Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9536

Search results for: status of test automation

9536 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

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9535 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

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Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
9534 A Framework for Automating Software Testing: A Practical Approach

Authors: Ana Paula Cavalcanti Furtado, Silvio Meira

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Context: The quality of a software product can be directly influenced by the quality of its development process. Therefore, immature or ad-hoc test processes are means that are unsuited for introducing systematic test automation, and should not be used to support improving the quality of software. Objective: In order to conduct this research, the benefits and limitations of and gaps in automating software testing had to be assessed in order to identify the best practices and to propose a strategy for systematically introducing test automation into software development processes. Method: To conduct this research, an exploratory bibliographical survey was undertaken so as to underpin the search by theory and the recent literature. After defining the proposal, two case studies were conducted so as to analyze the proposal in a real-world environment. In addition, the proposal was also assessed through a focus group with specialists in the field. Results: The proposal of a Framework for Automating Software Testing (FAST), which is a theoretical framework consisting of a hierarchical structure to introduce test automation. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that the absence of systematic processes is one of the factors that hinder the introduction of test automation. Based on the results of the case studies, FAST can be considered as a satisfactory alternative that lies within the scope of introducing and maintaining test automation in software development.

Keywords: software process improvement, software quality, software testing, test automation

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9533 HIV Disclosure Status and Factors among Women to Their Sexual Partner in Victory plus, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Dwi Kartika Rukmi, Miftafu Darussalam

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Background: The disclosure of women’s HIV status toward their sexual partners is an important issue that should be regarded as one of the efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. Research on the disclosure of seropositive HIV status as well as women-related factors in Indonesia, especially Yogyakarta is only a few. Methods: This is a correlational descriptive research along with its cross-sectional approach on 329 women with HIV/AIDS at the Victory Plus NGO from June to July 2016. This research used a purposive sampling method and a questionnaire as the data collection technique. The bivariate analysis test was undertaken by using a chi-square and multivariate test along with a logistic regression. Result: The multivariate analysis and logistic regression show five independent variables related to the disclosure of seropositive HIV status of women with HIV/AIDS toward their sexual partners, namely ethnicity (aOR = 36,859; 95% CI; (6,544-207,616)) religion (aOR =0,255; 95%CI; (0,075-0,868)), discussion with partners prior to the HIV test (aOR =0,069; 95%CI; (0,065-0,438)) , types of sexual partners (aOR = 0.191; 95% CI; (0.082-0,445)) and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status (aOR = 0.036; 95% CI; (0.008-0.160)). The highest level of reason for seropositive HIV women not to be open about their partners’ status is the fear of being rejected by their partners and the environmental stigma of HIV AIDS disease. Conclusion: The disclosure of seropositive HIV status in women with HIV/AIDS in the Victory Plus NGO of Yogyakarta was 79.4% or classified as a high category with some related factors such as ethnicity, religion, discussion with partners prior to the HIV test, types of partners and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status.

Keywords: women, HIV, disclosure, sexual partner

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9532 Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation

Authors: Peter Sabev, Katalina Grigorova

Abstract:

Test automation allows performing difficult and time consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully applied in real world situations in several software companies by the authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites, cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes, connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or are connected to an embedded service gateway.

Keywords: automated testing, manual testing, test automation, software testing, test prioritization

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
9531 The Effect of Computerized Systems of Office Automation on Employees' Productivity Efficiency

Authors: Mohammad Hemmati, Mohammad Taban, Ali Yasini

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One of the factors that can play an important role in increasing productivity is the optimal use of information technology, which in this area today has a significant role to play in computer systems of office automation in organizations and companies. Therefore, this research has been conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of the relationship between computerized systems of office automation and the productivity of employees in the municipality of Ilam city. The statistical population of this study was 110 people. Using Cochran formula, the minimum sample size is 78 people. The present research is a descriptive-looking research in terms of the type of objective view. A questionnaire was used to collect data. To assess the reliability of variables, Cornbrash’s alpha coefficient was used, which was equal to 0.85; SPSS19 and Pearson test were used to analyze the data and test the hypothesis of the research. In this research, three hypotheses of the relationship between office automation with efficiency, performance, and effectiveness were investigated. The results showed a direct and positive relationship between the office automation system and the increase in the efficiency, effectiveness, and efficiency of employees, and there was no reason to reject these hypotheses.

Keywords: efficiency, performance, effectiveness, automation

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9530 Rest API Based System-level Test Automation for Mobile Applications

Authors: Jisoo Song

Abstract:

Today’s mobile applications are communicating with servers more and more in order to access external services or information. Also, server-side code changes are more frequent than client-side code changes in a mobile application. The frequent changes lead to an increase in testing cost increase. To reduce costs, UI based test automation can be one of the solutions. It is a common automation technique in system-level testing. However, it can be unsuitable for mobile applications. When you automate tests based on UI elements for mobile applications, there are some limitations such as the overhead of script maintenance or the difficulty of finding invisible defects that UI elements cannot represent. To overcome these limitations, we present a new automation technique based on Rest API. You can automate system-level tests through test scripts that you write. These scripts call a series of Rest API in a user’s action sequence. This technique does not require testers to know the internal implementation details, only input and expected output of Rest API. You can easily modify test cases by modifying Rest API input values and also find problems that might not be evident from the UI level by validating output values. For example, when an application receives price information from a payment server and user cannot see it at UI level, Rest API based scripts can check whether price information is correct or not. More than 10 mobile applications at our company are being tested automatically based on Rest API scripts whenever application source code, mostly server source code, is built. We are finding defects right away by setting a script as a build job in CI server. The build job starts when application code builds are completed. This presentation will also include field cases from our company.

Keywords: case studies at SK Planet, introduction of rest API based test automation, limitations of UI based test automation

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9529 Bias-Corrected Estimation Methods for Receiver Operating Characteristic Surface

Authors: Khanh To Duc, Monica Chiogna, Gianfranco Adimari

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With three diagnostic categories, assessment of the performance of diagnostic tests is achieved by the analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface, which generalizes the ROC curve for binary diagnostic outcomes. The volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is a summary index usually employed for measuring the overall diagnostic accuracy. When the true disease status can be exactly assessed by means of a gold standard (GS) test, unbiased nonparametric estimators of the ROC surface and VUS are easily obtained. In practice, unfortunately, disease status verification via the GS test could be unavailable for all study subjects, due to the expensiveness or invasiveness of the GS test. Thus, often only a subset of patients undergoes disease verification. Statistical evaluations of diagnostic accuracy based only on data from subjects with verified disease status are typically biased. This bias is known as verification bias. Here, we consider the problem of correcting for verification bias when continuous diagnostic tests for three-class disease status are considered. We assume that selection for disease verification does not depend on disease status, given test results and other observed covariates, i.e., we assume that the true disease status, when missing, is missing at random. Under this assumption, we discuss several solutions for ROC surface analysis based on imputation and re-weighting methods. In particular, verification bias-corrected estimators of the ROC surface and of VUS are proposed, namely, full imputation, mean score imputation, inverse probability weighting and semiparametric efficient estimators. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators are established, and their finite sample behavior is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation studies. Two illustrations using real datasets are also given.

Keywords: imputation, missing at random, inverse probability weighting, ROC surface analysis

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9528 Relationships of Functional Status and Subjective Health Status among Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Residing in the Community

Authors: Hee-Young Song

Abstract:

Background and objectives: In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommendations proposed a multidimensional assessment of patients’ conditions that included both functional parameters and patient-reported outcomes, with the aim to provide a comprehensive assessment of the disease, thus meeting both the needs of the patient and the role of the physician. However, few studies have evaluated patient-reported outcomes as well as objective functional assessments among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in clinical practice in Korea. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between functional status assessed by the 6-minute walking distance (MWD) test and subjective health status reported by stable patients with COPD residing in community. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 118 stable COPD patients aged 69.4 years old and selected by a convenient sampling from an outpatient department of pulmonology in a tertiaryhospitals. The 6-MWD test was conducted according to standardized instructions. Participants also completed a constructed questionnaire including general characteristics, smoking history, dyspnea by modified medical research council (mMRC) scale, and health status by COPD assessment test (CAT). Anthropometric measurements were performed for body mass index (BMI). Medical records were reviewed to obtain disease-related characteristics including duration of the disease and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Data were analyzed using PASW statistics 20.0. Results: Mean FEV1% of participants was 63.51% and mean 6-MWD and CAT scores were 297.54m and 17.7, respectively. The 6-MWD and CAT showed significant negative correlations (r= -.280, p=.002); FEV1 and CAT did as well correlations (r= -.347, p < .001). Conclusions: Findings suggest that the better functional status an individual with COPD has, the better subjective health status is, and provide the support for using patient-reported outcomes along with functional parameters to facilitate comprehensive assessment of COPD patients in real clinical practices.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD assessment test, functional status, patient-reported outcomes

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9527 Health and Performance Fitness Assessment of Adolescents in Middle Income Schools in Lagos State

Authors: Onabajo Paul

Abstract:

The testing and assessment of physical fitness of school-aged adolescents in Nigeria has been going on for several decades. Originally, these tests strictly focused on identifying health and physical fitness status and comparing the results of adolescents with others. There is a considerable interest in health and performance fitness of adolescents in which results attained are compared with criteria representing positive health rather than simply on score comparisons with others. Despite the fact that physical education program is being studied in secondary schools and physical activities are encouraged, it is observed that regular assessment of students’ fitness level and health status seems to be scarce or not being done in these schools. The purpose of the study was to assess the heath and performance fitness of adolescents in middle-income schools in Lagos State. A total number of 150 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Participants were measured on hand grip strength, sit-up, pacer 20 meter shuttle run, standing long jump, weight and height. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of means, standard deviations, and range and compared with fitness norms. It was concluded that majority 111(74.0%) of the adolescents achieved the healthy fitness zone, 33(22.0%) were very lean, and 6(4.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of Body Mass Index test. For muscular strength, majority 78(52.0%) were weak, 66(44.0%) were normal, and 6(4.0%) were strong according to the normative standard of hand-grip strength test. For aerobic capacity fitness, majority 93(62.0%) needed improvement and were at health risk, 36(24.0%) achieved healthy fitness zone, and 21(14.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of PACER test. Majority 48(32.0%) of the participants had good hip flexibility, 38(25.3%) had fair status, 27(18.0%) needed improvement, 24(16.0%) had very good hip flexibility status, and 13(8.7%) of the participants had excellent status. Majority 61(40.7%) had average muscular endurance status, 30(20.0%) had poor status, 29(18.3%) had good status, 28(18.7%) had fair muscular endurance status, and 2(1.3%) of the participants had excellent status according to the normative standard of sit-up test. Majority 52(34.7%) had low jump ability fitness, 47(31.3%) had marginal fitness, 31(20.7%) had good fitness, and 20(13.3%) had high performance fitness according to the normative standard of standing long jump test. Based on the findings, it was concluded that majority of the adolescents had better Body Mass Index status, and performed well in both hip flexibility and muscular endurance tests. Whereas majority of the adolescents performed poorly in aerobic capacity test, muscular strength and jump ability test. It was recommended that to enhance wellness, adolescents should be involved in physical activities and recreation lasting 30 minutes three times a week. Schools should engage in fitness program for students on regular basis at both senior and junior classes so as to develop good cardio-respiratory, muscular fitness and improve overall health of the students.

Keywords: adolescents, health-related fitness, performance-related fitness, physical fitness

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9526 A Clinical Study of Correlation between Pterygium and Dry Eye

Authors: Megha Ramnik Kotecha

Abstract:

To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. Detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected with dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P<0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film unstability. On comparision of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight threatening complications.

Keywords: dry eye, pterygium, Schirmer's test, tear break up time (TBUT)

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9525 The Differences in Organizational Citizenship Behavior Based on Work Status of Hotels Employees in Bali in Terms of Quality of Work Life

Authors: Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Komang Rahayu Indrawati

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The increasing number of tourists coming to Bali, causing accommodation facilities, such as hotels have increased. The existence of hotel needs will be the source of labor and cost efficiency, so that hotel management employs employees with different working status. The hospitality industry is one of the sectors that require organizational citizenship behavior because, the main goal of every hotel, in general, was to provide the best service and quality to tourists. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in organizational citizenship behavior based on work status of employees at the Hotel in Bali in terms of quality of work life. Research sample was chosen randomly through two-stage cluster sampling which succeeds to obtain 126 samples from 11 hotels in Denpasar, Bali. The subjects consisted of 64 employees with Employment Agreement of Uncertain Time or who is often called a permanent employee and 62 employees with Employment Agreement of Certain Time or better known as contract employees, outsourcing, and daily workers. Instruments in this study were the scale of organizational citizenship behavior and the scale of quality of work life. The results of ANCOVA analysis showed there were differences in organizational citizenship behavior based on employee work status in terms of quality of work life. Differences in organizational citizenship behavior and quality of work life based on work status of employees using comparative test was analysis by independent sample t-test shows there were differences in organizational citizenship behavior and quality of work life between employees with different working status in hotels in Bali. The result of the regression analysis showed the functional relationship between quality of work life and organizational citizenship behavior.

Keywords: hotel in Bali, organizational citizenship behavior, quality of work life, work status of employees

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9524 A Practical Approach and Implementation of Digital Library Towards Best Practice in Malaysian Academic Library

Authors: Zainab Ajab Mohideen, Kiran Kaur, A. Basheer Ahamadhu, Noor Azlinda Wan Jan, Sukmawati Muhammad

Abstract:

The corpus in the digital library is to provide an overview and evidence from library automation that can be used to justify the needs of the digital library. This paper disperses the approach and implementation of the digital library as part of best practices by the Automation Division at Hamzah Sendut Library of the University Science Malaysia (USM). The implemented digital library model emphasizes on the entire library collections, technical perspective, and automation solution. This model served as a foundation for digital library services as part of information delivery in the USM digital library. The approach to digital library includes discussion on key factors, design, architecture, and pragmatic model that has been collected, captured, and identified during the implementation stages. At present, the USM digital library has achieved the status of an Institutional Repository (IR).

Keywords: academic digital library, digital information system, digital library best practice, digital library model

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9523 Analyzing Test Data Generation Techniques Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Arslan Ellahi, Syed Amjad Hussain

Abstract:

Software Testing is a vital process in software development life cycle. We can attain the quality of software after passing it through software testing phase. We have tried to find out automatic test data generation techniques that are a key research area of software testing to achieve test automation that can eventually decrease testing time. In this paper, we review some of the approaches presented in the literature which use evolutionary search based algorithms like Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), etc. to validate the test data generation process. We also look into the quality of test data generation which increases or decreases the efficiency of testing. We have proposed test data generation techniques for model-based testing. We have worked on tuning and fitness function of PSO algorithm.

Keywords: search based, evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, test data generation

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9522 Organizational Agility in 22 Districts of Tehran Municipality

Authors: Mehrnoosh Jafari, Zeinolabedin Amini Sabegh, Habibollah Azimian

Abstract:

Background: Today variable and dynamic environment doubles importance of using suitable solutions for confronting these changes in th4e organizations. One of the best ways for coping with environmental changes is directing the organization towards agility. Current research aims at investigating status of organizational agility in Tehran municipality (22 districts). Research Methodology: This research is applied research in terms of purpose of study and it is survey in terms of collection of descriptive data. A sample (n = 377) was selected from Tehran Municipality (22 districts) employees using multistage sampling method (cluster and regular). Data were collected using organizational agility standard questionnaire, and they were analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS software as well as inferential statistics such as one-sample t-test and Friedman test and descriptive statistics such as mean and median. Findings: Research findings showed organizational agility status in the organizations under study is in relatively optimal status and competence has highest priority in terms of ranking and priority of organizational agility indexes. Conclusion: It is necessary that managers provide suitable conditions for promoting organizational agility status in the organizations under study by identifying factors affecting change in the organizational environments and using available potentials for better coping with changes and higher flexibility and speed.

Keywords: organizational, municipality, employer, agility

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9521 Effect of Blood Sugar Levels on Short Term and Working Memory Status in Type 2 Diabetics

Authors: Mythri G., Manjunath ML, Girish Babu M., Shireen Swaliha Quadri

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Background: The increase in diabetes among the elderly is of concern because in addition to the wide range of traditional diabetes complications, evidence has been growing that diabetes is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Aims and Objectives: To find out if there is any association between blood sugar levels and short-term and working memory status in patients of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 200 individuals aged between 40-65 years consisting of 100 diagnosed cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and 100 non-diabetics from OPD of Mc Gann Hospital, Shivamogga. Rye’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Visual Reproduction Test, Working Digit Span Test and Validation Span Test were used to assess short-term and working memory. Fasting and Post Prandial blood sugar levels were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Memory test scores of type 2 diabetics were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) when compared to the memory scores of age and gender matched non-diabetics. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.837), VFT (r=-0.888), VRT(r=-0.787), WDST (r=-0.795) and VST (r=-0.943). Post- Prandial blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.922), VFT (r=-0.848), VRT(r=-0.707),WDST (r=-0.729) and VST (r=-0.880) Memory scores in all 5 tests were found to be negatively correlated with the FBS and PPBS levels in diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The decreased memory status in diabetic patients may be due to many factors like hyperglycemia, vascular disease, insulin resistance, amyloid deposition and also some of the factor combine to produce additive effects like, type of diabetes, co-morbidities, age of onset, duration of the disease and type of therapy. These observed effects of blood sugar levels of diabetics on memory status are of potential clinical importance because even mild cognitive impairment could interfere with todays’ activities.

Keywords: diabetes, cognition, diabetes, HRV, respiratory medicine

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9520 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo

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This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

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9519 A Study on Relationship of Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status with Obesity in Indian Children

Authors: Sushma Ghildyal, Sanjay Kumar Singh

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The present study was undertaken with the purpose to understand the relationship of lifestyle and Socio-Economic status with child obesity among 1000 boys aged from 16 to 18 years of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The study was conducted in both urban and rural area of the District. Ten schools i.e. five from urban area and five from rural area were selected by using purposive sampling. Healthy boys of class 10th, 11th and 12th were taken as subjects for the study. Prior consent was obtained from school authority. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each subject. Anthropometric measurements were Standing Height, Weight, Biceps skin folds, Triceps skin folds, Sub-scapular skin folds and Supra-iliac skin folds taken by Lange’s skin fold caliper. Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status were obtained by questionnaires. In order to assess the BMI, Body fat %, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status; descriptive analyses were done. To find out the significant association of obesity with lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status Chi-square test was used. To find out significant difference between obesity of Urban and Rural children t-test was applied. Level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The conclusions drawn were: (1) The result showed that in urban area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.6% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 6.2% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 25.4% above average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.8% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 3.6% and 0.4% low and very low level adaptive lifestyle. (2) In rural area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.00% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 9.4% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 24.8% average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.0% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 15.2% below average and 3.0% very low level adaptive lifestyle.(3) In urban area 12.8% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 56.6% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 30.2% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.2% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (4) In rural area 1.4% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 15.2% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 51.6% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.8% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (5) In urban area 21.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (6) In rural area 0.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (7) In overall Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 10.7% children of 16-18 years were obese. (8) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of urban area children of 16-18 years. (9) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of urban area children of 16-18 years (10) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of rural area children of 16-18 years of Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. (11) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of rural area children of 16-18 years. (12) Results showed significant difference between urban and rural area children of 16-18 years in respect to obesity of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: lifestyle, obesity, rural area, socio-economic status, urban area

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9518 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors

Authors: Nuran Nur Aypar, Merlinda Alus Tokat

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The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.

Keywords: affecting factors, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), knowledge level, nursing, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
9517 The Effort of Nutrition Status Improvement through Partnership with Early Age Education Institution on Urban Region, City of Semarang, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati

Abstract:

In Indonesia, from 2007 until 2013, the prevalence of overnutrition in children under five years and school age tends to increase. Clean and Health Life Behavior of school children supporting nutrition status still below the determined target. On the other side, school institution is an ideal place to educate and form health behavior, that should be initiated as early as possible (Early Age Education/PAUD level). The objective of this research was to find out the effectivity of education model through partnership with school institution in urban region, city of Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research used quantitative approach supported with qualitative data. The population consist of all mother having school children of ages 3-5 years within the research region; sampling technique was purposive sampling, as many as 237 mothers. Research instrument was Clean and Health Life Behavior evaluation questionaire, and video as education media. The research used experimental design. Data analysis used effectivity criteria from Sugiyono and 2 paired sampel t test. Education model optimalization in the effort to improve nutrition status indicates t test result with signification < 0.05 (there was significant effect before and after model intervention), with effectivity test result of 79% (effective), but still below expected target which is 80%. Education model need to be utilized and optimallized the implementation so that expected target reached.

Keywords: nutrition status, early age education, clean dan health life behavior, education model

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9516 The Factors Associated with Health Status among Community Health Volunteers in Thailand

Authors: Lapatrada Numkham, Saowaluk Khakhong, Jeeraporn Kummabutr

Abstract:

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in worldwide. Thailand also concerns and focuses on reduction a new case of these diseases. Community Health Volunteers (CHV) is important health personnel in primary health care and performs as a health leader in the community. If the health of CHV changes, it would impact on the performance to promote health of families and community. This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) describe the health status of community health volunteers and 2) examine the factors associated with health status among community health volunteers. The sample included 360 community health volunteers in a province in central Thailand during September-December 2014. Data were collected using questionnaires on health information, knowledge of health behaviors, and health behaviors. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood glucose (BS) (fingertip) were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. There were three hundred and sixty participants with 82.5% being women. The mean age was 54 + 8.9 years. Forty-seven percent of the participants had co-morbidities. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity (26.7%). The results revealed that the health status of the volunteers included: no underlying disease, having risk of hypertension (HT) & diabetes mellitus (DM), and having HT&DM at 38.3%, 30.0%, and 31.7% respectively. The chi-square test revealed that the factors associated with health status among the volunteers were gender, age, WC and body mass index (BMI). The results suggested that community health nurses should; 1) implement interventions to decrease waist circumference and lose weight through education programs, especially females; 2) monitor people that have a risk of HT&DM and that have HT&DM by meeting and recording BP level, BS level, WC and BMI; and 3) collaborate with a district public health officer to initiate a campaign to raise awareness of the risks of chronic diseases among community health volunteers.

Keywords: community health volunteers, health status, risk of non-communicable disease, Thailand

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9515 Status of Hospitality and Tourism Management Progam of Selected Private Higher Education Institutions: Basis for Internationalization

Authors: Ruth Estrada Javier - Reyes

Abstract:

The study assessed the status of HTM program of selected private higher education institutions for internationalization across the eleven regions of the country. The descriptive survey method of research was used in this study. A devised survey questionnaire was utilized to gather information about the status of Philippine Higher Education Institutions’ internationalization of hospitality and tourism management education programs. The respondents were 12 administrators, 17 deans and program heads, 104 faculty members and 860 HTM students. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test and F-test were used to treat the data. The results of the study are as follows: HEIs’ HTM education had complied with the policies/standards of CHED as per CMO No. 30 S. 2006. The respondents of the HTM education program were qualified for internationalization as assessed both by administrators and faculty. The private HEIs are ready to apply for international certification of their HTM education programs. The curriculum of HTM education programs in private HEIs are enriched by internationalization requirements. The administrators and faculty of HTM education programs are qualified educators but have limited participation in collaborative international research and linkages. The HEIs are qualified to apply for the internationalization of the Hospitality and Tourism Management education program in preparation to the ASEAN 2015.

Keywords: status, Hospitality and Tourism Management Program, internationalization, Private Higher Education Institutions

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9514 Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China

Authors: Yanhui Jia, Ning Guo, Juan Li, Yunkui Sun, Wei Yang, Tianping Zhang, Lin Ma, Wei Meng, Hai Geng

Abstract:

The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou institute of physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was designed for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.

Keywords: LaB6, hollow cathode, thruster, lifetime test, electric propulsion

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9513 Reducing Waiting Time in Outpatient Services: Six Sigma and Technological Approach

Authors: Omkar More, Isha Saini, Gracy Mathai

Abstract:

To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of the tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂ 10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected by dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P < 0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film instability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing a risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight-threatening complications.

Keywords: footfall, nursing assessment, quality improvement, six sigma

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
9512 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

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9511 Influences of Socioeconomic Status and Age on Child Creativity: An Exploratory Study Applied to School Children in Poland

Authors: Bernard Vaernes

Abstract:

Creativity is thought to be of importance for educational success. Educational institutions vary greatly in regard to socioeconomic status (SES) and curricular emphasis on creativity. Research is needed to clarify the effects of age and SES on creativity. The objective of this study will be to compare the creative performance of children with different SES, low or high, and age. It is hypothesized that younger children will score higher than older children, independent of their SES. Children aged 15, 12, and 9 from four different junior and secondary schools in Warsaw, Poland, will participate in the study. The schools will differ in terms of socioeconomic, geographic localization. To assess creative performance, a Polish adaptation of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) will be used. In order to select low and high SES individuals for SES grouping, a Polish adaptation of the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status will be given to all participants. To control for individual differences in personality traits, a Polish adaptation of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) will be used. These measures will allow to compare the creative performance of children with different age and SES and eliminate confound variables. It is predicted that younger children, as well as high SES children, will score higher on the TTCT than older children, and low SES children. The findings of this study may provide useful insight into socioeconomic and age differences in creativity, as well as facilitating teacher’s adjustment of learning styles and emphasis on creativity in relation to the SES and age of their students.

Keywords: big five questionnaire for children, children, creativity, socioeconomic status, Torrance test of creative thinking, TTCT

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9510 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

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In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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9509 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

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Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
9508 Decision Support System for Fetus Status Evaluation Using Cardiotocograms

Authors: Oyebade K. Oyedotun

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The cardiotocogram is a technical recording of the heartbeat rate and uterine contractions of a fetus during pregnancy. During pregnancy, several complications can occur to both the mother and the fetus; hence it is very crucial that medical experts are able to find technical means to check the healthiness of the mother and especially the fetus. It is very important that the fetus develops as expected in stages during the pregnancy period; however, the task of monitoring the health status of the fetus is not that which is easily achieved as the fetus is not wholly physically available to medical experts for inspection. Hence, doctors have to resort to some other tests that can give an indication of the status of the fetus. One of such diagnostic test is to obtain cardiotocograms of the fetus. From the analysis of the cardiotocograms, medical experts can determine the status of the fetus, and therefore necessary medical interventions. Generally, medical experts classify examined cardiotocograms into ‘normal’, ‘suspect’, or ‘pathological’. This work presents an artificial neural network based decision support system which can filter cardiotocograms data, producing the corresponding statuses of the fetuses. The capability of artificial neural network to explore the cardiotocogram data and learn features that distinguish one class from the others has been exploited in this research. In this research, feedforward and radial basis neural networks were trained on a publicly available database to classify the processed cardiotocogram data into one of the three classes: ‘normal’, ‘suspect’, or ‘pathological’. Classification accuracies of 87.8% and 89.2% were achieved during the test phase of the trained network for the feedforward and radial basis neural networks respectively. It is the hope that while the system described in this work may not be a complete replacement for a medical expert in fetus status evaluation, it can significantly reinforce the confidence in medical diagnosis reached by experts.

Keywords: decision support, cardiotocogram, classification, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
9507 An Appraisal of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Mental Toughness of Cricketers

Authors: Punam Shaw

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Relationship often refers to the acquaintance or association between two or more things, which are interrelated and interdependent. The socio-economic status is obviously a blending of two states, would, therefore, be a ranking of an individual by the society he or she lives in, and in terms of his/her material belonging, cultural possessions along with the degree of respect, power and influence wield. Hence, education, income and occupation of an individual play a significant role in society. Positive mental attitude leads to achieve the set goal, and improve performance particularly in team cohesiveness, which may be determined by various interrelated aspects, which can predict the future assessment in their respective field accordingly. The study intended to examine and explore the relationship between Socio-economic Status and Mental Toughness of cricketers. For the present study descriptive survey research method was used and selected 40 (male=20 female=20) U-17 years registered players under Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB), as the sample population. Modified Socio-Economic Status Scale was used to collect the data regarding players, socioeconomic Status and to assess the mental toughness; Scott Barry Kaufman questionnaire was used. The data had been analysed through applying Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and t-test as statistical techniques. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive correlation between socioeconomic Status and Mental Toughness among cricketers, it was found that significant difference was presented between male and female SES group. It was further revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female cricketers and in their different socioeconomic class with respect to their mental toughness.

Keywords: cricketers, mental toughness, relationship, socio-economic status

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