Search results for: wake dynamics
2493 Experimental Investigation of Tip-Speed-Ratio Effects on Wake Dynamics of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine
Authors: Paul Bayron, Richard Kelso, Rey Chin
Abstract:Wind tunnel experiments were performed in the KC closed-circuit wind tunnel in the University of Adelaide to study the influence of tip-speed-ratio (
Keywords: hotwire anemometry, wake dynamics, wind tunnel, wind turbinesProcedia PDF Downloads 106
2492 Study of Wake Dynamics for a Rim-Driven Thruster Based on Numerical Method
Authors: Bao Liu, Maarten Vanierschot, Frank Buysschaert
Abstract:The present work examines the wake dynamics of a rim-driven thruster (RDT) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations were solved in the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent in combination with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The application of the moving reference frame (MRF) and sliding mesh (SM) approach to handling the rotational movement of the propeller were compared in the transient simulations. Validation and verification of the numerical model was performed to ensure numerical accuracy. Two representative scenarios were considered, i.e., the bollard condition (J=0) and a very light loading condition(J=0.7), respectively. From the results, it’s confirmed that compared to the SM method, the MRF method is not suitable for resolving the unsteady flow features as it only gives the general mean flow but smooths out lots of characteristic details in the flow field. By evaluating the simulation results with the SM technique, the instantaneous wake flow field under both conditions is presented and analyzed, most notably the helical vortex structure. It’s observed from the results that the tip vortices, blade shed vortices, and hub vortices are present in the wake flow field and convect downstream in a highly non-linear way. The shear layer vortices shedding from the duct displayed a strong interaction with the distorted tip vortices in an irregularmanner.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, rim-driven thruster, sliding mesh, wake dynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 126
2491 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck
Authors: Aude Pérard Lecomte, Georges Fokoua, Amine Mehel, Anne Tanière
Abstract:Air quality in urban areas is deteriorated by pollution, mainly due to the constant increase of the traffic of different types of ground vehicles. In particular, particulate matter pollution with important concentrations in urban areas can cause serious health issues. Characterizing and understanding particle dynamics is therefore essential to establish recommendations to improve air quality in urban areas. To analyze the effects of turbulence on particulate pollutants dispersion, the first step is to focus on the single-phase flow structure and turbulence characteristics in the wake of a heavy truck model. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of a full- and reduced-scale heavy truck. The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM)as the turbulence model closure was used. The simulations highlight the apparition of a large vortex coming from the under trailer. This vortex belongs to the recirculation region, located in the near-wake of the heavy truck. These vortical structures are expected to have a strong influence on particle dynamics that are emitted by the truck.
Keywords: CDF, heavy truck, recirculation region, reduced scaleProcedia PDF Downloads 129
2490 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics
Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman
Abstract:The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.
Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIVProcedia PDF Downloads 403
2489 Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Wake Flow Modelling of a Wind Turbine
Authors: Nor Mazlin Zahari, Lian Gan, Xuerui Mao
Abstract:The power production in wind farms and the mechanical loads on the turbines are strongly impacted by the wake of the wind turbine. Thus, there is a need for understanding and modelling the turbine wake dynamic in the wind farm and the layout optimization. Having a good wake model is important in predicting plant performance and understanding fatigue loads. In this paper, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) was applied to the simulation data generated by a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of flow around a turbine, perturbed by upstream inflow noise. This technique is useful in analyzing the wake flow, to predict its future states and to reflect flow dynamics associated with the coherent structures behind wind turbine wake flow. DMD was employed to describe the dynamic of the flow around turbine from the DNS data. Since the DNS data comes with the unstructured meshes and non-uniform grid, the interpolation of each occurring within each element in the data to obtain an evenly spaced mesh was performed before the DMD was applied. DMD analyses were able to tell us characteristics of the travelling waves behind the turbine, e.g. the dominant helical flow structures and the corresponding frequencies. As the result, the dominant frequency will be detected, and the associated spatial structure will be identified. The dynamic mode which represented the coherent structure will be presented.
Keywords: coherent structure, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), dominant frequency, Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD)Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2488 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao
Abstract:Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.
Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wakeProcedia PDF Downloads 71
2487 Defining the Turbulent Coefficients with the Effect of Atmospheric Stability in Wake of a Wind Turbine Wake
Authors: Mohammad A. Sazzad, Md M. Alam
Abstract:Wind energy is one of the cleanest form of renewable energy. Despite wind industry is growing faster than ever there are some roadblocks towards the improvement. One of the difficulties the industry facing is insufficient knowledge about wake within the wind farms. As we know energy is generated in the lowest layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This interaction between the wind turbine (WT) blades and wind introduces a low speed wind region which is defined as wake. This wake region shows different characteristics under each stability condition of the ABL. So, it is fundamental to know this wake region well which is defined mainly by turbulence transport and wake shear. Defining the wake recovery length and width are very crucial for wind farm to optimize the generation and reduce the waste of power to the grid. Therefore, in order to obtain the turbulent coefficients of velocity and length, this research focused on the large eddy simulation (LES) data for neutral ABL (NABL). According to turbulent theory, if we can present velocity defect and Reynolds stress in the form of local length and velocity scales, they become invariant. In our study velocity and length coefficients are 0.4867 and 0.4794 respectively which is close to the theoretical value of 0.5 for NABL. There are some invariant profiles because of the presence of thermal and wind shear power coefficients varied a little from the ideal condition.
Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, renewable energy, turbulent coefficient, wind turbine, wakeProcedia PDF Downloads 79
2486 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime
Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela
Abstract:Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.
Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortexProcedia PDF Downloads 368
2485 Characteristics of the Wake behind a Heated Cylinder in Relatively High Reynolds Number
Authors: Morteza Khashehchi, Kamel Hooman
Abstract:Thermal effects on the dynamics and stability of the flow past a circular cylinder operating in the mixed convection regime is studied experimentally for Reynolds number (ReD) between 1000 and 4000, and different cylinder wall temperatures (Tw) between 25 and 75°C by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments were conducted in a horizontal wind tunnel with the heated cylinder placed horizontally. With such assumptions, the direction of the thermally induced buoyancy force acting on the fluid surrounding the heated cylinder would be perpendicular to the flow direction. In each experiment, to acquire 3000 PIV image pairs, the temperature and Reynolds number of the approach flow were held constant. By adjusting different temperatures in different Reynolds numbers, the corresponding Richardson number (RiD = Gr/Re^2) was varied between 0:0 (unheated) and 10, resulting in a change in the heat transfer process from forced convection to mixed convection. With increasing temperature of the wall cylinder, significant modifications of the wake flow pattern and wake vortex shedding process were clearly revealed. For cylinder at low wall temperature, the size of the wake and the vortex shedding process are found to be quite similar to those of an unheated cylinder. With high wall temperature, however, the high temperature gradient in the wake shear layer creates a type of vorticity with opposite sign to that of the shear layer vorticity. This temperature gradient vorticity weakens the strength of the shear layer vorticity, causing delay in reaching the recreation point. In addition to the wake characteristics, the shedding frequency for the heated cylinder is determined for all aforementioned cases. It is found that, as the cylinder wall is heated, the organization of the vortex shedding is altered and the relative position of the first detached vortices with respect to the second one is changed. This movement of the first detached vortex toward the second one increases the frequency of the shedding process. It is also found that the wake closure length decreases with increasing the Richardson number.
Keywords: heated cylinder, PIV, wake, Reynolds numberProcedia PDF Downloads 331
2484 Multiscale Structures and Their Evolution in a Screen Cylinder Wake
Authors: Azlin Mohd Azmi, Tongming Zhou, Akira Rinoshika, Liang Cheng
Abstract:The turbulent structures in the wake (x/d =10 to 60) of a screen cylinder have been reduced to understand the roles of the various structures as evolving downstream by comparing with those obtained in a solid circular cylinder wake at Reynolds number, Re of 7000. Using a wavelet multi-resolution technique, the flow structures are decomposed into a number of wavelet components based on their central frequencies. It is observed that in the solid cylinder wake, large-scale structures (of frequency f0 and 1.2 f0) make the largest contribution to the Reynolds stresses although they start to lose their roles significantly at x/d > 20. In the screen cylinder wake, the intermediate-scale structures (2f0 and 4f0) contribute the most to the Reynolds stresses at x/d =10 before being taken over by the large-scale structures (f0) further downstream.
Keywords: turbulent structure, screen cylinder, vortex, wavelet multi-resolution analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 376
2483 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile
Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur
Abstract:In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.
Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wakeProcedia PDF Downloads 466
2482 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines
Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh
Abstract:Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.
Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbineProcedia PDF Downloads 597
2481 Shear Layer Investigation through a High-Load Cascade in Low-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions
Authors: Mehdi Habibnia Rami, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mohammad H. Sabour, Rouzbeh Riazi, Hossein Hassannia
Abstract:This paper deals with the steady and unsteady flow behavior on the separation bubble occurring on the rear portion of the suction side of T106A blade. The first phase was to implement the steady condition capturing the separation bubble. To accurately predict the separated region, the effects of three different turbulence models and computational grids were separately investigated. The results of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model on the finest grid structure are acceptably in a good agreement with its relevant experimental results. The second phase is mainly to address the effects of wake entrance on bubble disappearance in unsteady situation. In the current simulations, from what was suggested in an experiment, simulating the flow unsteadiness, with concentrations on small scale disturbances instead of simulating a complete oncoming wake, is the key issue. Subsequently, the results from the current strategy to apply the effects of the wake and two other experimental work were compared to be in a good agreement. Between the two experiments, one of them deals with wake passing unsteady flow, and the other one implements experimentally the same approach as the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation.
Keywords: low-pressure turbine cascade, large-Eddy simulation (LES), RANS turbulence models, unsteady flow measurements, flow separationProcedia PDF Downloads 241
2480 Wind Interference Effect on Tall Building
Authors: Atul K. Desai, Jigar K. Sevalia, Sandip A. Vasanwala
Abstract:When a building is located in an urban area, it is exposed to a wind of different characteristics then wind over an open terrain. This is development of turbulent wake region behind an upstream building. The interaction with upstream building can produce significant changes in the response of the tall building. Here, in this paper, an attempt has been made to study wind induced interference effects on tall building. In order to study wind induced interference effect (IF) on Tall Building, initially a tall building (which is termed as Principal Building now on wards) with square plan shape has been considered with different Height to Width Ratio and total drag force is obtained considering different terrain conditions as well as different incident wind direction. Then total drag force on Principal Building is obtained by considering adjacent building which is termed as Interfering Building now on wards with different terrain conditions and incident wind angle. To execute study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code namely Fluent and Gambit have been used.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, tall building, turbulent, wake region, windProcedia PDF Downloads 460
2479 Hydrodynamics Study on Planing Hull with and without Step Using Numerical Solution
Authors: Koe Han Beng, Khoo Boo Cheong
Abstract:The rising interest of stepped hull design has been led by the demand of more efficient high-speed boat. At the same time, the need of accurate prediction method for stepped planing hull is getting more important. By understanding the flow at high Froude number is the key in designing a practical step hull, the study surrounding stepped hull has been done mainly in the towing tank which is time-consuming and costly for initial design phase. Here the feasibility of predicting hydrodynamics of high-speed planing hull both with and without step using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the volume of fluid (VOF) methodology is studied in this work. First the flow around the prismatic body is analyzed, the force generated and its center of pressure are compared with available experimental and empirical data from the literature. The wake behind the transom on the keel line as well as the quarter beam buttock line are then compared with the available data, this is important since the afterbody flow of stepped hull is subjected from the wake of the forebody. Finally the calm water performance prediction of a conventional planing hull and its stepped version is then analyzed. Overset mesh methodology is employed in solving the dynamic equilibrium of the hull. The resistance, trim, and heave are then compared with the experimental data. The resistance is found to be predicted well and the dynamic equilibrium solved by the numerical method is deemed to be acceptable. This means that computational fluid dynamics will be very useful in further study on the complex flow around stepped hull and its potential usage in the design phase.
Keywords: planing hulls, stepped hulls, wake shape, numerical simulation, hydrodynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 229
2478 Topography Effects on Wind Turbines Wake Flow
Authors: H. Daaou Nedjari, O. Guerri, M. Saighi
Abstract:A numerical study was conducted to optimize the positioning of wind turbines over complex terrains. Thus, a two-dimensional disk model was used to calculate the flow velocity deficit in wind farms for both flat and complex configurations. The wind turbine wake was assessed using the hybrid methods that combine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) with the actuator disc model. The wind turbine rotor has been defined with a thrust force, coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations that were resolved by an open source computational code (Code_Saturne V3.0 developed by EDF) The simulations were conducted in atmospheric boundary layer condition considering a two-dimensional region located at the north of Algeria at 36.74°N longitude, 02.97°E latitude. The topography elevation values were collected according to a longitudinal direction of 1km downwind. The wind turbine sited over topography was simulated for different elevation variations. The main of this study is to determine the topography effect on the behavior of wind farm wake flow. For this, the wake model applied in complex terrain needs to selects the singularity effects of topography on the vertical wind flow without rotor disc first. This step allows to determine the existence of mixing scales and friction forces zone near the ground. So, according to the ground relief the wind flow waS disturbed by turbulence and a significant speed variation. Thus, the singularities of the velocity field were thoroughly collected and thrust coefficient Ct was calculated using the specific speed. In addition, to evaluate the land effect on the wake shape, the flow field was also simulated considering different rotor hub heights. Indeed, the distance between the ground and the hub height of turbine (Hhub) was tested in a flat terrain for different locations as Hhub=1.125D, Hhub = 1.5D and Hhub=2D (D is rotor diameter) considering a roughness value of z0=0.01m. This study has demonstrated that topographical farm induce a significant effect on wind turbines wakes, compared to that on flat terrain.
Keywords: CFD, wind turbine wake, k-epsilon model, turbulence, complex topographyProcedia PDF Downloads 503
2477 Numerical Simulation of External Flow Around D-Shaped Cylinders
Authors: Ouldouz Nourani Zonouz, Mehdi Salmanpour
Abstract:Investigation and analysis of flow behavior around different shapes bluff bodies is one of the reputed topics for several years. The importance of these researches is about the unwanted phenomena called flow separation. The location of separation and the size of the wake region should be considered in different industrial designs. In this research a bluff body with D-shaped cross section has been analyzed. In circular cylinder flow separation point changes with Reynolds number but in D-Shaped cylinder there is fix flow separation point. So there is more wake steadiness in D-Shaped cylinder as compared to Circular cylinder and drag reduction because of wake steadiness. In the present work CFD simulation is carried out for flow past a D-Shaped cylinder to see the wake behavior. The Reynolds number regime currently studied corresponds to low Reynolds number and nominally two-dimensional wake. Also the effect of D-Shaped cylinders on the rate of heat transfer has been considered. Various results such as velocity, pressure and temperature contours and also some dimensionless numbers like drag coefficient, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number calculated for different cases.
Keywords: D-shaped, CFD, external flow, low Reynolds number, square cylinderProcedia PDF Downloads 402
2476 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble
Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray
Abstract:In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.
Keywords: bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structuresProcedia PDF Downloads 323
2475 Experimental Investigation of S822 and S823 Wind Turbine Airfoils Wake
Authors: Amir B. Khoshnevis, Morteza Mirhosseini
Abstract:The paper deals with a sub-part of an extensive research program on the wake survey method in various Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. This research experimentally investigates the wake flow characteristics behind S823 and S822 airfoils in which designed for small wind turbines. Velocity measurements determined by using hot-wire anemometer. Data acquired in the wake of the airfoil at locations(c is the chord length): 0.01c - 3c. Reynolds number increased due to increase of free stream velocity. Results showed that mean velocity profiles depend on the angle of attack and location of data collections. Data acquired at the low Reynolds numbers (smaller than 10^5). Effects of Reynolds numbers on the mean velocity profiles are more significant in near locations the trailing edge and these effects decrease by taking distance from trailing edge toward downstream. Mean velocity profiles region increased by increasing the angle of attack, except for 7°, and also the maximum velocity deficit (velocity defect) increased. The difference of mean velocity in and out of the wake decreased by taking distance from trailing edge, and mean velocity profile become wider and more uniform.
Keywords: angle of attack, Reynolds number, velocity deficit, separationProcedia PDF Downloads 313
2474 Effects of Viscous and Pressure Forces in Vortex and Wake Induced Vibrations
Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman
Abstract:Cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder are compared with the wake-induced oscillations of the downstream cylinder of a tandem cylinder arrangement. It is known that the synchronization of the frequency of vortex shedding with the natural frequency of the structure leads to large amplitude motions. In the case of tandem cylinders, the large amplitudes of the downstream cylinder found are compared to single cylinder setup. In this work, in the tandem arrangement, the upstream cylinder is fixed and the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate in transverse direction. We show that the wake from the upstream cylinder interacts with the downstream cylinder which influences the response of the coupled system. Extensive numerical experiments have been performed on single cylinder as well as tandem cylinder arrangements in cross-flow. Here, the wake interactions in connection to the forces generated are systematically studied. The ratio of the viscous loads to the pressure loads is found to play a major role in the displacement response of the single and tandem cylinder arrangements, as the viscous forces dissipate the energy.
Keywords: circular cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV, wake-induced, vibrationsProcedia PDF Downloads 272
2473 Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders
Authors: T. Zhou, S. F. Mohd Razali, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, L. Cheng
Abstract:The wake flow behind two yawed side-by-side circular cylinders is investigated using a three-dimensional vorticity probe. Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and two cylinder spacing ratios T* of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T* = 3.0, there exist two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent stream-wise vorticity is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity. With the increase of α, increases whereas decreases. At α = 45°, is about 67% of. For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is detected in the energy spectrum. The span-wise vorticity contours have an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity contours of and for T* = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those for T* = 3.0. The independence principle (IP) in terms of Strouhal numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.
Keywords: circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding, side-by-sideProcedia PDF Downloads 271
2472 Flow Reproduction Using Vortex Particle Methods for Wake Buffeting Analysis of Bluff Structures
Authors: Samir Chawdhury, Guido Morgenthal
Abstract:The paper presents a novel extension of Vortex Particle Methods (VPM) where the study aims to reproduce a template simulation of complex flow field that is generated from impulsively started flow past an upstream bluff body at certain Reynolds number Re-Vibration of a structural system under upstream wake flow is often considered its governing design criteria. Therefore, the attention is given in this study especially for the reproduction of wake flow simulation. The basic methodology for the implementation of the flow reproduction requires the downstream velocity sampling from the template flow simulation; therefore, at particular distances from the upstream section the instantaneous velocity components are sampled using a series of square sampling-cells arranged vertically where each of the cell contains four velocity sampling points at its corner. Since the grid free Lagrangian VPM algorithm discretises vorticity on particle elements, the method requires transformation of the velocity components into vortex circulation, and finally the simulation of the reproduction of the template flow field by seeding these vortex circulations or particles into a free stream flow. It is noteworthy that the vortex particles have to be released into the free stream exactly at same rate of velocity sampling. Studies have been done, specifically, in terms of different sampling rates and velocity sampling positions to find their effects on flow reproduction quality. The quality assessments are mainly done, using a downstream flow monitoring profile, by comparing the characteristic wind flow profiles using several statistical turbulence measures. Additionally, the comparisons are performed using velocity time histories, snapshots of the flow fields, and the vibration of a downstream bluff section by performing wake buffeting analyses of the section under the original and reproduced wake flows. Convergence study is performed for the validation of the method. The study also describes the possibilities how to achieve flow reproductions with less computational effort.
Keywords: vortex particle method, wake flow, flow reproduction, wake buffeting analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 245
2471 Comparison of Wake Oscillator Models to Predict Vortex-Induced Vibration of Tall Chimneys
Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta
Abstract:The present study compares the semi-empirical wake-oscillator models that are used to predict vortex-induced vibration of structures. These models include those proposed by Facchinetti, Farshidian, and Dolatabadi, and Skop and Griffin. These models combine a wake oscillator model resembling the Van der Pol oscillator model and a single degree of freedom oscillation model. In order to use these models for estimating the top displacement of chimneys, the first mode vibration of the chimneys is only considered. The modal equation of the chimney constitutes the single degree of freedom model (SDOF). The equations of the wake oscillator model and the SDOF are simultaneously solved using an iterative procedure. The empirical parameters used in the wake-oscillator models are estimated using a newly developed approach, and response is compared with experimental data, which appeared comparable. For carrying out the iterative solution, the ode solver of MATLAB is used. To carry out the comparative study, a tall concrete chimney of height 210m has been chosen with the base diameter as 28m, top diameter as 20m, and thickness as 0.3m. The responses of the chimney are also determined using the linear model proposed by E. Simiu and the deterministic model given in Eurocode. It is observed from the comparative study that the responses predicted by the Facchinetti model and the model proposed by Skop and Griffin are nearly the same, while the model proposed by Fashidian and Dolatabadi predicts a higher response. The linear model without considering the aero-elastic phenomenon provides a less response as compared to the non-linear models. Further, for large damping, the prediction of the response by the Euro code is relatively well compared to those of non-linear models.
Keywords: chimney, deterministic model, van der pol, vortex-induced vibrationProcedia PDF Downloads 147
2470 Unsteady 3D Post-Stall Aerodynamics Accounting for Effective Loss in Camber Due to Flow Separation
Authors: Aritras Roy, Rinku Mukherjee
Abstract:The current study couples a quasi-steady Vortex Lattice Method and a camber correcting technique, ‘Decambering’ for unsteady post-stall flow prediction. The wake is force-free and discrete such that the wake lattices move with the free-stream once shed from the wing. It is observed that the time-averaged unsteady coefficient of lift sees a relative drop at post-stall angles of attack in comparison to its steady counterpart for some angles of attack. Multiple solutions occur at post-stall and three different algorithms to choose solutions in these regimes show both unsteadiness and non-convergence of the iterations. The distribution of coefficient of lift on the wing span also shows sawtooth. Distribution of vorticity changes both along span and in the direction of the free-stream as the wake develops over time with distinct roll-up, which increases with time.
Keywords: post-stall, unsteady, wing, aerodynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 309
2469 A Genetic Algorithm Based Sleep-Wake up Protocol for Area Coverage in WSNs
Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii, Arash Nikdel, Seyed Mohsen Jameii
Abstract:Energy efficiency is an important issue in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). So, minimizing the energy consumption in this kind of networks should be an essential consideration. Sleep/wake scheduling mechanism is an efficient approach to handling this issue. In this paper, we propose a Genetic Algorithm-based Sleep-Wake up Area Coverage protocol called GA-SWAC. The proposed protocol puts the minimum of nodes in active mode and adjusts the sensing radius of each active node to decrease the energy consumption while maintaining the network’s coverage. The proposed protocol is simulated. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of coverage ratio, number of active nodes and energy consumption.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks, genetic algorithm, coverage, connectivityProcedia PDF Downloads 447
2468 Low-Noise Amplifier Design for Improvement of Communication Range for Wake-Up Receiver Based Wireless Sensor Network Application
Authors: Ilef Ketata, Mohamed Khalil Baazaoui, Robert Fromm, Ahmad Fakhfakh, Faouzi Derbel
Abstract:The integration of wireless communication, e. g. in real-or quasi-real-time applications, is related to many challenges such as energy consumption, communication range, latency, quality of service, and reliability. To minimize the latency without increasing energy consumption, wake-up receiver (WuRx) nodes have been introduced in recent works. Low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are introduced to improve the WuRx sensitivity but increase the supply current severely. Different WuRx approaches exist with always-on, power-gated, or duty-cycled receiver designs. This paper presents a comparative study for improving communication range and decreasing the energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes.
Keywords: wireless sensor network, wake-up receiver, duty-cycled, low-noise amplifier, envelope detector, range studyProcedia PDF Downloads 51
2467 Payload Bay Berthing of an Underwater Vehicle With Vertically Actuated Thrusters
Authors: Zachary Cooper-Baldock, Paulo E. Santos, Russell S. A. Brinkworth, Karl Sammut
Abstract:In recent years, large unmanned underwater vehicles such as the Boeing Voyager and Anduril Ghost Shark have been developed. These vessels can be structured to contain onboard internal payload bays. These payload bays can serve a variety of purposes – including the launch and recovery (LAR) of smaller underwater vehicles. The LAR of smaller vessels is extremely important, as it enables transportation over greater distances, increased time on station, data transmission and operational safety. The larger vessel and its payload bay structure complicate the LAR of UUVs in contrast to static docks that are affixed to the seafloor, as they actively impact the local flow field. These flow field impacts require analysis to determine if UUV vessels can be safely launched and recovered inside the motherships. This research seeks to determine the hydrodynamic forces exerted on a vertically over-actuated, small, unmanned underwater vehicle (OUUV) during an internal LAR manoeuvre and compare this to an under-actuated vessel (UUUV). In this manoeuvre, the OUUV is navigated through the stern wake region of the larger vessel to a set point within the internal payload bay. The manoeuvre is simulated using ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics models, covering the entire recovery of the OUUV and UUUV. The analysis of the OUUV is compared against the UUUV to determine the differences in the exerted forces. Of particular interest are the drag, pressure, turbulence and flow field effects exerted as the OUUV is driven inside the payload bay of the larger vessel. The hydrodynamic forces and flow field disturbances are used to determine the feasibility of making such an approach. From the simulations, it was determined that there was no significant detrimental physical forces, particularly with regard to turbulence. The flow field effects exerted by the OUUV are significant. The vertical thrusters exert significant wake structures, but their orientation ensures the wake effects are exerted below the UUV, minimising the impact. It was also seen that OUUV experiences higher drag forces compared to the UUUV, which will correlate to an increased energy expenditure. This investigation found no key indicators that recovery via a mothership payload bay was not feasible. The turbulence, drag and pressure phenomenon were of a similar magnitude to existing static and towed dock structures.
Keywords: underwater vehicles, submarine, autonomous underwater vehicles, AUV, computational fluid dynamics, flow fields, pressure, turbulence, dragProcedia PDF Downloads 11
2466 Application of Low-order Modeling Techniques and Neural-Network Based Models for System Identification
Authors: Venkatesh Pulletikurthi, Karthik B. Ariyur, Luciano Castillo
Abstract:The system identification from the turbulence wakes will lead to the tactical advantage to prepare and also, to predict the trajectory of the opponents’ movements. A low-order modeling technique, POD, is used to predict the object based on the wake pattern and compared with pre-trained image recognition neural network (NN) to classify the wake patterns into objects. It is demonstrated that low-order modeling, POD, is able to predict the objects better compared to pretrained NN by ~30%.
Keywords: the bluff body wakes, low-order modeling, neural network, system identificationProcedia PDF Downloads 99
2465 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Payload Bay Berthing of an Underwater Vehicle With Vertically Actuated Thrusters
Authors: Zachary Cooper-Baldock, Paulo E. Santos, Russell S. A. Brinkworth, Karl Sammut
Abstract:- In recent years, large unmanned underwater vehicles such as the Boeing Voyager and Anduril Ghost Shark have been developed. These vessels can be structured to contain onboard internal payload bays. These payload bays can serve a variety of purposes – including the launch and recovery (LAR) of smaller underwater vehicles. The LAR of smaller vessels is extremely important, as it enables transportation over greater distances, increased time on station, data transmission and operational safety. The larger vessel and its payload bay structure complicate the LAR of UUVs in contrast to static docks that are affixed to the seafloor, as they actively impact the local flow field. These flow field impacts require analysis to determine if UUV vessels can be safely launched and recovered inside the motherships. This research seeks to determine the hydrodynamic forces exerted on a vertically over-actuated, small, unmanned underwater vehicle (OUUV) during an internal LAR manoeuvre and compare this to an under-actuated vessel (UUUV). In this manoeuvre, the OUUV is navigated through the stern wake region of the larger vessel to a set point within the internal payload bay. The manoeuvre is simulated using ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics models, covering the entire recovery of the OUUV and UUUV. The analysis of the OUUV is compared against the UUUV to determine the differences in the exerted forces. Of particular interest are the drag, pressure, turbulence and flow field effects exerted as the OUUV is driven inside the payload bay of the larger vessel. The hydrodynamic forces and flow field disturbances are used to determine the feasibility of making such an approach. From the simulations, it was determined that there was no significant detrimental physical forces, particularly with regard to turbulence. The flow field effects exerted by the OUUV are significant. The vertical thrusters exert significant wake structures, but their orientation ensures the wake effects are exerted below the UUV, minimising the impact. It was also seen that OUUV experiences higher drag forces compared to the UUUV, which will correlate to an increased energy expenditure. This investigation found no key indicators that recovery via a mothership payload bay was not feasible. The turbulence, drag and pressure phenomenon were of a similar magnitude to existing static and towed dock structures.
Keywords: underwater vehicles, submarine, autonomous underwater vehicles, auv, computational fluid dynamics, flow fields, pressure, turbulence, dragProcedia PDF Downloads 10
2464 High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements
Authors: Alexander Buhr, Klaus Ehrenfried
Abstract:Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed. The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard (TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures. The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.
Keywords: boundary layer, high-speed PIV, ICE3, moving train model, roughness elementsProcedia PDF Downloads 237