Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Shakespeare

21 Literature, Culture, and Shakespeare's Dramatization of Linguistic Scenes

Authors: Cheang Wai Fong

Abstract:

This paper takes language and its interconnection with power as a point of departure to analyze some linguistic scenes played up by William Shakespeare. By placing language into the big picture of literature and culture, and by reexamining the etymological relations between the three terms, language, literature and culture, the paper attempts to formulate an understanding of their more expansive meanings. It compares their respective traditional notions with their modern concepts brought up by literary critics, anthropologists and sociolinguists. Then it uses these expansive meanings to reinterpret Shakespeare’s linguistic scenes featuring language contentions, and to discuss Shakespeare’s success as a signification of literature’s role within the linguistic and cultural context of Elizabethan England.

Keywords: culture, language, literature, shakespeare

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20 Rabih Alameddine's Appropriation of Shakespeare's The Tempest

Authors: Yousef Abu Amrieh

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This paper explores how Arab American novelist Rabih Alameddine's recent novel The Angel of History (2016) appropriates certain motifs, tropes, and themes from Shakespeare's The Tempest. In particular, Alameddine's novel re-tells the story of Caliban and his mother from the perspective of a Yemeni bastard whose mis/fortunes take him to the US shores in the eighties of the previous century. The novel, specifically, re-writes the scene in which Caliban is gazed at by European travelers like Stephano and Trinculo whose first reaction to seeing him is to consider how to sell him or give him as a gift when they safely return to Europe. The novel contests Shakespeare's representation of Caliban as 'marketable' through depicting his daily experiences in modern day America.

Keywords: appropriation, Alameddine, Shakespeare, The Tempest

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19 The Impact of Judeo-Christian Myth and Celtic Myth in Selected Plays of William Shakespeare

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

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This article intends to show strong facts of ‘Judeo-Christian myth’ and ‘Celtic myth’ in selected plays of William Shakespeare. Giving the vast proliferation of Shakespeare studies we examine the strong impact of Bible in his plays. Inevitably, for instance, the study of Shakespeare and the Bible overlaps the study of Shakespeare and religion, which justify the use of Judeo-Christian myth in his works. There is some evidence that Shakespeare had read and used the ‘Geneva Bible’ in his works. The glimpse of parables and references of Biblical myth can be seen very clearly in Macbeth, King Lear and Measure for Measure. Defining a religion based on myths is difficult because it is built upon a belief of large number of people in the society. The Judeo-Christian myth which is based on the Bible, Celtic religious myth will also be discussed in this paper which had a strong impact on the audience of sixteenth century and it is still continuing at the present time.

Keywords: Celtic myth, Geneva Bible, Judeo-Christian myth, Shakespearean plays

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18 Remembering and Forgetting in Shakespeare Sonnets

Authors: Nasreddin Bushra Ahmed

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Humans use language to externalize their mental perceptions and conceptions and thereby set up an interdependent consciousness about the concrete and abstract spheres of their existence. Language also represents a recording device whereby they capture the transient moment in their lives. Literature with it its various manifestations help keep the individual and collective memories alive. Works of the English literature’s prototypical figure, William Shakespeare provides the best illustration of this fact. Shakespeare’s sonnets abound in prescient insights about the intricacies of human relations. Though they have been the concern of scholars’ investigations for centuries, many of their thematic potentialities are yet to be tapped. The present study aspires to highlight the theme of remembering and forgetting in some of these sonnets as reverse faces of the same coin. Using close reading it is intended to demonstrate how Shakespeare, through imagery and literary tropes, plays with the issues of mortality and immortality, and how he has reaffirmed that literature can provide a locus for perennial presence despite the temporariness of individuals’ existence.

Keywords: forgetting, immortality, literature, remembering, Shakespeare, sonnet

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17 The Analysis of Female Characters in Shakespeare’s Work; Contrast between the Submissive and the Wicked

Authors: Jeong Hwa Ryong

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Numerous characters appear in the works of England’s most prominent play writer, William Shakespeare. Most of the time, his male protagonists possess various and complex characteristics throughout the storyline of his work, making it interesting for the readers to analyze their actions in many different aspects. However, some critics argue that unlike male characters, Shakespeare’s female characters are rather more flat and one-sided, pointing out that they are either the extreme version of good or evil. Especially, it is a significant topic to discuss in the modern days, considering the fact that gender stereotype is now a sensitive issue. Starting from such argument, it is important to address their purpose of being in the play and suggest their meaning to the modern readers of today. In this context, this paper analyzes several female characters of Shakespeare’s work by closely examining their actions and lines. The characters analyzed are Ophelia from Hamlet, Cordelia from King Lear, Katherine from The Taming of the Shrew, Goneril from King Lear and Lady Macbeth from Macbeth. Nevertheless, some female protagonists of Shakespeare’s work do not fall in to this category and exceed the limitations of others. Therefore this paper proposes alternative characters such as Juliet from Romeo and Juliet and Portia from The Merchant of Venice that are rather more complex and difficult to include in just one category. By doing so, this paper critically analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of many female characters in Shakespeare’s play.

Keywords: female characters, gender stereotype, William Shakespeare

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16 Mimesis in William Shakespeare's Selected Sonnets

Authors: Roselyn T. Bustos

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Literature is an imitation of life. It depicts man's culture as well as his struggles. In short, literature is a part of man's way of life- a reflection of his personal or vicarious experiences. Using the qualitative-descriptive content analysis, this study investigates the mimetic signification in the five select sonnets of William Shakespeare.An in- depth analysis of the poetic elements such as the figurative language used and the themes extracted is made to draw out the universal meaning of his works. It is found out that his select sonnets use figurative languages such as simile, metaphor, personification, and hyperbaton which becomes a potent element that allows his sonnets to convey the themes of love and perseverance. With these findings, it is concluded that William Shakespeare's sonnets are evidently written within the context of the universals and that they are worthy of wide readership not only because of him being a renowned English poet and playwright but most importantly of the realities his sonnets signify.

Keywords: imitation, mimesis, potent, realities

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15 Analyzing Mexican Adaptation of Shakespeare: A Study of Onstage Violence in Richard III and Its Impact on Mexican Viewers

Authors: Nelya Babynets

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Shakespeare and Mexican theatregoers have enjoyed quite a complex relationship. Shakespearean plays have appeared on the Mexican stage with remarkable perseverance, yet with mixed success. Although Shakespeare has long been a part of the global cultural marketplace and his works are celebrated all around the world, the adaptation of his plays on the contemporary Mexican stage is always an adventure, since the works of this early modern author are frequently seen as the legacy of a ‘high’, but obsolete, culture, one that is quite distant from the present-day viewers’ daily experiences and concerns. Moreover, Mexican productions of Shakespeare are presented mostly in Peninsular Spanish, a language similar yet alien to the language spoken in Mexico, one that does not wholly fit into the viewers’ cultural praxis. This is the reason why Mexican dramatic adaptations of Shakespearean plays tend to replace the cultural references of the original piece with ones that are more significant and innate to Latin American spectators. This paper analyses the new Mexican production of Richard III adapted and directed by Mauricio Garcia Lozano, which employs onstage violence - a cultural force that is inherent to all human beings regardless of their beliefs, ethnic background or nationality - as the means to make this play more relevant to a present-day audience. Thus, this paper addresses how the bloody bombast of staged murders helps to avoid the tyranny of a rigid framework of fixed meanings that denies the possibility of an intercultural appropriation of this European play written over four hundred years ago. The impact of violence displayed in Garcia Lozano’s adaptation of Richard III on Mexican audiences will also be examined. This study is particularly relevant in Mexico where the term ‘tragedy’ has become a commonplace and where drug wars and state-sanctioned violence have already taken the lives of many people.

Keywords: audience, dramatic adaptation, Shakespeare, viewer

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14 Global Dimensions of Shakespearean Cinema: A Study of Shakespearean Presence around the Globe

Authors: Rupali Chaudhary

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Shakespeare has been widely revisited by dramatists, critics, filmmakers and scholars around the globe. Shakespeare's kaleidoscopic work has been borrowed and redesigned into resonant patterns by artists, thus weaving myriad manifestations to pick from. Along with adaptation into wholly verbal medium (e.g., translations) the practice of indigenization through performing arts has played a great role in amplifying the reach of plays. The proliferation of Shakespeare's oeuvre commenced with the spread of colonialism itself. The plays illustrating the core values of Western tradition were introduced in the colonies. Therefore, the colonial domination extended to cultural domination. The plays were translated and adapted by the locals at times as it is and sometimes intermingled with the altered landscape and culture. The present paper discusses the global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema along with the historical cinematic shift from silent era to spoken dialogue in multiple languages. The methodology followed is descriptive in nature, and related information is availed from related literature, i.e., books, research articles and films. America and Europe dominated the silent era Shakespearean film production, thereby giving the term 'global' a less broad meaning. Five nations that dominated silent Shakespearean cinema were the United States, England, Italy, France, and Germany. Gradually the work of the exemplary figure with artistic and literary greatness surpassed the boundaries of the colonies and became a global legacy. Presently apart from English speaking nations Shakespearean films have been shot or produced in many of non-Anglophone locales. The findings indicate that when discussing about global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema various factors can be considered: involvement of actors and directors of foreign origin, transportability and universal comprehensibility of visual imagery across geographical borders, commodification of art or West's use of it as a tool of cultural hegemony or promotion of international amity, propagation of interculturalism through individual director's cultural translations and localization of Western art. Understanding of Shakespeare as a global export also depends on how an individual Shakespearean film works. Shakespeare's global appeal for cinema does not reside alone in his exquisite writings, distinctive characters, the setting, the story and the plots that have nurtured cinema since the medium's formative years. Shakespeare's global cinematic appeal is present in the spirit of cinema itself, i.e., the moving images capturing human behaviour and emotions that the plays invoke in audiences.

Keywords: adaptation, global dimensions, Shakespeare, Shakespearean cinema

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13 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato

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How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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12 Interplay of Imaginary, Symbolic and Real In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Disturbance of Nature

Authors: Mahnaz Poorshahidi

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This article is a psychological reading of Shakespeare’s Hamlet applying Lacan’s ideas to work with a new look. Lacan entitled Hamlet ‘tragedy of desire’. He believes that Hamlet is caught up in the desire of his mother. So he is the universal symbol of all human beings, regardless of their sex, who desire their mother, but based on the rules of Nature and Father, this unity is impossible. Hamlet hesitates in fulfilling the task of revenge and the text says nothing about the reasons and motives behind it. However, this essay tries to answer the question and justify Hamlet’s hesitation. There is one question for the readers, which is why Hamlet appears to delay in killing his uncle, despite the fact that this is precisely what he seems to want to do. In 1958-59 Lacan delivered a series of lectures on Hamlet entitled ‘Desire and Its Interpretations’ and called it ‘tragedy of desire’. However, this article will have a new representation of Hamlet’s decision not to take revenge. The research demonstrates that Hamlet has passed through imaginary, symbolic and real stages, which are the natural process of life. Eliminating father means disturbing this natural process. This essay is going to conclude that killing Claudius can break the natural order of life. On the other hand, Claudius has also disturbed nature and is regretful about his deed. Hamlet’s ever-present speech ‘To be or not to be’ reflects his mental turmoil and disturbance of the natural life cycle: Nature.

Keywords: desire, father figure, lacan, nature

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11 Translation of Culture-Specific References in the Turkish Translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth

Authors: Feride Sumbul

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Drama is a literary genre that mirrors the people and society and transfers the human nature and life to the reader or the audience within its own social-cultural structure. Each play takes on a new reality in the time and culture of the staging, and each performance actually brings a new interpretation to the play. Similarly, each translation adds a new meaning to the source text. In other words, the translated theatrical text transcends the boundaries of its language and culture and finds a new interpretation. Thus the translation of drama takes place as a transfer from one culture to another as a cross cultural communication. In this context, translating culture specific references play a key role in terms of reflecting cultural aspects of a target society. This study aims to explore the use of Venuti's translation principles of domestication and foreignization in the transfer of culture specific references in the Turkish translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth is to be compared with its Turkish version in terms of the transference of culture specific references such as religious, witchcraft, and mythological, which have no equivalent in the target language and culture. To evaluate these principles of Venuti, Davies’s translation strategies are also conducted. As a method, for the most part, he predominantly uses Davies’ method of ‘addition’ through adding extra information in the notes. For instance, rather than finding the Turkish renderings of them, the translator mostly chooses to transfer witchcraft references through retaining them in the target text, but he mainly adds extra information about the references in the notes. Therefore, the translator Nutku mostly uses Venuti’s translation principle of foreignization so that he preserves the foreignness of the theatrical text.

Keywords: drama translation, theatrical texts, culture specific references, Macbeth

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10 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

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Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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9 Shakespeare’s Sister and the Crisis of Women’s Autonomy: A Critical Analysis of a Room of One’s Own

Authors: Ali Mohammadi

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This study explored the root causes of women's lack of writing in literature by digging into Virginia Woolf's A Room of One’s Own. Virginia Woolf was the pioneer of feminist literary criticism in the 20th century. She was hugely preoccupied, throughout her writing life, with the role of women in history and with the relationship between women and fiction. Besides, she wrote continuously about the difficulties of women's writing and of writing as a woman. This research aims to mirror a number of key arguments concerning women’s issues: the social and economic conditions necessary for writing; the problem of a tradition of women's writing; the concept of a 'female sentence' articulating women's voices and values and the idea of the androgynous aesthetic in which an author would be able to write free from an awareness of their sex as male or female. Woolf was very wary of making any definitive assertions about women's writing, or at least in terms of its style or form. Indeed, much of the essay is taken up with her reflections on the lack of women's writing over the history of English literature. It was concluded that the reason for this absence of female writing does not just spring from the deficiency of genius, but of material circumstances and facilities. Additionally, the demands of the domestic household, the poverty of education available to women, and the laws that denied married women’s ownership of funds or property made it virtually impossible for women to take up writing as a profession.

Keywords: autonomy, facilities, genius, literature, women

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8 Of Rites of Narration and Representation of Orient and Occident in Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West

Authors: Tarik Bouguerba

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Thomas Heywood was an outstanding, prolific playwright of the period, writing both in prose and verse. Unlike Shakespeare in particular, Heywood could be considered as a playwright who was well informed about Morocco and wrote in greater detail about a possible dialogue among cultures. As it is a historical platform for power relations, The Fair Maid of the West recalled the heroism and excitement of English counterattacks against Spain in the Post-Armada period. This paper therefore pins down the acts of narration and representation of Morocco and Moroccans and examines how the Occident has contributed to the production of the Orient and finally attests to the metamorphosis the plot undergoes in Part I and Part II. As an adventure play, The Fair Maid of the West teaches about, informs of and confirms the existing patterns of virtue in European voyagers and at the same time it asserts how honor and chastity are European par excellence whereas villainy and wickedness are Oriental assets. Once taken captive, these virtues and traits are put into task as the plot disentangles. This paper also examines how the play in both parts generates a whole history of stereotypes about Morocco and unexpectedly subverts this stereotype; such a biased mode of narration of the Orient the playwright took up at first was played down at a later phase in the narrative.

Keywords: Heywood, Occident, Orientalism, Stereotype, Virtue

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7 Empowering Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia: Translating the Disability Law into Practice

Authors: Marthella Rivera Roidatua

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Since the release of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, disability became a mainstreamed global issue. Many developed countries have shown the continuous effort to improve their disability employment policy, for example, the US and the UK with their integrated support system through disability benefits. Relative little recent research on developing country is available. Surprisingly, Indonesia, just enacted the Law No.8/2016 on Disability that bravely highlighted on integrating disabled people into the workforce. It shows a positive progress shifting traditional perspective to what Tom Shakespeare’s concept of a social model of disability. But, the main question is how can this law support the disabled people to access and maintain paid work. Thus, besides the earlier literature reviews, interviews with leading sectors, Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of Manpower, was conducted to examine government’s attitude towards the disabled worker. Insights from two local social enterprises on disability were also engaged in building better perspective. The various source of data was triangulated then analysed with a thematic approach. Results were encouraging the Indonesian government to have a better collaboration with other impactful local organisations in promoting the disability employment. In the end, this paper also recommends the government to make a reasonable adjustment and practical guideline for companies in hiring disabled.

Keywords: disability, employment, policy, Indonesia, collaboration, guidelines

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6 Investigating the Efficacy of Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading

Authors: Julie Chuah Suan Choo

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Due to the continuous change in workforce and the demands of the global workplace, many employers had lamented that the majority of university graduates were not prepared in the key areas of employment such as critical thinking, writing, self-direction and global knowledge which are most needed for the purposes of promotion. Further, critical thinking skills are deemed as integral parts of transformational pedagogy which aims at having a more informed society. To add to this, literature teaching has recently been advocated for enhancing students’ critical thinking and reasoning. Thus this study explored the effects of incorporating a few strategies in teaching literature, namely a Shakespeare play, into a course design to enhance these skills. An experiment involving a pretest and posttest using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were administered on 80 first-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts programme who were randomly assigned into the control group and experimental group. For the next 12 weeks, the experimental group was given intervention which included guided in-class discussion with Socratic questioning skills, learning log to detect their weaknesses in logical reasoning; presentations and quizzes. The results of CCTST which included paired T-test using SPSS version 22 indicated significant differences between the two groups. Findings have significant implications on the course design as well as pedagogical practice in using literature to enhance students’ critical thinking skills.

Keywords: literature teaching, critical thinking, California critical thinking skills test (CCTST), course design

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5 Posttraumatic Distress, Hope and Growth in Survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking in Nepal

Authors: Rebekah Volgin, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Ian Shochet

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Commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) and sex trafficking affect between 5000-7000 girls and women in Nepal each year and can have devastating physical and psychological consequences. Much research has documented these effects, however, there is no published longitudinal research that focuses on whether healing and growth outcomes are possible for survivors of CSE and sex trafficking. The narratives of 27 girls and women (13-22 years) were taken at two-time points during participation in a six-week group psychoeducation and art therapy program which was delivered across three NGO’s in Kathmandu, Nepal. These narratives form part of a larger ethnographic project. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Themes emerging from time point 1 were: psychological distress in the form of anxiety and grief over loss of family, psychosomatic symptoms, empathy and compassion, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the form of new possibilities, relating to others and personal strength. Posttraumatic growth refers to positive changes in the aftermath of trauma. The themes emerging from time point 2, were: empathy and compassion and PTG (cognitive restructuring, new possibilities, relating to others and personal strength). Alongside the distress that these participants experienced, they also experienced positive outcomes such as empathy and compassion and psychological growth. Future research would advance knowledge by further examining the process of PTG in this population, if the changes observed were lasting, and if so, ways in which PTG can be facilitated or promoted.

Keywords: commercial sexual exploitation, human trafficking, posttraumatic growth, sexual trauma

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4 Ecocriticism and Sustainable Development: A Study of Kamila Shamsie's a God in Every Stone

Authors: Shaista Maseeh

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English Literature from the beginning itself has had psychological, social and environment concerns. Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, William Wordsworth to the most current Robert Hass have shown and proved their environmental and ecological interests as well as distress related to its loss. Pastoral literature is also one such genre that links literature with environment. Thanks to the contemporary literary theories that they successfully are relating Literature formally to the subjects other than written text. One of such literary theory is 'Ecocriticism.' It stands under the umbrella of the Economics term, Sustainable Development,' or it can also be understood as an ecological extension of it. Ecocriticism helps the reader to study the dynamic relation between literature and our degrading environment. It draws attention towards the ravaged condition of nature and animals, that how nature is exploited by human beings for their own benefit leaving nature at a repairable loss. For instance, deforestation is reducing the size of forest every year, injuring permanently flora, fauna and also the habitat of animals. This paper will study the ecological and environmental concerns in the latest novel by Pakistani British writer Kamila Shamsie, A God in every Stone (2014). The book is not only a literary masterpiece in elegant prose, but also a novel posing a lot of questions about 'nature and environment' in general and 'animals' in particular. It gives the glimpses of the interesting history of Temple of Zeus in Greece and Ancient Caria, and covers many episodes of history the Indian freedom struggle. In course of novel's narrative Kamila Shamsie poses disturbing question about environmental abuse, about how human beings are more 'beasts' than so call beasts, poor animals. She also glorifies the simplicity of past. The novel has enough instances to prove Shamsie's positive stand on saving the earth that is being more abused than used by human beings. This paper will provide an ecocritical approach to study A God in Every Stone (2014).

Keywords: animals, ecocriticism, environment, nature

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3 Memorializing the Holocaust in the Present Century

Authors: Mehak Burza

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As we pause to observe the Holocaust Remembrance Day each year on 27 January, it becomes important to consider how the Holocaust is witnessed, and its education is perceived across the globe. The dissemination of knowledge of the Holocaust becomes more pertinent in the countries that were not directly affected by it. The Holocaust education is not widespread in Asian countries and is thus not mandatory as an academic discipline for school and university students. One such Asian country that often considers Holocaust as an isolated event is India. Though the struggle for freedom began with the 1857 mutiny (the first war of Indian independence) but the freedom revolts gained momentum specifically during the years 1944-1947, when India was steeped in a battery of rebellions. However, freedom for the Indian subcontinent from the domination of British Raj came at the cost of partition of India that resulted in widespread bloodshed and immigration. For India, it is this backdrop of her freedom struggle that always outweighs the incidents of the Second World War, including the catastrophic event of the Holocaust. As a result, the knowledge about the Holocaust is available through secondary sources such as Holocaust documentaries and movies. Besides Anne Frank’s diary, the knowledge about the Holocaust is disseminated through the course readings in the universities. The most common literary acquaintances with the Jewish faith for university students are when they come across the Jewish characters in their course readings. The Prioress’s Tale in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, the character of Shylock in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, and the Jewish protagonist, Barabas, in Christopher Marlow’s Jew of Malta. Apart from this, the school textbooks mention a detailed chapter on Holocaust and Hitler, which is an encouraging turn. However, there still exists a yawning gap between dissemination and sensitization of Holocaust education owing to different geographical locales. My paper presentation aims to trace the intersectional elements between India and the Holocaust that can serve as the required pivotal stand-board to foster sensitization towards Holocaust education in the Indian subcontinent. For instance, Maharaja Jam SahebDigvijaysinhjiRanjitsinhji, the ruler of Nawanagar, a princely state in British India, helped save thousand Polish Jewish children in 1945 at the time when India herself was steeped in its struggle for freedom. Famously known as the ‘Indian Oskar Schindler’ Polish government has named a street after him in Krakow, Poland. Another example that deserves mention is the spy princess, Noor Inayat Khan, a descendent of Tipu Sultan, who became the most celebrated British spyand fought against the Nazis. Additionally, by offering refuge to Jews, India has proved to be a distant haven for them. Researching further the domain of Jewish refugees in India will not only illuminate a dull/gray zone of investigation but also enable the educators to provide appropriate entry points for introducing the subject of Shoah/Holocaust in India, a subject which unfortunately hitherto is either seldom discussed or is equated with the Partition of India.

Keywords: awareness, dissemination, holocaust, India

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2 Structured-Ness and Contextual Retrieval Underlie Language Comprehension

Authors: Yao-Ying Lai, Maria Pinango, Ashwini Deo

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While grammatical devices are essential to language processing, how comprehension utilizes cognitive mechanisms is less emphasized. This study addresses this issue by probing the complement coercion phenomenon: an entity-denoting complement following verbs like begin and finish receives an eventive interpretation. For example, (1) “The queen began the book” receives an agentive reading like (2) “The queen began [reading/writing/etc.…] the book.” Such sentences engender additional processing cost in real-time comprehension. The traditional account attributes this cost to an operation that coerces the entity-denoting complement to an event, assuming that these verbs require eventive complements. However, in closer examination, examples like “Chapter 1 began the book” undermine this assumption. An alternative, Structured Individual (SI) hypothesis, proposes that the complement following aspectual verbs (AspV; e.g. begin, finish) is conceptualized as a structured individual, construed as an axis along various dimensions (e.g. spatial, eventive, temporal, informational). The composition of an animate subject and an AspV such as (1) engenders an ambiguity between an agentive reading along the eventive dimension like (2), and a constitutive reading along the informational/spatial dimension like (3) “[The story of the queen] began the book,” in which the subject is interpreted as a subpart of the complement denotation. Comprehenders need to resolve the ambiguity by searching contextual information, resulting in additional cost. To evaluate the SI hypothesis, a questionnaire was employed. Method: Target AspV sentences such as “Shakespeare began the volume.” were preceded by one of the following types of context sentence: (A) Agentive-biasing, in which an event was mentioned (…writers often read…), (C) Constitutive-biasing, in which a constitutive meaning was hinted (Larry owns collections of Renaissance literature.), (N) Neutral context, which allowed both interpretations. Thirty-nine native speakers of English were asked to (i) rate each context-target sentence pair from a 1~5 scale (5=fully understandable), and (ii) choose possible interpretations for the target sentence given the context. The SI hypothesis predicts that comprehension is harder for the Neutral condition, as compared to the biasing conditions because no contextual information is provided to resolve an ambiguity. Also, comprehenders should obtain the specific interpretation corresponding to the context type. Results: (A) Agentive-biasing and (C) Constitutive-biasing were rated higher than (N) Neutral conditions (p< .001), while all conditions were within the acceptable range (> 3.5 on the 1~5 scale). This suggests that when lacking relevant contextual information, semantic ambiguity decreases comprehensibility. The interpretation task shows that the participants selected the biased agentive/constitutive reading for condition (A) and (C) respectively. For the Neutral condition, the agentive and constitutive readings were chosen equally often. Conclusion: These findings support the SI hypothesis: the meaning of AspV sentences is conceptualized as a parthood relation involving structured individuals. We argue that semantic representation makes reference to spatial structured-ness (abstracted axis). To obtain an appropriate interpretation, comprehenders utilize contextual information to enrich the conceptual representation of the sentence in question. This study connects semantic structure to human’s conceptual structure, and provides a processing model that incorporates contextual retrieval.

Keywords: ambiguity resolution, contextual retrieval, spatial structured-ness, structured individual

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1 Shakespeare's Hamlet in Ballet: Transformation of an Archival Recording of a Neoclassical Ballet Performance into a Contemporary Transmodern Dance Video Applying Postmodern Concepts and Techniques

Authors: Svebor Secak

Abstract:

This four-year artistic research project hosted by the University of New England, Australia has set the goal to experiment with non-conventional ways of presenting a language-based narrative in dance using insights of recent theoretical writing on performance, addressing the research question: How to transform an archival recording of a neoclassical ballet performance into a new artistic dance video by implementing postmodern philosophical concepts? The Creative Practice component takes the form of a dance video Hamlet Revisited which is a reworking of the archival recording of the neoclassical ballet Hamlet, augmented by new material, produced using resources, technicians and dancers of the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb. The methodology for the creation of Hamlet Revisited consisted of extensive field and desk research after which three dancers were shown the recording of original Hamlet and then created their artistic response to it based on their reception and appreciation of it. The dancers responded differently, based upon their diverse dancing backgrounds and life experiences. They began in the role of the audience observing video of the original ballet and transformed into the role of the choreographer-performer. Their newly recorded material was edited and juxtaposed with the archival recording of Hamlet and other relevant footage, allowing for postmodern features such as aleatoric content, synchronicity, eclecticism and serendipity, that way establishing communication on a receptive reader-response basis, thus blending the roles of the choreographer, performer and spectator, creating an original work of art whose significance lies in the relationship and communication between styles, old and new choreographic approaches, artists and audiences and the transformation of their traditional roles and relationships. In editing and collating, the following techniques were used with the intention to avoid the singular narrative: fragmentation, repetition, reverse-motion, multiplication of images, split screen, overlaying X-rays, image scratching, slow-motion, freeze-frame and simultaneity. Key postmodern concepts considered were: deconstruction, diffuse authorship, supplementation, simulacrum, self-reflexivity, questioning the role of the author, intertextuality and incredulity toward grand narratives - departing from the original story, thus personalising its ontological themes. From a broad brush of diverse concepts and techniques applied in an almost prescriptive manner, the project focuses on intertextuality that proves to be valid on at least two levels. The first is the possibility of a more objective analysis in combination with a semiotic structuralist approach moving from strict relationships between signs to a multiplication of signifiers, considering the dance text as an open construction, containing the elusive and enigmatic quality of art that leaves the interpretive position open. The second one is the creation of the new work where the author functions as the editor, aware and conscious of the interplay of disparate texts and their sources which co-act in the mind during the creative process. It is argued here that the eclectic combination of the old and new material through constant oscillations of different discourses upon the same topic resulted in a transmodern integrationist recent work of art that might be applied as a model for reconsidering existing choreographic creations.

Keywords: Ballet Hamlet, intertextuality, transformation, transmodern dance video

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