Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: mentorship

30 Mentorship and Feelings of Identify and Self-Efficacy in Women Returning to the Workforce after an Extended Child-Rearing Leave

Authors: Jacquelyn Irene Eidson


Women who leave the workforce due to motherhood and wish to return are a valuable, untapped resource for organizations. Levinson’s theory of adult development defines life as a sequence of transitions requiring difficult decisions that prompt humans to question their identity and their self-efficacy. The experience of being a working mother and the experience of workplace mentorship have received extensive research attention. Merging the two experiences and focusing on feelings of identity and self-efficacy provides a unique and focused opportunity for learning. Through one-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with working mothers that had previously left the workforce for an extended leave due to child-rearing, a meaningful description of their experiences will be obtained. Data is currently being collected via a collaboration with state banking associations in the United States. Results from the study will enable organizations worldwide to more effectively provide mentorship opportunities built around a culture of understanding while more effectively recruiting, supporting, developing, and retaining this valuable talent pool.

Keywords: identity, mentorship, self-efficacy, working mother

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29 Understanding Innovation, Mentorship, and Motivation in Teams, a Design-Centric Approach for Undergraduates

Authors: K. Z. Tang, K. Ameek, K. Kuang


Rapid product development cycles and changing economic conditions compel businesses to find new ways to stay relevant and effective. One of the ways which many companies have adopted is to spur innovations within the various team-based units in the organization. It would be relevant and important to ensure our graduates are ready to excel in such evolving conditions within their professional eco-systems. However, it is not easy to understand the interplays of nurturing team innovation and improving students’ learning, in the context of engineering education. In this study, we seek to understand team innovation and explore ways to improve students’ performance and learning, via motivation and mentorship. Learning goals from a group of students are collected during a carefully designed two-week long summer programme to provide insights on the main themes, within the context of learning and working in a team.

Keywords: team innovation, mentorship, motivation, learning

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28 Foreign Language Faculty Mentorship in Vietnam: An Interpretive Qualitative Study

Authors: Hung Tran


This interpretive qualitative study employed three theoretical lenses: Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Ecological System of Human Development, Vygotsky’s (1978) Sociocultural Theory of Development, and Knowles’s (1970) Adult Learning Theory as the theoretical framework in connection with the constructivist research paradigm to investigate into positive and negative aspects of the extant English as a Foreign Language (EFL) faculty mentoring programs at four higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) of Vietnam. Four apprentice faculty members (mentees), four experienced faculty members (mentors), and two associate deans (administrators) from these HEIs participated in two tape-recorded individual interviews in the Vietnamese language. Twenty interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English with verification. The initial analysis of data reveals that the mentoring program, which is mandated by Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, has been implemented differently at these HEIs due to a lack of officially-documented mentoring guidance. Other general themes emerging from the data include essentials of the mentoring program, approaches of the mentoring practice, the mentee – mentor relationship, and lifelong learning beyond the mentoring program. Practically, this study offers stakeholders in the mentoring cycle description of benefits and best practices of tertiary EFL mentorship and a suggested mentoring program that is metaphorically depicted as “a lifebuoy” for its current and potential administrators and mentors to help their mentees survive in the first years of teaching. Theoretically, this study contributes to the world’s growing knowledge of post-secondary mentorship by enriching the modest literature on Asian tertiary EFL mentorship.

Keywords: faculty mentorship, mentees, mentors, administrator, the MRD, Vietnam

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27 Going the Distance – Building Peer Support during a Time of Crisis

Authors: Lisa Gray, Henry Kronner, Tameca Harris-Jackson, Mimi Sodhi, Ruth Gerritsen-McKane, Donette Considine


The MSW Peer Mentorship Program (PMP) was developed as one of several approaches to foster student success. The key purposes of the PMP are to help new graduate students transition to a graduate program, facilitate relationship building between students, grow and sustain student satisfaction, and build a strong connection to the MSW program. This pilot program also serves as an additional source of support for students during the era of the Covid-19 pandemic. Further, the long-term goals of the program are to assist in student retention. Preliminary findings suggest that both mentors and mentees enrolled in PMP find the peer mentoring relationship to have a positive impact on their graduate learning experience.

Keywords: covid-19, mentorship, peer support, student success

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26 Kiira EV Project Transition from Student to Professional Team through Project-Based Skills Development

Authors: Doreen Orishaba, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Richard Madanda, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa


The world of academia tends to be a very insular place. Consequently, scholars who successfully completed their undergraduate and graduate studies are unpleasantly surprised at how challenging the transition to corporate life can get. This is a global trend even as the students who juggle work with attending some of the most demanding and best graduate programs may not easily adjust to and confirm to the professionalism required for corporate management of the industry. This paper explores the trends in the transition of Kiira EV Project from a predominantly student team to a professional team of a national pride program through mentorship and apprenticeship. The core disciplines within the Kiira EV Project include Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Industrial Design.

Keywords: mentorship, apprenticeship, professional, development

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25 How Best Mentors mentor: A Metadiscursive Study of Mentoring Styles in Teacher Education

Authors: Cissy Li


Mentorship is a commonly used strategy for career development that has obvious benefits for students in undergraduate pre-service teacher training programs. In contrast to teaching practicum, which generally involves pedagogical supervision and performance evaluation by teachers, mentorship is more focused on sharing experiences, supporting challenges, and nurturing skills in order to promote personal and professional growth. To empower pre-service teachers and prepare them for potential challenges in the context of local English language teaching (ELT), an alumni mentoring program was established in the framework of communities of practice (CoP), with the mentors being in-service graduates working in local schools and mentees being students on the teacher-training programme in a Hong Kong university. By triangulating audio transcripts of mentoring sessions delivered by three top mentors with data from questionnaire responses and mentor logs, this paper examines the mentoring styles of the three best mentors from the metadiscursive perspective. It was found that, in a community of practice, mentors who may seem to enjoy a relative more dominant position, in fact, had to strategically and pragmatically employ metadiscursive resources to manage relationships with the mentees and organize talks in the mentoring process. Other attributing factors for a successful mentoring session include mentor personality and prior mentorship experiences, nature of the activities in the session, and group dynamics. This paper concludes that it is the combination of all the factors that constitute a particular mentoring style. The findings have implications for mentoring programs in teacher preparation.

Keywords: mentoring, teacher education, mentoring style, metadiscourse

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24 Challenges Brought about by Integrating Multiple Stakeholders into Farm Management Mentorship of Land Reform Beneficiaries in South Africa

Authors: Carlu Van Der Westhuizen


The South African Agricultural Sector is of major socio-economic importance to the country due to its contribution in maintaining stability in food production and food security, providing labour opportunities, eradicating poverty and earning foreign currency. Against this reality, this paper investigates within the Agricultural Sector in South Africa the changes in Land Policies that the new democratically elected government (African National Congress) brought about since their takeover in 1994. The change in the agricultural environment is decidedly dualistic, with 1) a commercial sector, and 2) a subsistence and emerging farmer sector. The future demands and challenges are mostly identified as those of land redistribution and social upliftment. Opportunities that arose from the challenge of change are, among others, the small-holder participation in the value chain, while the challenge of change in Agriculture and the opportunities that were identified could serve as a yardstick against which the Sectors’ (Agriculture) Performance could be measured in future. Unfortunately, despite all Governments’ Policies, Programmes and Projects and inputs of the Private Sector, the outcomes are, to a large extend, unsuccessful. The urgency with the Land Redistribution Programme is that, for the period 1994 – 2014, only 7.5% of the 30% aim in the redistribution of land was achieved. Another serious aspect of concern is that 90% of the Land Redistribution Projects are not in a state of productive use by emerging farmers. Several reasons may be offered for these failures, amongst others the uncoordinated way in which different stakeholders are involved in a specific farming project. These stakeholders could generally in most cases be identified as: - The Government as the policy maker; - The Private Sector that has the potential to contribute to the sustainable pre- and post-settlement stages of the Programme by cooperating the supporting services to Government; - Inputs from the communities in rural areas where the settlement takes place; - The landowners as sellers of land (e.g. a Traditional Council); and - The emerging beneficiaries as the receivers of land. Mentorship is mostly the medium with which the support are coordinated. In this paper focus will be on three scenarios of different types of mentorship (or management support) namely: - The Taung Irrigation Scheme (TIS) where multiple new land beneficiaries were established by sharing irrigation pivots and receiving mentorship support from commodity organisations within a traditional land sharing system; - Projects whereby the mentor is a strategic partner (mostly a major agricultural 'cooperative' which is also providing inputs to the farmer and responsible for purchasing/marketing all commodities produced); and - An individual mentor who is a private person focussing mainly on farm management mentorship without direct gain other than a monthly stipend paid to the mentor by Government. Against this introduction the focus of the study is investigating the process for the sustainable implementation of Governments’ Land Redistribution in South African Agriculture. To achieve this, the research paper is presented under the themes of problem statement, objectives, methodology and limitations, outline of the research process, as well as proposing possible solutions.

Keywords: land reform, role-players, failures, mentorship, management models

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23 Co-Creating an International Flipped Faculty Development Model: A US-Afghan Case Study

Authors: G. Alex Ambrose, Melissa Paulsen, Abrar Fitwi, Masud Akbari


In 2016, a U.S. business college was awarded a sub grant to work with FHI360, a nonprofit human development organization, to support a university in Afghanistan funded by the State Department’s U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). A newly designed Master’s Degree in Finance and Accounting is being implemented to support Afghanistan’s goal of 20% females in higher education and industry by 2020 and to use finance and accounting international standards to attract capital investment for economic development. This paper will present a case study to describe the co-construction of an approach to an International Flipped Faculty Development Model grounded in blended learning theory. Like education in general, faculty development is also evolving from the traditional face to face environment and interactions to the fully online and now to a best of both blends. Flipped faculty development is both a means and a model for careful integration of the strengths of the synchronous and asynchronous dynamics and technologies with the combination of intentional sequencing to pre-online interactions that prepares and enhances the face to face faculty development and mentorship residencies with follow-up post-online support. Initial benefits from this model include giving the Afghan faculty an opportunity to experience and apply modern teaching and learning strategies with technology in their own classroom. Furthermore, beyond the technological and pedagogical affordances, the reciprocal benefits gained from the mentor-mentee, face-to-face relationship will be explored. Evidence to support this model includes: empirical findings from pre- and post-Faculty Mentor/ Mentee survey results, Faculty Mentorship group debriefs, Faculty Mentorship contact logs, and student early/end of semester feedback. In addition to presenting and evaluating this model, practical challenges and recommendations for replicating international flipped faculty development partnerships will be provided.

Keywords: educational development, faculty development, international development, flipped learning

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22 Engaging Medical Students in Research through Student Research Mentorship Programme

Authors: Qi En Han, Si En Wai, Eugene Quek


As one of the two Academic Medical Centres (AMCs) in Singapore, SingHealth Duke-NUS AMC strives to improve patients’ lives through excellent clinical care, research and education. These efforts are enhanced with the establishment of Academic Clinical Programmes (ACPs). Each ACP brings together specialists in a particular discipline from different institutions to maximize the power of shared knowledge and resources. Initiated by Surgery ACP, the student research mentorship programme is a programme designed to facilitate engagement between medical students and the surgical faculty. The programme offers mentors not only the opportunity to supervise research but also to nurture future clinician scientists. In turn, medical students acquire valuable research experience which may be useful in their future careers. The programme typically lasts one year, depending on the students’ commitment. Surgery ACP matches students’ research interests with the mentor's area of expertise whenever possible. Surgery ACP organizes informal tea sessions to bring students and prospective mentors together. Once a match is made, the pair is required to submit a project proposal which includes the title, proposed start and end dates, ethical and biosafety considerations and project details. The mentees either think of their own research question with guidance from the mentors or join an existing project. The mentees may participate in data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing and conference presentation. The progress of each research project is monitored through half-yearly progress report. The mentees report problems encountered or changes made to existing proposal on top of the progress made. A total of 18 mentors were successfully paired with 36 mentees since 2013. Currently, there are 23 on-going and 13 completed projects. The mentees are encouraged to present their projects at conferences and to publish in peer-reviewed journals. Six mentees have presented their completed projects at local or international conferences and one mentee has her work published. To further support student research, Surgery ACP organized a Research Day in 2015 to recognize their research efforts and to showcase their wide-range of research. Surgery ACP recognizes that early exposure of medical students to research is important in developing them into clinician scientists. As interest in research take time to develop and are usually realized during various research attachments, it is crucial that programmes such as the student research mentorship programme exist. Surgery ACP will continue to build on this programme.

Keywords: academic clinical programme, clinician scientist, medical student, mentoring

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21 From Proficiency to High Accomplishment: Transformative Inquiry and Institutionalization of Mentoring Practices in Teacher Education in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Michael A. Ifarajimi


The transition from being a graduate teacher to a highly accomplished teacher has been widely portrayed in literature as challenging. Pre-service teachers are troubled with complex issues such as implementing, assessment, meeting prescribed learning outcomes, taking risks, supporting eco sustainability, etc. This list is not exhaustive as they are further complicated when the concerns extend beyond the classroom into the broader school setting and community. Meanwhile, the pre-service teacher education programme as is currently run in Nigeria, cannot adequately prepare newly trained teachers for the realities of classroom teaching. And there appears to be no formal structure in place for mentoring such teachers by the more seasoned teachers in schools. The central research question of the study, therefore, is which institutional framework can be distinguished for enactment in mentoring practices in teacher education? The study was conducted in five colleges of education in South-West Nigeria, and a sample of 1000 pre-service teachers on their final year practicum was randomly selected from the colleges of education. A pre-service teacher mentorship programme (PTMP) framework was designed and implemented, with a focus on the impact of transformative inquiry on the pre-service teacher support system. The study discovered a significant impact of mentoring on pre-service teacher’s professional transformation. The study concluded that institutionalizing mentorship through transformative inquiry is a means to sustainable teacher education, professional growth, and effective classroom practice. The study recommended that the government should enact policies that will promote mentoring in teacher education and establish a framework for the implementation of mentoring practices in the colleges of education in Nigeria.

Keywords: institutionalization, mentoring, pre-service teachers teacher education, transformative inquiry

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20 A Quality Improvement Approach for Reducing Stigma and Discrimination against Young Key Populations in the Delivery of Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights Services

Authors: Atucungwiire Rwebiita


Introduction: In Uganda, provision of adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) services for key population is still hindered by negative attitudes, stigma and discrimination (S&D) at both the community and facility levels. To address this barrier, Integrated Community Based Initiatives (ICOBI) with support from SIDA is currently implementing a quality improvement (QI) innovative approach for strengthening the capacity of key population (KP) peer leaders and health workers to deliver friendly SRHR services without S&D. Methods: Our innovative approach involves continuous mentorship and coaching of 8 QI teams at 8 health facilities and their catchment areas. Each of the 8 teams (comprised of 5 health workers and 5 KP peer leaders) are facilitated twice a month by two QI Mentors in a 2-hour mentorship session over a period of 4 months. The QI mentors were provided a 2-weeks training on QI approaches for reducing S&D against young key populations in the delivery of SRHR Services. The mentorship sessions are guided by a manual where teams base to analyse root causes of S&D and develop key performance indicators (KPIs) in the 1st and 2nd second sessions respectively. The teams then develop action plans in the 3rd session and review implementation progress on KPIs at the end of subsequent sessions. The KPIs capture information on the attitude of health workers and peer leaders and the general service delivery setting as well as clients’ experience. A dashboard is developed to routinely track the KPIs for S&D across all the supported health facilities and catchment areas. After 4 months, QI teams share documented QI best practices and tested change packages on S&D in a learning and exchange session involving all the teams. Findings: The implementation of this approach is showing positive results. So far, QI teams have already identified the root causes of S&D against key populations including: poor information among health workers, fear of a perceived risk of infection, perceived links between HIV and disreputable behaviour. Others are perceptions that HIV & STIs are divine punishment, sex work and homosexuality are against religion and cultural values. They have also noted the perception that MSM are mentally sick and a danger to everyone. Eight QI teams have developed action plans to address the root causes of S&D. Conclusion: This approach is promising, offers a novel and scalable means to implement stigma-reduction interventions in facility and community settings.

Keywords: key populations, sexual reproductive health and rights, stigma and discrimination , quality improvement approach

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19 Workplace Development Programmes for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Europe and Singapore: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Zhan Jie How


With the heightened awareness of workplace learning and its impact on improving organizational performance and developing employee competence, governments and corporations around the world are forced to intensify their cooperation to establish national workplace development programmes to guide these corporations in fostering engaging and collaborative workplace learning cultures. This conceptual paper aims to conduct a comparative study of existing workplace development programmes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe and Singapore, focusing primarily on the Swedish Production Leap, Finnish TEKES Liideri Programme, and Singapore SkillsFuture SME Mentors Programme. The study carries out a systematic review of the three workplace development programmes to examine the roles of external mentors or coaches in influencing the design and implementation of workplace learning strategies and practices in SMEs. Organizational, personal and external factors that promote or inhibit effective workplace mentorship are also scrutinized, culminating in a critical comparison and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the aforementioned programmes. Based on the findings from the review and analyses, a heuristic conceptual framework is developed to illustrate the complex interrelationships among external workplace development programmes, internal learning and development initiatives instituted by the organization’s higher management, and employees' continuous learning activities at the workplace. The framework also includes a set of guiding principles that can be used as the basis for internal mediation between the competing perspectives of mentors and mentees (employers and employees of the organization) regarding workplace learning conditions, practices and their intended impact on the organization. The conceptual study provides a theoretical blueprint for future empirical research on organizational workplace learning and the impact of government-initiated workplace development programmes.

Keywords: employee competence, mentorship, organizational performance, workplace development programme, workplace learning culture

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18 Preparing Young Adults with Disabilities for Lifelong Inclusivity through a College Level Mentor Program Using Technology: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Jenn Gallup, Onur Kocaoz, Onder Islek


In their pursuit of postsecondary transitions, individuals with disabilities tend to experience, academic, behavioral, and emotional challenges to a greater extent than their typically developing peers. These challenges result in lower rates of graduation, employment, independent living, and participation in college than their peers without disabilities. The lack of friendships and support systems has had a negative impact on those with a disability transitioning to postsecondary settings to include, employment, independent living, and university settings. Establishing friendships and support systems early on is an indicator of potential success and persistence in postsecondary education, employment, and independent living for typically developing college students. It is evident that a deficit in friendships and supports is a key deficit also for individuals with disabilities. To address the specific needs of this group, a mentor program was developed for a transition program held at the university for youth aged 18-21. Pre-service teachers enrolled in the special education program engaged with youth in the transition program in a variety of activities on campus. The mentorship program had two purposes: to assist young adults with disabilities who were transitioning to a workforce setting to help increase social skills, self-advocacy, supports and friendships, and confidence; and to give their peers without disabilities who were enrolled in a secondary special education course as a pre-service teacher the experience of interacting with and forming friendships with peers who had a disability for the purposes of career development. Additionally, according to researchers mobile technology has created a virtual world of equality and opportunity for a large segment of the population that was once marginalized due to physical and cognitive impairments. All of the participants had access to smart phones; therefore, technology was explored during this study to determine if it could be used as a compensatory tool to allow the young adults with disabilities to do things that otherwise would have been difficult because of their disabilities. Additionally, all participants were asked to incorporate technology such as smart phones to communicate beyond the activities, collaborate using virtual platform games which would support and promote social skills, soft-skills, socialization, and relationships. The findings of this study confirmed that a peer mentorship program that harnessed the power of technology supported outcomes specific to young adults with and without disabilities. Mobile technology and virtual game-based platforms, were identified as a significant contributor to personal, academic, and career growth for both groups. The technology encouraged friendships, provided an avenue for rich social interactions, and increased soft-skills. Results will be shared along with the development of the program and potential implications to the field.

Keywords: career outcomes, mentorship, soft-skills, technology, transition

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17 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq


In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

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16 Online Early Childhood Monitoring and Evaluation of Systems in Underprivileged Communities: Tracking Growth and Progress in Young Children's Ability Levels

Authors: Lauren Kathryn Stretch


A study was conducted in the underprivileged setting of Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa in order to monitor the progress of learners whose teachers receive training through the Early Inspiration Training Programme. Through tracking children’s growth & development, the effectiveness of the practitioner-training programme, which focuses on empowering women from underprivileged communities in South Africa, was analyzed. The aim was to identify impact & reach and to assess the effectiveness of this intervention programme through identifying impact on children’s growth and development. A Pre- and Post-Test was administered on about 850 young children in Pre-Grade R and Grade R classes in order to understand children’s ability level & the growth that would be evident as a result of effective teacher training. A pre-test evaluated the level of each child’s abilities, including physical-motor development, language, and speech development, cognitive development including visual perceptual skills, social-emotional development & play development. This was followed by a random selection of the classes of children into experimental and control groups. The experimental group’s teachers (practitioners) received 8-months of training & intervention, as well as mentorship & support. After the 8-month training programme, children from the experimental & control groups underwent post-assessment. The results indicate that the impact of effective practitioner training and enhancing a deep understanding of stimulation on young children, that this understanding is implemented in the classroom, highlighting the areas of growth & development in the children whose teachers received additional training & support, as compared to those who did not receive additional training. Monitoring & Evaluation systems not only track children’s ability levels, but also have a core focus on reporting systems, mentorship and providing ongoing support. As a result of the study, an Online Application (for Apple or Android Devices) was developed which is used to track children’s growth via age-appropriate assessments. The data is then statistically analysed to provide direction for relevant & impactful intervention. The App also focuses on effective reporting strategies, structures, and implementation to support organizations working with young children & maximize on outcomes.

Keywords: early childhood development, developmental child assessments, online application, monitoring and evaluating online

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15 Induction and Mentorship of Junior Faculty Members: A Managerial Challenge in the Institutions of Higher Education in Eritrea

Authors: Zecarias Zemichael Woldu


Cultivation of professionalism and dispositional values in junior faculty members in institutions of higher education (IHE) is a global challenge. Junior faculty members complain of the managerial inefficiency and lack of modeling in their career development. This paper explored how Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) are inducted into the system and mentored at work in the IHE in Eritrea. It assesses the institutional significance and challenges of mentoring junior faculty members in IHE. The research was conducted in 7 IHE involving 165 participants. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through Likert scale questionnaire and in-depth interviews. A One-Way ANOVA was used to assess the GTAs’ knowledge of assigned duties and responsibilities, access to institutional information and resources, the quality of guidance and support provided and above all the mentoring state of affairs across the colleges. Results revealed that junior faculty shoulder vital responsibilities but they receive poor induction and mentoring at individual and institutional levels. A large number of junior faculty members revealed a need of serious professional molding to effectively shoulder more responsibilities in the colleges.

Keywords: induction, mentoring, junior faculty members, Eritrea

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14 Factors behind Success of Nascent Social Enterprises in Pakistan: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

Authors: Abida Zanib


Social entrepreneurship is an attention-grabbing area to meet social needs. Stakeholders in the social sector of Pakistan, particularly investors, development activists and policy makers are considering it as an engine to economic growth and powerful tool to address social issues in inventive ways. However, absence of specific policy and legitimacy issues create hurdles in the way of success for emerging start-ups. The review of the literature reveals that research in this emerging phenomenon particularly in the case of Pakistan is inadequate. To fill this gap in the literature, this study aims to scrutinize characteristics of nascent social enterprises. The study collects data from 65-emerging social enterprises using questionnaire. The results of factor analysis highlight optimistic and driving qualities of Pakistani social entrepreneurs, which help them to survive and grow in the business world. Moreover, the study identifies several areas for improvements such as information disclosure, networking, corporate governance, mentorship programs, and trainings. The study notes that despite the absence of specific policy, dynamic entrepreneurial culture is fostering in Pakistan and recommends re-framing the education policy to support the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: emerging, entrepreneurs, Pakistan, social, start-ups

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13 Bamboo Resilience: Mentoring Asian Students to Develop their Self-Leadership via Online Seminars

Authors: Tam Nguyen


Self-leadership is strongly tied to the ability to be resilient in the face of adversity. This study aims to demonstrate how a strategy based on a culturally relevant "bamboo metaphor" enables Asian students to cross cultural boundaries and to engage in online discussions to unlock their self-leadership potential. Asian students are influenced to varying degrees by the Confucian heritage culture, which educates students to respect authority, maintain harmony, and avoid public confrontations. This has a significant impact on the cultural readiness of Asian students to express their development as self-leaders. In this research project, researchers as mentors individually assist students, cultivate cognitive progress, encourage and personally ask students to join a process of mentorship program. This study analyzes and interprets the data from a large online seminar in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, where students were trained in self-leadership skills. Focus-group interviews were implemented among 90 students in the program. Findings reveal the emotional needs of Asian students and suggest a cognitive model for developing students' self-awareness, self-confidence, and self-efficacy. The research results are anticipated to be applicable to a broader Asian population with a comparable cultural environment to Vietnam.

Keywords: self-leadership, bamboo resilience, cognitive modeling, Asian culture

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12 Nursing Students Assessment to the Clinical Learning Environment and Mentoring in Children Nursing

Authors: Lily Parm, Irma Nool, Liina Männiksaar, Mare Tupits, Ivi Prits, Merilin Kuhi, Valentina Raudsepp


Background: The results of previous clinical satisfaction surveys show that nursing students swhounderw entinternships in the pediatricwardhadthelowestsatisfactioncomparedtootherwards, but the quality of students' practicaltrainingexperienceisanimportant determinant in nursing education. The aim of theresearchwastodescribenursingstudents` assessment to the clinical learning environment and supervision in pediatric wards Method: Theresearchisquantitative. All studentswhohadpracticaltraining in the pediatric ward participated in the study (N = 39). FordatacollectionClinicalLearningEnvironment, Supervision, and NurseTeacher (CLES + T) evaluationscalewasused, wherethescalewasanswered on a 5-point Likert scale. In addition, 10 backgroundvariableswereused in the questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 wasusedfordataanalysis. Descriptive statistics and Spearmanncorrelationanalysiswasusedtofindcorrelatinsbetweenbackgroundvariables and satisfaction with supervision.Permissiontoconductthestudy (No 695) hasbeenobtainedbytheEthicsCommittee of theInstituteforHealthDevelopment. Results: Of therespondents, 28 (71.8%) werefirst-year, 9 (23.1%) second-year and 2 (5.1%) fourth-yearstudents. Thelargestshare of the last practicaltrainigwas in nursing, with 27 (69.2%) respondents. Mainlythementorswerenursesfor 32 (82,1%) of students.Satisfactionwiththementoring (4.4 ± 0.83) and wardnursemanager`sleaderhiostyle (4.4 ± 0.7), ratedthehighest and therole of thenurseteacherwasratedthelowest (3,7 ± 0.83.In Spearmann'scorrelationanalysis, therewas a statisticallystrongcorrelationbetween a positiveattitudetowardsthesupervisor'ssupervision and receivingfeedbackfromthesupervisor (r =0.755; p <0.001), studentsatisfactionwithsupervision (r = 0.742; p <0.001), supervisionbased on cooperation (r = 0.77) and instructionbased on theprinciple of equalitythatpromotedlearning (r = 0.755; p <0.001). Conclusions: Theresults of theresearchshowedhighsatisfactionwiththesupervisionand therole of wardmanager. Stillbettercooperationisneededbetweenpracticalplacement and nursingschooltoenhancethestudents`satisfactionwithsupervision.

Keywords: CLES+T, clinical environment, nurse teacher, statisfaction, pediatric ward, mentorship

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11 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski


This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: children, adolescents, suicide, positive

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10 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee


The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: sociology of gender, transgender, music teachers, story, autoethnography as research, ideology

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9 A Model for Academic Coaching for Success and Inclusive Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

Authors: Sylvanus N. Wosu


Research shows that factors, such as low motivation, preparation, resources, emotional and social integration, and fears of risk-taking, are the most common barriers to access, matriculation, and retention into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines for underrepresented (URM) students. These factors have been shown to impact students’ attraction and success in STEM fields. Standardized tests such as the SAT and ACT often used as predictor of success, are not always true predictors of success for African and Hispanic American students. Without an adequate academic support environment, even a high SAT score does not guarantee academic success in science and engineering. This paper proposes a model for Academic Coaching for building success and inclusive excellence in STEM education. Academic coaching is framed as a process of motivating students to be independent learners through relational mentorship, facilitating learning supports inside and outside of the classroom or school environment, and developing problem-solving skills and success attitudes that lead to higher performance in the specific subjects. The model is formulated based on best strategies and practices for enriching Academic Performance Impact skills and motivating students’ interests in STEM. A scaled model for measuring the Academic Performance Impact (API) index and STEM is discussed. The study correlates API with state standardized test and shows that the average impact of those skills can be predicted by the Academic Performance Impact (API) index or Academic Preparedness Index.

Keywords: diversity, equity, graduate education, inclusion, inclusive excellence, model

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8 Geography Undergraduates 360⁰ Academic Peer Learning And Mentoring 2021 – 2023: A Pilot Study

Authors: N. Ayob, N. C. Nkosi, R. P. Burger, S. J. Piketh, F. Letlaila, O. Maphosa


South African higher tertiary institution have been faced with high dropout rates. About 50 to 60% of first years drop out to due to various reasons one being inadequate academic support. Geography 111 (GEOG 111) module is historically known for having below 50% pass rate, high dropout rate and identified as a first year risk module. For the first time GEOG 111 (2021) on the Mahikeng Campus admitted 150 students pursuing more than 6 different qualifications (BA and BSc) from the Humanities Faculty and FNAS. First year students had difficulties transitioning from secondary to tertiary institutions as we shifted to remote learning while we navigate through the Covid-19 pandemic. The traditional method of teaching does not encourage students to help each other. With remote learning we do not have control over what the students share and perhaps this can be a learning opportunity to embrace peer learning and change the manner in which we assess the students. The purpose of this pilot study was to assist GEOG111 students with academic challenges whilst improving their University experience. This was a qualitative study open to all GEOG111, repeaters, students who are not confident in their Geographical knowledge and never did Geography at high school level. The selected 9 Golden Key International Honour Society Geography mentors attended an academic mentor training program with module lecturers. About 17.6% of the mentees did not have a geography background however, 94% of the mentees passed, 1 mentee had a mark of 38%. 11 of the participants had a mark >60% with one student that excelled 70%. It is evident that mentorship helped students reach their academic potential. Peer learning and mentoring are associated with improved academic performance and allows the students to take charge of their learning and academic experience. Thus an important element as we transform pedagogies at higher learning institutions.

Keywords: geography, risk module, peer mentoring, peer learning

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7 Changing Pedagogy from Segregation to Inclusion: A Phenomenological Case Study of Ten Special Educators

Authors: Monique Somma


As special education service delivery models are shifting in order to better meet the academic and social rights of students with exceptionalities, teaching practices must also align with these goals. This phenomenological case study explored the change experiences of special education teachers who have transitioned from teaching in a self-contained special education class to an inclusive class setting. Ten special educators who had recently changed their teaching roles to inclusive classrooms, completed surveys and participated in a focus group. Of the original ten educators, five chose to participate further in individual interviews. Data collected from the three methods was examined and compared for common themes. Emergent themes included, support and training, attitudes and perceptions, inclusive practice, growth and change, and teaching practice. The overall findings indicated that despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others and systematic barriers in the education system. They were equally surprised by the overall social and academic performance of students with exceptionalities in inclusive classes, as well as, the social and academic growth and development of the other students in the class. Over the course of their careers, they all identified an overall personal pedagogical shift, to some degree or another, which they contributed to the successful experiences of inclusion they had. They also recognized that collaborating with others was essential for inclusion to be successful. The findings from this study suggest several implications for professional development and training needs specific to special education teachers moving into inclusive settings. Maximizing the skills of teachers with special education experience in a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and mentorship opportunities would be beneficial to all staffs working toward creating inclusive classrooms and schools.

Keywords: attitudes and perceptions, inclusion of students with exceptionalities, special education teachers, teacher change

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6 A Reflection on the Professional Development Journey of Science Educators

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley


Science and mathematics are regarded as gateway subjects in South Africa as they are the perceived route to careers in science, engineering, technology and mathematics (STEM). One of the biggest challenges that the country faces is the poor achievement of learners in these two learning areas in the external high school exit examination. To compound the problem many national and international benchmark tests paint a bleak picture of the state of science and mathematics in the country. In an attempt to address this challenge, the education department of the Eastern Cape Province invited the Science Learning Centre of the University of the Western Cape to provide training to their science teachers in the form of a structured course conducted on a part-time basis in 2010 and 2011. The course was directed at improving teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical strategies and practical and experimental skills. A total of 41 of the original 50 science teachers completed the course and received their certificates in 2012. As part of their continuous professional development, 31 science teachers enrolled for BEd Hons in science education in 2013 and 28 of them completed the course in 2014. These students graduated in 2015. Of the 28 BEd Hons students who completed the course 23 registered in 2015 for Masters in Science Education and were joined by an additional 3 students. This paper provides a reflection by science educators on the training, supervision and mentorship provided to them as students of science education. The growth and development of students through their own reflection and understanding as well as through the eyes of the lecturers and supervisors that took part in the training provide the evaluation of the professional development process over the past few years. This study attempts to identify the merits, challenges and limitations of this project and the lessons to be learnt on such projects. It also documents some of the useful performance indicators with a view to developing a framework for good practice for such programmes.

Keywords: reflection, science education, professional development, rural schools

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5 Developing a Research Culture in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the Central University of Technology, Free State: Implications for Knowledge Management

Authors: Mpho Agnes Mbeo, Patient Rambe


The thirteenth year of the Central University of Technology, Free State’s (CUT) transition from a vocational and professional training orientation institution (i.e. a technikon) into a university with a strong research focus has neither been a smooth nor an easy one. At the heart of this transition was the need to transform the psychological faculties of academic and research staffs compliment who were accustomed to training graduates for industrial placement. The lack of a culture of research that fully embraces a strong ethos of conducting world-class research needed to be addressed. The induction and socialisation of academic staff into the development and execution of cutting-edge research also required the provision of research support and the creation of a conducive academic environment for research, both for emerging and non-research active academics. Drawing on ten cases, comprising four heads of departments, three prolific established researchers, and three emerging researchers, this study explores the challenges faced in establishing a strong research culture at the university. Furthermore, it gives an account of the extent to which the current research interventions have addressed the perceivably “missing research culture”, and the implications of these interventions for knowledge management. Evidence suggests that the endowment of an ideal institutional research environment (comprising strong internet networks, persistent connectivity on and off campus), research peer mentorship, and growing publication outputs should be matched by a coherent research incentive culture and strong research leadership. This is critical to building new knowledge and entrenching knowledge management founded on communities of practice and scholarly networking through the documentation and communication of research findings. The study concludes that the multiple policy documents set for the different domains of research may be creating pressure on researchers to engage research activities and increase output at the expense of research quality.

Keywords: Central University of Technology, performance, publication, research culture, university

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4 Summer STEM Institute in Environmental Science and Data Sciencefor Middle and High School Students at Pace University

Authors: Lauren B. Birney


Summer STEM Institute for Middle and High School Students at Pace University The STEM Collaboratory NYC® Summer Fellows Institute takes place on Pace University’s New York City campus during July and provides the following key features for all participants: (i) individual meetings with Pace faculty to discuss and refine future educational goals; (ii) mentorship, guidance, and new friendships with program leaders; and (iii) guest lectures from professionals in STEM disciplines and businesses. The Summer STEM Institute allows middle school and high school students to work in teams to conceptualize, develop, and build native mobile applications that teach and reinforce skills in the sciences and mathematics. These workshops enhance students’STEM problem solving techniques and teach advanced methods of computer science and engineering. Topics include: big data and analytics at the Big Data lab at Seidenberg, Data Science focused on social and environmental advancement and betterment; Natural Disasters and their Societal Influences; Algal Blooms and Environmental Impacts; Green CitiesNYC; STEM jobs and growth opportunities for the future; renew able energy and sustainable infrastructure; and climate and the economy. In order to better align the existing Summer STEM, Institute with the CCERS model and expand the overall network, Pace is actively recruiting new content area specialists from STEM industries and private sector enterprises to participate in an enhanced summer institute in order to1) nurture student progress and connect summer learning to school year curriculum, 2) increase peer-to-peer collaboration amongst STEM professionals and private sector technologists, and 3) develop long term funding and sponsorship opportunities for corporate sector partners to support CCERS schools and programs directly.

Keywords: environmental restoration science, citizen science, data science, STEM

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3 A Case Study on Experiences of Clinical Preceptors in the Undergraduate Nursing Program

Authors: Jacqueline M. Dias, Amina A Khowaja


Clinical education is one of the most important components of a nursing curriculum as it develops the students’ cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. Clinical teaching ensures the integration of knowledge into practice. As the numbers of students increase in the field of nursing coupled with the faculty shortage, clinical preceptors are the best choice to ensure student learning in the clinical settings. The clinical preceptor role has been introduced in the undergraduate nursing programme. In Pakistan, this role emerged due to a faculty shortage. Initially, two clinical preceptors were hired. This study will explore clinical preceptors views and experiences of precepting Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) students in an undergraduate program. A case study design was used. As case studies explore a single unit of study such as a person or very small number of subjects; the two clinical preceptors were fundamental to the study and served as a single case. Qualitative data were obtained through an iterative process using in depth interviews and written accounts from reflective journals that were kept by the clinical preceptors. The findings revealed that the clinical preceptors were dedicated to their roles and responsibilities. Another, key finding was that clinical preceptors’ prior knowledge and clinical experience were valuable assets to perform their role effectively. The clinical preceptors found their new role innovative and challenging; it was stressful at the same time. Findings also revealed that in the clinical agencies there were unclear expectations and role ambiguity. Furthermore, clinical preceptors had difficulty integrating theory into practice in the clinical area and they had difficulty in giving feedback to the students. Although this study is localized to one university, generalizations can be drawn from the results. The key findings indicate that the role of a clinical preceptor is demanding and stressful. Clinical preceptors need preparation prior to precepting students on clinicals. Also, institutional support is fundamental for their acceptance. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of clinical preceptors undertaking a newly established role and resonates with the literature. The following recommendations are drawn to strengthen the role of the clinical preceptors: A structured program for clinical preceptors is needed along with mentorship. Clinical preceptors should be provided with formal training in teaching and learning with emphasis on clinical teaching and giving feedback to students. Additionally, for improving integration of theory into practice, clinical modules should be provided ahead of the clinical. In spite of all the challenges, ten more clinical preceptors have been hired as the faculty shortage continues to persist.

Keywords: baccalaureate nursing education, clinical education, clinical preceptors, nursing curriculum

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2 Startup Ecosystem in India: Development and Impact

Authors: Soham Chakraborty


This article examines the development of start-up culture in India, its development as well as related impact on the Indian society. Another vibrant synonym of start-up in the present century can be starting afresh. Startups have become the new flavor of this decade. A startup ecosystem is formed by mainly the new generation in the making. A startup ecosystem involves a variety of elements without which a startup can never prosper, they are—ideas, inventions, innovations as well as authentic research in the field into which one is interested, mentors, advisors, funding bodies, service provider organizations, angel, venture and so on. The culture of startup is quiet nascent but rampant in India. This is largely due to the widespread of media as a medium through which the newfangled entrepreneurs can spread their word of mouth far and wide. Different kinds of media such as Television, Radio, Internet, Print media and so on, act as the weapon to any startup company in India. The article explores how there is a sudden shift in the growing Indian economy due to the rise of startup ecosystem. There are various reasons, which are the result of the growing success of startup in India, firstly, entrepreneurs are building up startup ideas on the basis of various international startup but giving them a pinch of Indian flavor; secondly, business models are framed based on the current problems that people face in the modern century; thirdly, balance between social and technological entrepreneurs and lastly, quality of mentorship. The Government of India boasts startup as a flagship initiative. Bunch full of benefits and assistance was declared in an event named as 'Start Up India, Stand Up India' on 16th January 2016 by the current Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi. One of the biggest boon that increasing startups are creating in the society is the proliferation of self-employment. Noted Startups which are thriving in India are like OYO, Where’s The Food (WTF), TVF Pitchers, Flipkart and so on are examples of India is getting covered up by various innovative startups. The deep impact can be felt by each Indian after a few years as various governmental and non-governmental policies and agendas are helping in the sprawling up of startups and have mushroom growth in India. The impact of startup uprising in India is also possible due to increasing globalization which is leading to the eradication of national borders, thereby creating the environment to enlarge one’s business model. To conclude, this article points out on the correlation between rising startup in Indian market and its increasing developmental benefits for the people at large. Internationally, various business portals are tagging India to be the world’s fastest growing startup ecosystem.

Keywords: business, ecosystem, entrepreneurs, media, globalization, startup

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1 Surgical Skills in Mulanje

Authors: Nick Toossi, Joseph Hartland


Background: Malawi is an example of a low resource setting which faces a chronic shortage of doctors and other medical staff. This shortfall is made up for by clinical officers (COs), who are para-medicals trained for 4 years. The literature suggests to improve outcomes surgical skills training specifically should be promoted for COs in district and mission hospitals. Accordingly, the primary author was tasked with developing a basic surgical skills teaching package for COs of Mulanje Mission Hospital (MMH), Malawi, as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected Component field trip. MMH is a hospital based in the South of Malawi near the base of Mulanje Mountain and works in an extremely isolated environment with some of the poorest communities in the country. Traveling to Malawi the medical student author performed an educational needs assessment to develop and deliver a bespoke basic surgical skills teaching package. Methodology: An initial needs assessment identified the following domains: basic surgical skills (instrument naming & handling, knot tying, suturing principles and suturing techniques) and perineal repair. Five COs took part in a teaching package involving an interactive group simulation session, overseen by senior clinical officers and surgical trainees from the UK. Non-organic and animal models were used for simulation practice. This included the use of surgical skills boards to practice knot tying and ox tongue to simulate perineal repair. All participants spoke and read English. The impact of the session was analysed in two different ways. The first was via a pre and post Single Best Answer test and the second a questionnaire including likert’s scales and free text response questions. Results: There was a positive trend in pre and post test scores on competition of the course. There was increase in the mean confidence of learners before and after the delivery of teaching in basic surgical skills and simulated perineal repair, especially in ‘instrument naming and handling’. Whilst positively received it was discovered that learners desire more frequent surgical skills teaching sessions in order to improve and revise skills. Feedback suggests that the learners were not confident in retaining the skills without regular input. Discussion: Skills and confidence were improved as a result of the teaching provided. Learner's written feedback suggested there was an overall appetite for regular surgical skills teaching in the clinical environment and further opportunities to allow for deliberate self-practice. Surgical mentorship schemes facilitating supervised theatre time among trainees and lead surgeons along with improving access to surgical models/textbooks were some of the simple suggestions to improve surgical skills and confidence among COs. Although, this study is limited by population size it is reflective of the small, isolated and low resource environment in which this healthcare is delivered. This project does suggest that current surgical skills packages used in the UK could be adapted for employment in low resource settings, but it is consistency and sustainability that staff seek above all in their on-going education.

Keywords: clinical officers, education, Malawi, surgical skills

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