm of cloud computing. As motivated by the global sustainable development goal to ensure inclusive and equitable learning opportunities, this research has developed a framework hinged on the knowledge-as-a-service architecture that utilizes knowledge from ambient learning systems. Through statistical analysis and decision tree modeling, the study discovers influential variables for ambient learning among university students. The main aim is to generate a platform for disseminating and exploiting the available knowledge to aid the learning process and, thus, to improve educational support on the ambient learning system. The research further explores how collaborative effort can be used to form a knowledge network that allows access to heterogeneous sources of knowledge, which benefits knowledge consumers, such as the developers of ambient learning systems.

Keywords: actionable knowledge, ambient learning, cloud computing, decision trees, knowledge as a service

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164 Solid Particle Erosion of Heat Treated TNB-V4 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Richard Stechow, Sebastian Bolz, Katharina Hobusch, Sabine Weiß

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Solid particle erosion has been identified as a critical wear phenomenon which takes place during operation of aeroengines in dusty environment. The present work discusses the erosion behavior of Ti-44.5Al-6.25Nb-0.8Mo-0.1B alloy (TNB-V4) which finds its application in low pressure gas turbines and can be used for high pressure compressors too. Prior to the erosion tests, the alloy was heat treated to improve the mechanical properties. Afterwards, specimens were eroded at impact angles of 30° and 90° at room and high temperatures (100 °C-400 °C). Volume loss and erosion behavior are studied through gravimetric analysis, whereas erosion mechanisms are characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate a clear difference in the erosion mechanism for different impact angles. The influence of the test temperature on the erosion behavior of the alloy is also discussed in the present contribution.

Keywords: solid particle erosion, gamma TiAl, TNB-V4, high temperature erosion

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