Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2506

Search results for: status

2506 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

Abstract:

In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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2505 Current and Emerging Pharmacological Treatment for Status Epilepticus in Adults

Authors: Mathew Tran, Deepa Patel, Breann Prophete, Irandokht Khaki Najafabadi

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Status epilepticus is a neurological disorder requiring emergent control with medical therapy. Based on guideline recommendations for adults with status epilepticus, the first-line treatment is to start a benzodiazepine, as they are quick at seizure control. The second step is to initiate a non-benzodiazepine anti-epileptic drug to prevent refractory seizures. Studies show that the anti-epileptic drugs are approximately equivalent in status epilepticus control once a benzodiazepine has been given. This review provides a brief overview of the management of status epilepticus based on evidence from the literature and evidence-based guidelines.

Keywords: neurological disorder, seizure, status epilepticus, benzo diazepines, antiepileptic agents

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2504 Importance of Health and Social Capital to Employment Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Belayet Hossain, Laura Lamb

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The study investigates the importance of health and social capital in determining the labour force status of Canada’s Indigenous population using data from 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. An instrumental variable ordered probit model has been specified and estimated. The study finds that health status and social capital are important in determining Indigenous peoples’ employment status along with other factors. The results of the study imply that human resource development initiatives of Indigenous Peoples need to be broadened by including health status and social capital. Poor health and low degree of inclusion of the Indigenous Peoples need to be addressed in order to improve employment status of Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.

Keywords: labour force, human capital, social capital, aboriginal people, Canada

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2503 The Effects of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Academic Motivation: The Case of Lithuania

Authors: Ausra Turcinskaite-Balciuniene, Jonas Balciunas, Gediminas Merkys

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The problematic of gender and socioeconomic status biased differences in academic motivation patterns is discussed. Gender identity is understood according to symbolic interactionism perspective: as a result of reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-attributions, and identifications, shaped by social environment and family context. The effects of socioeconomic status on academic motivation are conceptualized according to Bourdieu’s habitus concept, reflecting the role of unconscious and internalized cultural signals, proper to low and high socioeconomic status family contexts. Since families differ by various socioeconomic features, the hypothesis about possible impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s academic motivation interfering with gender socialization effects is held. The survey, aiming to seize gender differences in academic motivation and self-recorded improvement-oriented efforts as a result of socialization processes operating in the families of low and high socioeconomic status, was designed. The results of Lithuanian higher education students’ survey are presented and discussed.

Keywords: academic motivation, gender, socialization, socioeconomic status

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2502 The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Citizens’ Perceptions of Social Justice in China

Authors: Yan Liu

Abstract:

The Gini coefficient indicates that the inequality of income distribution is rising in China. How individuals viewing the equality of current society is an important predicator of social turbulence. Perceptions of social justice may vary according to the social stratification. People usually use socioeconomic status to identify divisions between social stratifications. The objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of socioeconomic status on citizens’ perceptions of social justice in China. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually reflected by either an SES indicator or a composite of three core dimensions: education, income and occupation. With data collected in the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study uses OLS regression analyses to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and citizens’ perceptions of social justice. This study finds that most Chinese citizens believe that the current society is fair or more than fair. Socioeconomic status (SES) has a positive impact on citizens’ perceptions of social justice, which means individuals with higher indicator of socioeconomic status prefer to believe current society is fair. However, the three core dimensions which are used to measure socioeconomic status (SES) have different influences on perceptions of social justice: First, income helps enhance citizens’ sense of social justice. Second, education weakens citizens’ sense of social justice. Third, compared to the middle occupational status, people of both higher occupational status and lower occupational status have higher levels of perceptions of social justice. Though education creates a negative influence on perceptions of social justice, its effect is much weaker than that of income, which indicates income is a determining factor for enhancing people’s perceptions of social justice in China’s market society. Policy implications are discussed.

Keywords: education, income, occupation, perceptions of social justice, social stratification, socioeconomic status

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2501 Social Status and Role of Women among the Khasi Tribe of Meghalaya

Authors: Jeffreyson Wahlang

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes in the social status and role of Khasi women with the advent of modernisation and globalisation. Since all societies inevitably undergo social change, this paper will attempt to enquire about the path and direction to which women in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya is moving.

Keywords: status, role, women, Khasi Matriliny, gender

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2500 Correlation of Nutritional Status and Anemia Among School-Aged Children in Indonesian Urban Area

Authors: William Cheng, Yuni Astria, Rini Sekartini

Abstract:

Background: Prevalence of anemia among school-aged children is relatively high (25.4%). This condition can affect children’s life, including cognitive function. One of the most common factors that is associated with anemia in children is nutritional status. This simple indicator will be very helpful in identifying more population at risk. The aim of this study is to correlate the clinical implication of nutritional status to the prevalence of anemia in children, with intention to determine a more effective nutritional status indicator in detecting anemia. Method: Anthropometric and haemoglobin status were gathered from children between 5 to 7-years-old in one of the urban areas in Jakarta in 2012. We identified children with haemoglobin level under 11.5 as anemia and correlated them to their WHO z-score from each of these indicators: Body Weight for Age (normal weight and underweight), Height for Age (not stunted and stunted), and Body Mass Index for Age (not wasted and wasted). Results: A total of 195 children were included in this research and 57 of them (29,2%) were diagnosed as anemia. The majority of the children had good nutritional status, however, 30 (15,4%) of them were found to be underweight, 33 (16,9%) were stunted, and 1 children (0,5%) was wasted. There were no overweight result found in this population. From the three nutritional status indicators, none proved to be statistically significant in relation to the incidence of anemia (p>0.05). Out of 33 children who were diagnosed as stunted, 36.36 % were found to have anemia, in comparison to 27,7% of children who were not stunted. Meanwhile, among 30 children who were diagnosed as underweight, 33,3 % of them were anemic whereas only 28,4% of the normal weight group were anemic. Conclusion: In this study, there is no significant correlation between anemia with any nutritional status indicator. However, more than a third of the stunted children are proven to have low haemoglobin status. The finding of stunting in children should be given more attention to further investigate for anemia.

Keywords: school-aged children, nutritional status, anemia, pediatrics

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2499 The Influence of Wealth on the Enjoyment of Role and Status of the Rural Elderly in Bangladesh

Authors: Aminul Islam

Abstract:

The issue of aging is now an emerging aspect of all over the world. Both the rural and urban societies of our country are not immune from this problem. This study mainly explored the influence of wealth on the enjoyment of role and status of the elderly in rural Bangladesh. It is based on empirical findings from the four villages of Gopalnagar union of Dhunat upazila of Bogra district. The study depicted that wealth has much influence regarding the enjoyment of role and status. Mixed approach has been given priority in this study. Survey, observation, case study and life history methods and focus group discussion technique have also been used in this study. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Simple random sampling procedure has also been followed in this study.

Keywords: wealth, role status, elderly

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2498 HIV Disclosure Status and Factors among Women to Their Sexual Partner in Victory plus, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Dwi Kartika Rukmi, Miftafu Darussalam

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Background: The disclosure of women’s HIV status toward their sexual partners is an important issue that should be regarded as one of the efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. Research on the disclosure of seropositive HIV status as well as women-related factors in Indonesia, especially Yogyakarta is only a few. Methods: This is a correlational descriptive research along with its cross-sectional approach on 329 women with HIV/AIDS at the Victory Plus NGO from June to July 2016. This research used a purposive sampling method and a questionnaire as the data collection technique. The bivariate analysis test was undertaken by using a chi-square and multivariate test along with a logistic regression. Result: The multivariate analysis and logistic regression show five independent variables related to the disclosure of seropositive HIV status of women with HIV/AIDS toward their sexual partners, namely ethnicity (aOR = 36,859; 95% CI; (6,544-207,616)) religion (aOR =0,255; 95%CI; (0,075-0,868)), discussion with partners prior to the HIV test (aOR =0,069; 95%CI; (0,065-0,438)) , types of sexual partners (aOR = 0.191; 95% CI; (0.082-0,445)) and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status (aOR = 0.036; 95% CI; (0.008-0.160)). The highest level of reason for seropositive HIV women not to be open about their partners’ status is the fear of being rejected by their partners and the environmental stigma of HIV AIDS disease. Conclusion: The disclosure of seropositive HIV status in women with HIV/AIDS in the Victory Plus NGO of Yogyakarta was 79.4% or classified as a high category with some related factors such as ethnicity, religion, discussion with partners prior to the HIV test, types of partners and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status.

Keywords: women, HIV, disclosure, sexual partner

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2497 Nutritional Status of Surgical and Orthopedic Patients: 3B Ward

Authors: Jitaree Tantiyasawatdikul, Bantita Jadnok, Sarunya Tijana

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional status is an important factor before, during, and after an operation. It can help wound healing. If the patients have good nutritional status before and after an operation, wound healing can occur more easily. It can strengthen the immune system leading to decreased infection, reduced length of stay, and reducing the cost to patients and caregivers. Therefore, screening to evaluate the nutritional status of patients in 3B becomes the database for further developing the treatment and also will lead to excellent service from the interdisciplinary team. Objective: To study the nutritional status of patients in surgical ward 3B at Surgical and Orthopedics Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital. Method: A descriptive study, to evaluate the nutritional status of 86 patients admitted in 3B between October 2014 and March 2015.The instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: 1) personal data, 2) Screening nutritional status. The data were analyzed by percentage and mean. Results: A sample population of 86 patients aged 22-81 years old, mean age 52.59years, 90.69% are married, female were 55.81%, regular diet 70.93%, patients with no problem oral cavity was 87.21%.The sample population had high incidence of CA 47.67% and secondly cardiovascular disease 36.05 %. Patients with high-risk nutrition was 12.79 % including 45.45% cardiovascular disease and 36.36% CA. Screening of nutritional status of high-risk nutrition was 39.36% severe triceps skinfold (TSF), severe mid-arm muscle circumference(MAMC) 9.09% and severe total lymphocyte 39.36%. Conclusion: The result of nutritional status screening of surgical ward 3B found 12.79% patients with high-risk nutrition including 45.45% with cardiovascular disease .There was no problem with oral cavity and eating.

Keywords: nutritional status, screening, surgical patients, 3B ward, Srinagarind Hospital

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2496 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

Abstract:

Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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2495 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal

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2494 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p < .001; Marital status: β=.201, p < .05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: positive affect, negative affect, ethnic minority, gender, marital status

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2493 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: elderly, eastern Nepal, malnutrition, nutritional status

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2492 Weight Status, Body Appreciation Correlated with Husbands' Satisfaction in Saudi Women

Authors: Hala Hzam Al Otaibi

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is more common among Saudi women compared to men, with 75–88% of adult women suffering from overweight or obesity and most of them married. Weight status and body appreciation are an important factor in maintaining or loss weight behaviors and for husbands satisfaction. Aims: To assess weight status, body appreciation and related factors, including age, level of education, occupation status husbands satisfaction in adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 326 married women, aged 18 to 60 years old in Eastern of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by face to face interview, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and husbands satisfied were evaluated through questioning. Results: The majority of women has a university education, not employed and less than 40 years old (66.5%, 69.9%, 67.5%; respectively). Fifty-four percent of women overweight/obese and the rest were normal weight, BAS mean score was lower in younger women (>40 years) 7.39+2.20 and obese women (6.83+2.16) which is reflected lower body appreciation. Husbands' satisfaction regarding the weight status shows 47.6% of normal weight believed their husbands were dissatisfied with their weight and consider them as overweight/obese, 28.3% of overweight/obese thought their husbands satisfied with their weight and consider them as normal weight. Body appreciation correlated with age (r.139,p<0.05) and no correlation found for level of education and employed status. Husbands satisfaction strongly correlated with body appreciation (r.189,p<0.01) and weight status (r .570,p <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that women had a low body appreciation related to age, weight status and husbands' dissatisfaction. Future interventions aimed to weight reduction, it is important to consider husband satisfaction, as well as we need more assessment of weight satisfaction in younger women.

Keywords: body appreciation, husbands satisfaction, weight status, women

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2491 Factors Predicting Symptom Cluster Functional Status and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Authors: D. Supaporn, B. Julaluk

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to study symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine factors related to and predicting symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of COPD patients. The sample was 180 COPD patients multi-stage random sampling from 4 hospitals in the eastern region, Thailand. The research instruments were 8 questionnaires and recorded forms measuring personal and illness data, co-morbidity, physical and psychological symptom, health status perception, social support, and regimen adherence, functional status and quality of life. Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficient, exploratory factors analysis and standard multiple regression were used to analyzed data. The findings revealed that two symptom clusters were generated: physical symptom cluster including dyspnea, fatigue and insomnia; and, psychological symptom cluster including anxiety and depression. Scores of physical symptom cluster was at moderate level while that of psychological symptom cluster was at low level. Scores on functional status, social support and overall regimen adherence were at good level whereas scores on quality of life and health status perception were at moderate level. Disease severity was positively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life, and was negatively related to functional status at a moderate level (rs = .512, .509, .588 and -.611, respectively). Co-morbidity was positively related to physical symptom cluster and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r = .179 and .176, respectively). Regimen adherence was negatively related to quality of life and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r=-.277 and -.309, respectively), and was positively related to functional status at a moderate level (r=.331). Health status perception was negatively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life at a moderate to high level (r = -.567, -.640 and -.721, respectively) and was positively related to functional status at a high level (r = .732). Social support was positively related to functional status (r=.235) and was negatively related to quality of life at a low level (r=-.178). Physical symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status (r= -.490) and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r=.566). Psychological symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r= -.566 and .559, respectively). Disease severity, co-morbidity and health status perception could predict 40.2% of the variance of physical symptom cluster. Disease severity, co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 49.8% of the variance of psychological symptom cluster. Co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 65.0% of the variance of functional status. Disease severity, health status perception and physical symptom cluster could predict 60.0% of the variance of quality of life in COPD patients. The results of this study can be used for enhancing quality of life of COPD patients.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functional status, quality of life, symptom cluster

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2490 Star Images Constructed Based on Kramer vs. Kramer

Authors: Huailei Wen

Abstract:

The Kramers vs. Kramers (1979) is a film that comprehensively examines the role and status of women under the traditional secular vision, where women have become subordinate to the patriarchal society and family. Through the construction of the protagonist Joanna's dissatisfaction with the social and ethical status quo, her struggle to subvert the existing status of women, and her return to her own self, the story comprehensively reflects the difficult journey of women, represented by Joanna, to subvert the stereotypes and return to their own selves in the specific historical context of the time, revealing the self-value of Joanna's phenomenon to modern women.

Keywords: star image, feminism, Kramers vs. Kramers, Hollywood

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2489 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo

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This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

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2488 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu

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Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

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2487 Vitamin D Status in Relation to Body Mass Index: Population of Carpathian Region

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Ivan Pankiv

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The present research has attempted to link a higher body weight with a lower vitamin D status. Objective: Vitamin D status of Carpathian region population in Ukraine was studied to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data collected from 302 adults (18–84 years) were analyzed. Variables measured included serum 25(OH)D, weight and height used to determine BMI status. Results: Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.2 ± 8.1 ng/mL for the group; 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL and 22.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL for males and females, respectively. Based on BMI, 3.6% were underweight, 21.2% had a normal weight, 46.4% were overweight and 28.8% obese. Only in 28 cases (9.3%), content of 25(ОН)D in the serum of blood was within the normal limits, and there were vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency observed in other cases (90.7%). Thus, severe vitamin D deficiency was revealed in 1.7% of the inspected. A significant interrelation between levels of 25(OH)D in blood and BMI was found among persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Mean value of 25(OH)D levels among persons with obesity did not differ to a significant extent from indexes in persons with normal body weight. Conclusion: Status of vitamin D among the population of Carpathian region remains far from optimal and requires urgent measures in correction and prevention. Results confirmed a poor inverse relationship between vitamin D status and BMI. Intercommunication between maintenance of vitamin D and BMI requires further investigations.

Keywords: body mass index, Carpathian region, obesity, vitamin D

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2486 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

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The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, DMFT, oral health status

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2485 The Impact of Constitutional and Legal Provisions on the Indian Women’s Status in 21st Century

Authors: Mamta Chandrashekhar

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Women’s participation in mainstream political and social activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. This research work will highlights some of the key issues that concerned with the impact of constitutional & Legal provision on the Indian women Status in present century. The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The main objective of this research is to analyzed the status of Indian women and the existing wide gap between the goals enunciated in the Constitution, legislation, policies, plans, programmes, and related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, This work encourage and inspire to women empowerment, will be beneficial to build a well-organized ideal society through Gender Equality and Development & Peace in the 21st century.

Keywords: awareness, constitution, development, empowerment

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2484 An Initial Evaluation of Newly Proposed Biomarker of Zinc Status in Humans: The Erythrocyte Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-Linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio

Authors: Marija Knez, James C.R. Stangoulis, Manja Zec, Zoran Pavlovic, Jasmina D. Martacic, Mirjana Gurinovic, Maria Glibetic

Abstract:

Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient for humans with important physiological functions. A sensitive and specific biomarker for assessing Zn status is still needed. Objective: The major aim of this study was to examine if the changes in the content of plasma phospholipid LA, DGLA and LA: DGLA ratio can be used to efficiently predict the dietary Zn intake and plasma Zn status of humans. Methods: The study was performed on apparently healthy human volunteers. The dietary Zn intake was assessed using 24h recall questionnaires. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid analysis was done by gas chromatography and plasma analysis of minerals by atomic absorption spectrometry. Biochemical, anthropometrical and hematological parameters were assessed. Results: No significant relationship was found between the dietary and plasma zinc status (r=0.07; p=0.6). There is a statistically significant correlation between DGLA and plasma Zn (r=0.39, p=0.00). No relationship was observed between the linoleic acid and plasma Zn, while there was a significant negative correlation between LA: DGLA ratio and plasma Zn status (r=-0.35, p=0.01). Similarly, there were statistically significant difference in DGLA status (p=0.004) and LA: DGLA ratio (p=0.042) between the Zn formed groups. Conclusions: This study is an initial step in evaluating LA: DGLA ratio as a biomarker of Zn status in humans. The results are encouraging as they show that concentration of DGLA is decreased and LA: DGLA ratio increased in people with lower dietary Zn intake. However, additional studies are needed to fully examine the sensitivity of this biomarker.

Keywords: dietary Zn intake Zinc, fatty acid composition, LA: DGLA, healthy population, plasma Zn status, Zn biomarker

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2483 An Appraisal of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Mental Toughness of Cricketers

Authors: Punam Shaw

Abstract:

Relationship often refers to the acquaintance or association between two or more things, which are interrelated and interdependent. The socio-economic status is obviously a blending of two states, would, therefore, be a ranking of an individual by the society he or she lives in, and in terms of his/her material belonging, cultural possessions along with the degree of respect, power and influence wield. Hence, education, income and occupation of an individual play a significant role in society. Positive mental attitude leads to achieve the set goal, and improve performance particularly in team cohesiveness, which may be determined by various interrelated aspects, which can predict the future assessment in their respective field accordingly. The study intended to examine and explore the relationship between Socio-economic Status and Mental Toughness of cricketers. For the present study descriptive survey research method was used and selected 40 (male=20 female=20) U-17 years registered players under Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB), as the sample population. Modified Socio-Economic Status Scale was used to collect the data regarding players, socioeconomic Status and to assess the mental toughness; Scott Barry Kaufman questionnaire was used. The data had been analysed through applying Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and t-test as statistical techniques. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive correlation between socioeconomic Status and Mental Toughness among cricketers, it was found that significant difference was presented between male and female SES group. It was further revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female cricketers and in their different socioeconomic class with respect to their mental toughness.

Keywords: cricketers, mental toughness, relationship, socio-economic status

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2482 The Effects of Land Use Types to Determine the Status of Sustainable River

Authors: Michael Louis Sunaris, Robby Yussac Tallar

Abstract:

The concept of sustainable river is evolving in Indonesia today. Many rivers condition in Indonesia have decreased by quality and quantity. The degradation of this condition is caused by rapid land use change as a result of increased population growth and human activity. It brings the degradation of the existing watersheds including some types of land use that an important factor in determining the status of river sustainability. Therefore, an evaluation method is required to determine the sustainability status of waterbody within watershed. The purpose of this study is to analyze various types of land use in determining the status of river sustainability. This study takes the watersheds of Citarum Upstream as a study area. The results of the analysis prove the index of sustainability status of the river that changes from good to bad or average in the rivers in the study area. The rapid and uncontrolled changes of land use especially in the upper watersheds area are the main causes that happened over time. It was indicated that the cumulative runoff coefficients were increased significantly. These situations indicated that the damage of watersheds has an impact on the water surplus or deficit problem yearly. Therefore, the rivers in Indonesia should be protected and conserved. The sustainability index of the rivers is an index to indicate the condition of watersheds by defining status of rivers in order to achieve sustainable water resource management.

Keywords: land use change, runoff coefficient, a simple index, sustainable river

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2481 Health Promoting Behaviors among Thai Older Adults: Trend and Association with Health Status

Authors: Alongkorn Pekalee, Rossarin Gray

Abstract:

Various determinants associated with older health include socio-demographic factors and health-promoting behaviors but lack in scholars recommended what factors associated with health status in specific sub-groups of older adults. The current study aims to explore the health-promoting behaviors and to examine and compare the associations of these factors with self-rated health status among three older age cohorts in Thai traditional context. Methods: This study is based on the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand (SOPT), in 2017, conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) of Thailand. Participants were classified into three groups by using the Thai contextual recommendation: youngest-old cohort (60-69), old-old cohort (70-79) and oldest old cohort (80 or older). Health promoting behaviors are the behaviors which associated with the health status of older adults include alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, and physical activity. Health status was defined as a subjective measurement by using self-rated health, a simple measure of general health. The socio-demographic factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health status were explained and summarized by descriptive statistics. The binary logistic regression was performed to analyze the data and evaluate the associations between independent and dependent variables. Results: Increase of age contributes to a higher proportion of health-promoting behaviors. All variables were associated with self-reported health status as good health among three older age cohorts statistically significant (p-value = 0.000). However, the influence of income sufficiency on health status is more notable, especially in older adults who aged 60-69 and 70-79. The influence of dietary and physical activity on health status became greater as age increased. Conclusion: the results suggest that income sufficiency should be noted in a plan to promote healthy aging, and co-residence should be more concerned especially in the oldest old cohort. Moreover, the interventions or policies to promote older health behaviors like diet and physical activity should be emphasized in the oldest old cohort more than others.

Keywords: health-promoting behaviors, older adults, self- rated health, Thailand

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2480 A Study on Relationship of Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status with Obesity in Indian Children

Authors: Sushma Ghildyal, Sanjay Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the purpose to understand the relationship of lifestyle and Socio-Economic status with child obesity among 1000 boys aged from 16 to 18 years of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The study was conducted in both urban and rural area of the District. Ten schools i.e. five from urban area and five from rural area were selected by using purposive sampling. Healthy boys of class 10th, 11th and 12th were taken as subjects for the study. Prior consent was obtained from school authority. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each subject. Anthropometric measurements were Standing Height, Weight, Biceps skin folds, Triceps skin folds, Sub-scapular skin folds and Supra-iliac skin folds taken by Lange’s skin fold caliper. Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status were obtained by questionnaires. In order to assess the BMI, Body fat %, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status; descriptive analyses were done. To find out the significant association of obesity with lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status Chi-square test was used. To find out significant difference between obesity of Urban and Rural children t-test was applied. Level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The conclusions drawn were: (1) The result showed that in urban area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.6% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 6.2% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 25.4% above average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.8% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 3.6% and 0.4% low and very low level adaptive lifestyle. (2) In rural area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.00% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 9.4% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 24.8% average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.0% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 15.2% below average and 3.0% very low level adaptive lifestyle.(3) In urban area 12.8% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 56.6% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 30.2% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.2% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (4) In rural area 1.4% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 15.2% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 51.6% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.8% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (5) In urban area 21.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (6) In rural area 0.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (7) In overall Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 10.7% children of 16-18 years were obese. (8) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of urban area children of 16-18 years. (9) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of urban area children of 16-18 years (10) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of rural area children of 16-18 years of Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. (11) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of rural area children of 16-18 years. (12) Results showed significant difference between urban and rural area children of 16-18 years in respect to obesity of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: lifestyle, obesity, rural area, socio-economic status, urban area

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2479 The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to Their Mothers

Authors: Aldrin Avergas, Quennie Mariel Peñaranda, Niña Karen San Miguel, Alexis Katrina Agustin, Peralta Xusha Mae, Maria Luisa Sison

Abstract:

The research is entitled “The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to their Mothers”. The researchers had explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and delinquent tendencies among grade 11 students. The objective of the research is to discover if delinquent behavior will have a relationship with the current socio-economic status of an adolescent student having a warm relationship with their mothers. The researchers utilized three questionnaires that would measure the three variables of the study, namely: (1) 1SEC 2012: The New Philippines Socioeconomic Classification System was used to show the current socioeconomic status of the respondents, (2) Self-Reported Delinquency – Problem Behavior Frequency Scale was utilized to determine the individual's frequency in engaging to delinquent behavior, and (3) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) was used to determine the attachment style of the respondents. The researchers utilized a quantitative research design, specifically correlation research. The study concluded that there is no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic delinquency despite the fact that these participants had secured attachment to their mother hence this research implies that delinquency is not just a problem for students belonging in the lower socio-economic status and that even having a warm and close relationship with their mothers is not sufficient enough for these students to completely be free from engaging in delinquent acts. There must be other factors (such as peer pressure, emotional quotient, self-esteem or etc.) that are might be contributing to delinquent behaviors.

Keywords: adolescents, delinquency, high school students, secured attachment style, socioeconomic status

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2478 Anemia and Nutritional Status as Dominant Factor of the Event Low Birth Weight in Indonesia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Lisnawati Hutagalung

Abstract:

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is one cause of newborn death. Babies with low birth weight tend to have slower cognitive development, growth retardation, more at risk of infectious disease event at risk of death. Objective: Identifying risk factors and dominant factors that influence the incidence of LBW in Indonesia. Method: This research used some database of public health such as Google Scholar, UGM journals, UI journals and UNAND journals in 2012-2015. Data were filtered using keywords ‘Risk Factors’ AND ‘Cause LBW’ with amounts 2757 study. The filtrate obtained 5 public health research that meets the criteria. Results: Risk factors associated with LBW, among other environment factors (exposure to cigarette smoke and residence), social demographics (age and socio-economic) and maternal factors (anemia, placental abnormal, nutritional status of mothers, examinations antenatal, preeclampsia, parity, and complications in pregnancy). Anemia and nutritional status become the dominant factor affecting LBW. Conclusions: The risk factors that affect LBW, most commonly found in the maternal factors. The dominant factors are a big effect on LBW is anemia and nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy.

Keywords: low birth weight, anemia, nutritional status, the dominant factor

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2477 Constitutional Status of a Child in the Republic of Belarus and Its Principles

Authors: Maria Ashitko

Abstract:

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus is based on the principle of the unity of rights and obligations, including those of the child. The constitutional status of the child is aspecific system of constitutional elements established and guaranteed by the state through the current legislation and regulatory acts that ensure the special legal status of the child, his or her constitutional legal capacity, implementation of the principles of the constitutional and legal status of the child, constitutional rights of the child and their safeguards. Under the principles of the constitutional status of the child, we consider the general, normative, social-volitional rules of behavior established by the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, laws and other regulatory acts that determine the content and social purpose of the legal status of the child. The constitutional and legal status of the child is characterized by the following special principles, which form a feature of the state legal system:1) Ensuring the interests of the child means providing for the child in accordance with his or her age, state of health, characteristics of development, life experience, family life, cultural traditions, ethnicity. 2) The principle of equal responsibility of both parents or their substitutes characterized by caring for the next generation as one of the priority tasks of the state and society, and all issues related to the implementation of children’s rights should be addressed at the constitutional level. 3) We would like to highlight such a special principle as the subprinciple of safeguards, which is the principle of ensuring the safety of the child. It is also worth noting that in legal studies, there is no relationship between safety and constitutional rights as general safeguards of individual rights and freedoms, and as special safeguards for the right to life. 4) The principle of justice is expressed by the fact that in modern conditions, the quality of life is determined not only by material wealth but also by the ability of the state to ensure the harmonization of social relations and social harmony on the basis of humanism and justice. Thus, the specificity of the constitutional status of the child is the age boundary between adulthood and minority; therefore, we propose to highlight the age characteristics of the child as an additional element. It is advisable to highlight such a special principle as the subprinciple of safeguards, which is the principle of ensuring the safety of the child.

Keywords: children’s rights, constitutional status, constitutional principles, constitutional rights

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