Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 400

Search results for: RV Car Clinic

400 RV Car Clinic as Cost-Effective Health Care

Authors: Dessy Arumsari, Ais Assana Athqiya, Mulyaminingrum


Healthcare in remote areas is one of the major concerns in Indonesia. Building hospitals in a nation of 18.000 islands with a larger-than-life bureaucracy and problems with corruption, a critical shortage of qualified medical professionals and well-heeled patients resigned to traveling abroad for health care is a hard feat to accomplish. To assuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, a new solution to tackle this problem is with the presence of RV Car Clinic. This car has a concept such as a walking hospital that provides health facilities inside it. All of the health professionals who work in RV Car Clinic will do the rotation for a year in order to the equitable distribution of health workers. We need to advocate the policy makers to help realize RV Car Clinic in remote areas. Health services can be disseminated by the present of RV Car Clinic. Summarily, the local communities can get cost effectively because RV Car Clinic will come to their place and serve the health services.

Keywords: health policy, health professional, remote areas, RV Car Clinic

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399 An Audit on Optimum Utilisation of Preoperative Clinic

Authors: Vidya Iyer, Suresh Babu Loganathan, Yuan Hwa Lee, Kwong Fah Koh


Introduction: It has been recommended that every patient undergoes careful preoperative evaluation in a preoperative clinic to improve theatre utilization, reduce bed occupancy and avoid unnecessary cancellation due to inadequate optimisation, communication and administrative errors. It also gives an opportunity to counsel patients regarding different aspects of anaesthesia. Methodology: A retrospective audit of all the patients seen in preoperative assessment clinic, referral letters of all the patients postponed / referred to other sub specialities in the perioperative period from June 2012 - June 2013 was done. In our clinic, we retrieved patient records who were awaiting surgery pending clearance by other sub specialities. Those patients, who could continue with their scheduled date of surgery after having been referred, were not included in the file. We also studied details of same day cancellations from the data base, during the same study period. The reasons for cancellation were examined and defined as avoidable and unavoidable. Results: Less than 0.5% was postponed from the scheduled day of surgery. Less than 0.5% was cancelled on the day of surgery. Conclusions: Patients who undergo pre anaesthetic evaluation in a well-established clinic results in adequate preoperative patient optimisation, avoids unnecessary preoperative admission, efficient theatre utilisation and greater patient satisfaction. The benefits are the result of guidelines and timely update of them which are used by the junior doctors and trainees who run the clinic and a dedicated specialist to supervise them.

Keywords: preoperative assessment, clinic, referrals, cancellation

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398 Bridging the Gap between Obstetric and Colorectal Services after Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries

Authors: Shachi Joshi


Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pelvic dysfunction symptoms following OASI. The secondary aim was to assess the scope of a dedicated perineal trauma clinic in identifying and investigating women that have experienced faecal incontinence after OASI and if a transitional clinic arrangement to colorectal surgeons would be useful. Methods: The clinical database was used to identify and obtain information about 118 women who sustained an OASI (3rd/ 4th degree tear) between August 2016 and July 2017. A questionnaire was designed to assess symptoms of pelvic dysfunction; this was sent via the post in November 2018. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 45 women (38%). Faecal incontinence was experienced by 42% (N=19), flatus incontinence by 47% (N=21), urinary incontinence by 76% (N=34), dyspareunia by 49% (N=22) and pelvic pain by 33% (N=15). Of the questionnaire respondents, only 62% (N=28) had attended a perineal trauma clinic appointment. 46% (N=13) of these women reported having experienced difficulty controlling flatus or faeces in the questionnaire, however, only 23% (N=3) of these reported ongoing symptoms at the time of clinic attendance and underwent an endoanal ultrasound scan. Conclusion: Pelvic dysfunction symptoms are highly prevalent following an OASI. Perineal trauma clinic attendance alone is not sufficient for identification and follow up of symptoms. Transitional care is needed between obstetric and colorectal teams, to recognize and treat women with ongoing faecal incontinence.

Keywords: incontinence, obstetric anal sphincter, injury, repair

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397 Development of Nursing Service System Integrated Case Manager Concept for the Patients with Epilepsy at the Tertiary Epilepsy Clinic of Thailand

Authors: C. Puangsawat, C. Limotai, P. Srikhachin


Bio-psycho-social caring was required for promoting the quality of life of the patients with epilepsy (PWE), despite controlled seizures. Multifaceted issues emerge at the epilepsy clinic. Unpredicted seizures, antiepileptic drug compliance problems/adverse effects, psychiatric, and social problems are all needed to be explored and managed. The Nursing Service System (NSS) at the tertiary epilepsy clinic (TEC) was consequently developed for improving the clinical care for PWE. Case manager concept was integrated as the framework guiding the processes and strategies used for developing the NSS as well as the roles of the multidisciplinary team at the clinic. This study aimed to report the outcomes of the developed NSS integrated case manager concept. The processes of our developed NSS program included 1) screening for patient’s problems using questionnaire prior to seeing epileptologists i.e., assessing the patient’s risk to develop acute seizures at the clinic, issues related to medication use, and uncovered psychiatric and social problems; and 2) assigning the patients at risk to be evaluated and managed by appropriate team. Nurses specializing in epilepsy in coordination with the multidisciplinary team implemented the NSS to promote coordinated work among the team which consists of epileptologists, nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, and social workers. Determination of the role of each person and their responsibilities along with joint care plan were clearly established. One year after implementation, the rate of acute seizure occurrence at the clinic was decreased, and satisfactory feedback from the patients was received. In order to achieve an optimal goal to promote self-management behaviors in PWE, continuing the NSS and systematic assessment of its effectiveness is required.

Keywords: case manager concept, nursing service system, patients with epilepsy, quality of life

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396 A Profile of the Patients at the Hearing and Speech Clinic at the University of Jordan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Maisa Haj-Tas, Jehad Alaraifi


The significance of the study: This retrospective study examined the speech and language profiles of patients who received clinical services at the University of Jordan Hearing and Speech Clinic (UJ-HSC) from 2009 to 2014. The UJ-HSC clinic is located in the capital Amman and was established in the late 1990s. It is the first hearing and speech clinic in Jordan and one of first speech and hearing clinics in the Middle East. This clinic provides services to an annual average of 2000 patients who are diagnosed with different communication disorders. Examining the speech and language profiles of patients in this clinic could provide an insight about the most common disorders seen in patients who attend similar clinics in Jordan. It could also provide information about community awareness of the role of speech therapists in the management of speech and language disorders. Methodology: The researchers examined the clinical records of 1140 patients (797 males and 343 females) who received clinical services at the UJ-HSC between the years 2009 and 2014 for the purpose of data analysis for this study. The main variables examined in the study were disorder type and gender. Participants were divided into four age groups: children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. The examined disorders were classified as either speech disorders, language disorders, or dysphagia (i.e., swallowing problems). The disorders were further classified as childhood language impairments, articulation disorders, stuttering, cluttering, voice disorders, aphasia, and dysphagia. Results: The results indicated that the prevalence for language disorders was the highest (50.7%) followed by speech disorders (48.3%), and dysphagia (0.9%). The majority of patients who were seen at the JU-HSC were diagnosed with childhood language impairments (47.3%) followed consecutively by articulation disorders (21.1%), stuttering (16.3%), voice disorders (12.1%), aphasia (2.2%), dysphagia (0.9%), and cluttering (0.2%). As for gender, the majority of patients seen at the clinic were males in all disorders except for voice disorders and cluttering. Discussion: The results of the present study indicate that the majority of examined patients were diagnosed with childhood language impairments. Based on this result, the researchers suggest that there seems to be a high prevalence of childhood language impairments among children in Jordan compared to other types of speech and language disorders. The researchers also suggest that there is a need for further examination of the actual prevalence data on speech and language disorders in Jordan. The fact that many of the children seen at the UJ-HSC were brought to the clinic either as a result of parental concern or teacher referral indicates that there seems to an increased awareness among parents and teachers about the services speech pathologists can provide about assessment and treatment of childhood speech and language disorders. The small percentage of other disorders (i.e., stuttering, cluttering, dysphasia, aphasia, and voice disorders) seen at the UJ-HSC may indicate a little awareness by the local community about the role of speech pathologists in the assessment and treatment of these disorders.

Keywords: clinic, disorders, language, profile, speech

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395 Descriptive Analysis of Community-Based Needs among Asylum Seekers in New England before and after COVID-19

Authors: Viknesh Kasthuri, Victoria Angenent-Mari, Jade Wexler


The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically altered the landscape of asylum medicine. Brown Human Rights Asylum Clinic (BHRAC) is a medical-student-run asylum clinic that provides pro-bono medical evaluations and forensic affidavits for individuals seeking asylum in New England. After the outbreak of COVID-19 in March 2020, BHRAC experienced numerous changes both in the number of clients requesting services as well as in the resource needs of these clients. Uniquely, BHRAC assesses the needs of clients during their affidavit interview and seeks to address these needs by connecting clients to local community organizations and resources. Data regarding the specific needs of clients range from 2019-present day. Analysis of internal BHRAC’s internal data suggested a small increase in requests for assistance with light and gas (from 5% of total resource requests pre-COVID to 11%), as well as a decrease in requests for mental health services (from 20% of resources pre-COVID to 13% post-COVID). Furthermore, BHRAC witnessed a decline in clinic volume during the second half of 2020. In short, our data suggest that the pandemic affected asylum seekers' access to medico-legal services and the resources they need. Future research with larger sample sizes and in other geographic locations is required to determine the holistic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on asylum seekers.

Keywords: asylum clinic, asylum medicine, COVID, social determinants of health

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394 The Bespoke ‘Hybrid Virtual Fracture Clinic’ during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Paradigm Shift?

Authors: Anirudh Sharma


Introduction: The Covid-19 pandemic necessitated a change in the manner outpatient fracture clinics are conducted due to the need to reduce footfall in hospital. While studies regarding virtual fracture clinics have shown these to be useful and effective, they focus exclusively on remote consultations. However, our service was bespoke to the patient – either a face-to-face or telephone consultation depending on patient need – a ‘hybrid virtual clinic (HVC).’ We report patient satisfaction and outcomes with this novel service. Methods: Patients booked onto our fracture clinics during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown were retrospectively contacted to assess the mode of consultations (virtual, face-to-face, or hybrid), patient experience, and outcome. Patient experience was assessed using the net promoter (NPS), customer effort (CES) and customer satisfaction scores (CSS), and their likelihood of using the HVC in the absence of a pandemic. Patient outcomes were assessed using the components of the EQ5D score. Results: Of 269 possible patients, 140 patients responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 66.4% had ‘hybrid’ consultations, 27.1% had only virtual consultations, and 6.4% had only face-to-face consultations. The mean overall NPS, CES, and CSS (on a scale of 1-10) were 7.27, 7.25, and 7.37, respectively. The mean likelihood of patients using the HVC in the absence of a pandemic was 6.5/10. Patients who had ‘hybrid’ consultations showed better effort scores and greater overall satisfaction than those with virtual consultations only and also reported superior EQ5D outcomes (mean 79.27 vs. 72.7). Patients who did not require surgery reported increased satisfaction (mean 7.51 vs. 7.08) and were more likely to use the HVC in the absence of a pandemic. Conclusion: Our study indicates that a bespoke HVC has good overall patient satisfaction and outcomes and is a better format of fracture clinic service than virtual consultations alone. It may be the preferred mode for fracture clinics in similar situations in the future. Further analysis needs to be conducted in order to explore the impact on resources and clinician experience of HVC in order to appreciate this new paradigm shift.

Keywords: hybrid virtual clinic, coronavirus, COVID-19, fracture clinic, remote consultation

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393 Development Of Diabetes Mellitus In Overweight People

Authors: Ashiraliyev SHavkat


Relevance of the topic: Diabetes mellitus in overweight people development and absence of treatment measures. Objective: to give patients the correct instructions on proper nutrition, to organize a network of preventive and therapeutic measures. Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary Tashkent Medical Academy. As a result of objective observations in patients who applied to the clinic, 28 11 overweight patients had to type 2 diabetes. Diabetesmellituswasdiagnosed. Results: 11.5 mmol / L on an empty stomach in the morning. EDT yes. Pathogenesis: fat content in the diet of patients with diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate foods make up 60%. Eating disorders and physical inactivity As a result, the accumulation of glucose in the form of fat increases, and this is constantly in the blood, which led to an increase in the number of fatty acids. Clinic: Frequent fasting in 11 patients (hypothalamus). Associated with glucose deficiency), drinking 8-9 liters of water per day of blood in 7 people Systolic pressure 150 diastolic pressures 100. Sensation of ants in 3 people and poor eyesight in 5 people. Conclusion: Explain to patients that nutritional guidelines should be followed. Assign active movement in accordance with the energy entering the body.

Keywords: mellitus, diabetes, pathogenesis, clinic

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392 Dietary Practices of Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Kitui Out Patient Clinic at Kitui County, Kenya

Authors: Alice W. Theuri, Anselimo O. Makokha, Florence M. Kyallo


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder whose prevalence among adults has been increasing in the last decade. It is estimated that by 2030, the number of cases in Africa will almost double. Diet and lifestyle modifications are considered the cornerstone for the treatment and management of T2DM. Despite this, there is minimum literature assessing the dietary practices and glycemic control in a semi arid region context in Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary practices of adult T2DM patients attending Kitui out patient clinic in Kitui County. This was a cross sectional study design where every consenting second patient attending diabetic clinic was interviewed. A total of 138 T2DM patients were interviewed using a structured interview guide on socio-economic and dietary practices administered. The study was carried out in April and May 2017. There were more female (64%) than male (36%) in this study with majority being unemployed (38.4%). Forty seven percent (47.6%) had elevated HbA1c. Majority took three meals per day while DDS was 4.3 ± 1.09. The mean energy intake for men and women was 2823.8 ± 82.45 and 2766.3.30 ± 76.74 respectively. There was a non significant positive relationship (r= 131; P value = 0.124) between amount energy consumed and glycemic control. There were suboptimal dietary practices leading to poor glycemic control among T2DM patients attending diabetic clinic at Kitui District Hospital.

Keywords: adults, dietary practices, semi arid region, T2DM

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391 Evaluation of a Staffing to Workload Tool in a Multispecialty Clinic Setting

Authors: Kristin Thooft


— Increasing pressure to manage healthcare costs has resulted in shifting care towards ambulatory settings and is driving a focus on cost transparency. There are few nurse staffing to workload models developed for ambulatory settings, less for multi-specialty clinics. Of the existing models, few have been evaluated against outcomes to understand any impact. This evaluation took place after the AWARD model for nurse staffing to workload was implemented in a multi-specialty clinic at a regional healthcare system in the Midwest. The multi-specialty clinic houses 26 medical and surgical specialty practices. The AWARD model was implemented in two specialty practices in October 2020. Donabedian’s Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model was used to evaluate outcomes based on changes to the structure and processes of care provided. The AWARD model defined and quantified the processes, recommended changes in the structure of day-to-day nurse staffing. Cost of care per patient visit, total visits, a total nurse performed visits used as structural and process measures, influencing the outcomes of cost of care and access to care. Independent t-tests were used to compare the difference in variables pre-and post-implementation. The SPO model was useful as an evaluation tool, providing a simple framework that is understood by a diverse care team. No statistically significant changes in the cost of care, total visits, or nurse visits were observed, but there were differences. Cost of care increased and access to care decreased. Two weeks into the post-implementation period, the multi-specialty clinic paused all non-critical patient visits due to a second surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinic nursing staff was re-allocated to support the inpatient areas. This negatively impacted the ability of the Nurse Manager to utilize the AWARD model to plan daily staffing fully. The SPO framework could be used for the ongoing assessment of nurse staffing performance. Additional variables could be measured, giving a complete picture of the impact of nurse staffing. Going forward, there must be a continued focus on the outcomes of care and the value of nursing

Keywords: ambulatory, clinic, evaluation, outcomes, staffing, staffing model, staffing to workload

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390 Attitude and Practice of Family Physicians in Giving Smoking Cessation Advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh

Authors: Mohammed Alateeq, Abdulaziz Alrshoud


Objectives: To examine the attitude and practice of family physicians in giving smoking cessation advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh. Methods: Cross sectional study using validated self-reported questionnaire that distributed to all family physicians and primary health care doctors at the four main family medicine and primary health care centers, KAMC, Riyadh. Results: 73 physicians are contributed in this study. 28 (38.4%) physicians were from (KASHM ALAN) clinic, 26 (35.6%) physicians were from (UM ALHAMAM) Clinic. 13 (17.8%) physicians were from (ISKAN) clinic. 6 (8.2%) physicians were from the Employee Health Clinic. 73 (100%) of the target population agreed that giving brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. 67 (91.7%) agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice. Only 5 (6.84%) received training courses (1-4 weeks) in smoking cessation interventions. Conclusion: Most of the target population agreed that brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. Also, they agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice although most of them did not received a formal training in smoking cessation advice.

Keywords: advice, attitude, cessation, family physicians, smoking

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389 An Evaluation Study of Sleep and Sleep-Related Factors in Clinic Clients with Sleep Difficulties

Authors: Chi-Feng Lai, Wen-Chun Liao Liao


Many people are bothered by sleep difficulties in Taiwan’s society. However, majority of patients get medical treatments without a comprehensive sleep assessment. It is still a big challenge to formulate a comprehensive assessment of sleep difficulties in clinical settings, even though many assessment tools have existed in literature. This study tries to implement reliable and effective ‘comprehensive sleep assessment scales’ in a medical center and to explore differences in sleep-related factors between clinic clients with or without sleep difficulty complaints. The comprehensive sleep assessment (CSA) scales were composed of 5 dimensions: ‘personal factors’, ‘physiological factors’, ‘psychological factors’, ‘social factors’ and ‘environmental factors, and were first evaluated by expert validity and 20 participants with test-retest reliability. The Content Validity Index (CVI) of the CSA was 0.94 and the alpha of the consistency reliability ranged 0.996-1.000. Clients who visited sleep clinic due to sleep difficulties (n=32, 16 males and 16 females, ages 43.66 ±14.214) and gender-and age- matched healthy subjects without sleep difficulties (n=96, 47 males and 49 females, ages 41.99 ±13.69) were randomly recruited at a ratio of 1:3 (with sleep difficulties vs. without sleep difficulties) to compare their sleep and the CSA factors. Results show that all clinic clients with sleep difficulties did have poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) and mild to moderate daytime sleepiness (ESS >11). Personal factors of long working hours (χ2= 10.315, p=0.001), shift workers (χ2= 8.964, p=0.003), night shift (χ2=9.395, p=0.004) and perceived stress (χ2=9.503, p=0.002) were disruptors of sleep difficulties. Physiological factors from physical examination including breathing by mouth, low soft palate, high narrow palate, Edward Angle, tongue hypertrophy, and occlusion of the worn surface were observed in clinic clients. Psychological factors including higher perceived stress (χ2=32.542, p=0.000), anxiety and depression (χ2=32.868, p=0.000); social factors including lack of leisure activities (χ2=39.857, p=0.000), more drinking habits (χ2=1.798, p=0.018), irregular amount and frequency in meals (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), excessive dinner (χ2=21.511, p=0.000), being incapable of getting up on time due to previous poor night sleep (χ2=4.444, p=0.035); and environmental factors including lights (χ2=7.683, p=0.006), noise (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), low or high bedroom temperature (χ2=4.595, p=0.032) were existed in clients. In conclusion, the CSA scales can work as valid and reliable instruments for evaluating sleep-related factors. Findings of this study provide important reference for assessing clinic clients with sleep difficulties.

Keywords: comprehensive sleep assessment, sleep-related factors, sleep difficulties

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388 Health Belief Model to Predict Sharps Injuries among Health Care Workers at First Level Care Facilities in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naveed Zafar Janjua


We assessed the frequency and predictors of sharp injuries (SIs) among health care workers (HCWs) at first level care facilities (FLCF) in rural Pakistan. HCWs working at public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLC) were interviewed on universal precautions (UPs) and constructs of health belief model (HBM) to assess their association with SIs through negative-binomial regression. From 365 clinics, 485 HCWs were interviewed. Overall annual rate of Sis was 192/100 HCWs/year; 78/100 HCWs among licensed prescribers, 191/100 HCWs among non-licensed prescribers, 248/100 HCWs among qualified assistants, and 321/100 HCWs among non-qualified assistants. Increasing knowledge score about bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) transmission (rate-ratio (RR): 0.93; 95%CI: 0.89–0.96), fewer years of work experience, being a non-licensed prescriber (RR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.36–2.98) licensed (RR: 2.86; 9%CI: 1.81–4.51) or non-licensed assistant (RR: 2.78; 95%CI: 1.72–4.47) compared to a licensed prescriber, perceived barriers (RR: 1.06;95%CI: 1.03–1.08), and compliance with UPs scores (RR: 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87–0.97) were significant predictors of SIs. Improved knowledge about BBPs, compliance with UPs and reduced barriers to follow UPs could reduce SIs to HCWs.

Keywords: health belief model, sharp injuries, needle stick injuries, healthcare workers

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387 Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Warfarin Therapy at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR

Authors: Vanlounni Sibounheuang, Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Pattarin Kittiboonyakun, Chanthanom Manithip


In worldwide, one of the most common use of oral anticoagulant is warfarin. Its margin between therapeutic inhibition of clot formation and bleeding complications is narrow. Mahosot Hospital, warfarin clinic had not been established yet. The descriptive study was conducted by investigating drug-related problems of outpatients using warfarin, the value of the international normalized ratio (INR) higher than normal ranges (25.40 % of the total 272 outpatients) were mostly identified at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. This result led to the present study conducting qualitative interviews in order to help establish a warfarin clinic at Mahosot Hospital for the better outcomes of patients using warfarin. The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives of healthcare professional providing services for outpatients using warfarin. The face to face, in-depth interviews were undertaken among nine healthcare professionals (doctor=3, nurse=3, pharmacist=3) working at out-patient clinic, Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. The interview guides were developed, and they were validated by the experts in the fields of qualitative research. Each interview lasted approximately 20 minutes. Three major themes emerged; healthcare professional’s experiences of current practice problems with warfarin therapy, healthcare professionals’ views of medical problems related to patients using warfarin, and healthcare professionals’ perspectives on ways of service improvement. All healthcare professionals had the same views that it’s difficult to achieve INR goal for individual patients because of some important patient barriers especially lack of knowledge about to use warfarin properly and safety, patients not regularly follow-up due to problems with transportations and financial support. Doctors and nurses agreed to have a pharmacist running a routine warfarin clinic and provided counselling to individual patients on the following points: how to take drug properly and safety, drug-drug and food-drug interactions, common side effects and how to manage them, lifestyle modifications. From the interviews, some important components of the establishment of a warfarin clinic included financial support, increased human resources, improved the system of keeping patients’ medical records, short course training for pharmacists. This study indicated the acceptance of healthcare professionals on the important roles of pharmacists and the feasibility of setting up warfarin clinic by working together with the multidisciplinary health care team in order to help improve health outcomes of patients using warfarin at Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR.

Keywords: perspectives, healthcare professional, warfarin therapy, Mahosot Hospital

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386 Patient Scheduling Improvement in a Cancer Treatment Clinic Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Maryam Haghi, Ivan Contreras, Nadia Bhuiyan


Chemotherapy is one of the most popular and effective cancer treatments offered to patients in outpatient oncology centers. In such clinics, patients first consult with an oncologist and the oncologist may prescribe a chemotherapy treatment plan for the patient based on the blood test results and the examination of the health status. Then, when the plan is determined, a set of chemotherapy and consultation appointments should be scheduled for the patient. In this work, a comprehensive mathematical formulation for planning and scheduling different types of chemotherapy patients over a planning horizon considering blood test, consultation, pharmacy and treatment stages has been proposed. To be more realistic and to provide an applicable model, this study is focused on a case study related to a major outpatient cancer treatment clinic in Montreal, Canada. Comparing the results of the proposed model with the current practice of the clinic under study shows significant improvements regarding different performance measures. These major improvements in the patients’ schedules reveal that using optimization techniques in planning and scheduling of patients in such highly demanded cancer treatment clinics is an essential step to provide a good coordination between different involved stages which ultimately increases the efficiency of the entire system and promotes the staff and patients' satisfaction.

Keywords: chemotherapy patients scheduling, integer programming, integrated scheduling, staff balancing

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385 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio


Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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384 Optimism, Skepticism, and Uncertainty: A Qualitative Study on the Knowledge and Perceived Impact of the Affordable Care Act among Adult Patients Seeking Care in a Free Clinic

Authors: Mike Wei, Mario Cedillo, Jiahui Lin, Carol Lorraine Storey-Johnson, Carla Boutin-Foster


Purpose: The extent to which health insurance enrollment succeeds under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) rests heavily on the ability to reach the uninsured and motivate them to enroll. We sought to identify perceptions about the ACA among uninsured patients at a free clinic in New York City. Background: The ACA holds tremendous promise for reducing the number of uninsured Americans. As of April 2014, nearly 8 million people had signed up for health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace. Despite this early success, future and continued enrollment rests heavily on the degree of public awareness. Reaching eligible individuals and increasing their awareness and understanding remains a fundamental challenge to realizing the full potential of the ACA. Reaching out to uninsured patients who are seeking care through safety net facilities such as free clinics may provide important avenues for reaching potential enrollees. This project focuses on the experience at the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), and seeks to understand perceptions about the ACA among its patient population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all patients who visited the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic, from July 2013 to May 2014. Patients who provided informed consent at their visit and completed a semi-structured questionnaire were included (N=62). The questionnaire comprised of questions about demographic characteristics and open-ended questions about their knowledge and perception of the impact of the ACA. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population demographics. Qualitative coding techniques were used for open-ended items. Results: Approximately one third of patients surveyed never had health insurance. Of the remaining 65%, 20% lost their insurance within the past year. Only 55% had heard about the ACA, and only 10% knew about the Health Benefits Exchange. Of those who had heard about the ACA, sentiments were tinged with optimistic misperceptions, such as “it will be free health care for all.” While optimistic, most of the responses focused on the economic implications of the ACA. Conclusions: These findings reveal the immense amount of misconception and lack of understanding with regards to the ACA. As such, the study highlights the need to educate and address the concerns of those who remain skeptical or uncertain about the implications of the ACA.

Keywords: Affordable Care Act, demographics, free clinics, underserved.

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383 Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

Authors: Ilirian Laçi, Alketa Spahiu


Modality of treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients depends on the stage of the disease. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification (BCLC) is the preferred staging system. There are many patients initially present with intermediate-stage disease. For these patients, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the treatment of choice. The differences in individual factors that are not captured by the BCLC framework, such as the tumor growth pattern, degree of hypervascularity, and vascular supply, complicate further evaluation of these patients. Because of these differences, not all patients benefit equally from TACE. Several tools have been devised to aid the decision-making process, which have shown promising initial results but have failed external evaluation and have not been translated to the clinic aspects. Criteria for treatment decisions in daily clinical practice are needed in all stages of the disease.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, transarterial chemoembolization, TACE, liver

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382 For a Poetic Clinic: Experimentations at Risk on the Images in Performances

Authors: Juliana Bom-Tempo


The proposed composition occurs between images, performances, clinics and philosophies. For this enterprise we depart for what is not known beforehand, so with a question as a compass: "would it be in the creation, production and implementation of images in a performance a 'when' for the event of a poetic clinic?” In light of this, there are, in order to think a 'when' of the event of a poetic clinic, images in performances created, produced and executed in partnerships with the author of this text. Faced with this composition, we built four indicators to find spatiotemporal coordinates that would spot that "when", namely: risk zones; the mobilizations of the signs; the figuring of the flesh and an education of the affections. We dealt with the images in performances; Crútero; Flesh; Karyogamy and the risk of abortion; Egg white; Egg-mouth; Islands, threads, words ... germs; Egg-Mouth-Debris, taken as case studies, by engendering risks areas to promote individuations, which never actualize thoroughly, thus always something of pre-individual and also individuating a environment; by mobilizing the signs territorialized by the ordinary, causing them to vary the language and the words of order dictated by the everyday in other compositions of sense, other machinations; by generating a figure of flesh, disarranging the bodies, isolating them in the production of a ground force that causes the body to leak out and undo the functionalities of the organs; and, finally, by producing an education of affections, by placing the perceptions in becoming and disconnecting the visible in the production of small deserts that call for the creation of a people yet to come. The performance is processed as a problematizing of the images fixed by the ordinary, producing gestures that precipitate the individuation of images in performance, strange to the configurations that gather bodies and spaces in what we call common. Lawrence proposes to think of "people" who continually use umbrellas to protect themselves from chaos. These have the function of wrapping up the chaos in visions that create houses, forms and stabilities; they paint a sky at the bottom of the umbrella, where people march and die. A chaos, where people live and wither. Pierce the umbrella for a desire of chaos; a poet puts himself as an enemy of the convention, to be able to have an image of chaos and a little sun that burns his skin. The images in performances presented, thereby, were moving in search for the power of producing a spatio-temporal "when" putting the territories in risk areas, mobilizing the signs that format the day-to-day, opening the bodies to a disorganization and the production of an education of affections for the event of a poetic clinic.

Keywords: Experimentations , Images in Performances, Poetic Clinic, Risk

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381 An Observation of Patient-Professional Communication in the Cambodian Dental Setting

Authors: Christina Tran, Lu Khoo, Andrea Waylen


Introduction: The evolution of the dental consultation from paternalism to partnership has been well documented in developed Western countries. Great emphasis is now placed on the importance of empowering patients to make decisions regarding their care, obtaining informed consent, and maintaining patient privacy and confidentiality. With the majority of communication occurring non-verbally, clinicians often adopt behaviours which suggest an approachable and positive attitude. However, evidence indicates that in Asia, a paternalistic model may be favored in medicine. The power imbalance occurring in doctor-patient relationships worldwide may be exacerbated by various factors in Southeast Asia: the strong hierarchical culture, and the large education gap between doctor and patient. Further insight into this matter can be gained by observing patient-dentist communication in Cambodia. The dentist:population ratio in Cambodia is approximately 1:33,000, with rural areas remaining extremely underserviced. We have carried out an observational study of communication in a voluntary dental clinic in Cambodia with the aim of describing whether the patient-dentist relationship follows a paternalistic or patient-centred model. Method: Over a period of two weeks, two clinicians provided dental care as part of a voluntary program in two Cambodian settings: a temporary, rural clinic and a permanent clinic in Phnom Penh. The clinicians independently recorded their experiences in diaries, making observations on the verbal and non-verbal communication between patients and staff. General observations such as the clinic environment were also made. The diaries were then compared and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results: The overall themes that emerged were regarding the clinic environment, verbal communication, and non-verbal communication. Regarding the clinic environment, the rural clinic was arranged in order to easily direct patients from one dentist to another, with little emphasis on continuous patient care. There was also little consideration for patient privacy: patients were often treated in the presence of many observers, including other waiting patients. However, the permanent clinic was structured to allow greater patient privacy, with continuous patient care occurring throughout the appointment. Regarding verbal communication, there was a strongly paternalistic approach to gaining consent and giving instruction. Patients rarely asked questions regarding their treatment, with dentists doing little to encourage patient involvement. Non-verbal communication between patients and dentists was generally paternalistic, with the dentist often addressing the supine patient from above. Patients often avoided making eye-contact, which may have indicated discomfort or lack of engagement. Both adult and paediatric patients rarely raised verbal concerns regarding pain during treatment, despite displaying non-verbal signs of experiencing pain. Anxious paediatric patients were sometimes managed with physical restraint by their mothers to facilitate treatment. Conclusion: Patient-professional communication in the Cambodian dental setting was observed to be generally paternalistic in nature, although more patient-centred aspects were observed in the established, urban setting. However, it should be noted that these observations are subjective in nature, and that the patients’ actual perceptions of their communication experience were unexplored. Further observations in variety of dental settings in Cambodia are needed before any definitive conclusions can be made.

Keywords: patient-dentist communication, paternalism, patient-centered, non-verbal communication

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380 Improving the Quality of Discussion and Documentation of Advance Care Directives in a Community-Based Resident Primary Care Clinic

Authors: Jason Ceavers, Travis Thompson, Juan Torres, Ramanakumar Anam, Alan Wong, Andrei Carvalho, Shane Quo, Shawn Alonso, Moises Cintron, Ricardo C. Carrero, German Lopez, Vamsi Garimella, German Giese


Introduction: Advance directives (AD) are essential for patients to communicate their wishes when they are not able to. Ideally, these discussions should not occur for the first time when a patient is hospitalized with an acute life-threatening illness. There is a large number of patients who do not have clearly documented ADs, resulting in misutilization of resources and additional patient harm. This is a nationwide issue, and the Joint Commission has it as one of its national quality metrics. Presented here is a proposed protocol to increase the number of documented AD discussions in a community-based, internal medicine residency primary care clinic in South Florida. Methods: The smart aim for this quality improvement project is to increase documentation of AD discussions in the outpatient setting by 25% within three months in medicare patients. A survey was sent to stakeholders (clinic attendings, residents, medical assistants, front desk staff, and clinic managers), asking them for three factors they believed contributed most to a low documentation rate of AD discussions. The two most important factors were time constraints and systems issues (such as lack of a standard method to document ADs and ADs not being uploaded to the chart) which were brought up by 25% and 21.2% of the 32 survey responders, respectively. Pre-intervention data from clinic patients in 2020-2021 revealed that 17.05% of patients had clear, actionable ADs documented. To address these issues, an AD pocket card was created to give to patients. One side of the card has a brief explanation of what ADs are. The other side has a column of interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, tracheostomy, feeding tube) with boxes patients check off if they want the intervention done, do not want the intervention, do not want to discuss the topic, or need more information. These cards are to be filled out and scanned into their electronic chart to be reviewed by the resident before their appointment. The interventions that patients want more information on will be discussed by the provider. If any changes are made, the card will be re-scanned into their chart. After three months, we will chart review the patients seen in the clinic to determine how many medicare patients have a pocket card uploaded and how many have advance directives discussions documented in a progress note or annual wellness note. If there is not enough time for AD discussion, a follow-up appointment can be scheduled for that discussion. Discussion: ADs are a crucial part of patient care, and failure to understand a patient’s wishes leads to improper utilization of resources, avoidable litigation, and patient harm. Time constraints and systems issues were identified as two major factors contributing to the lack of advance directive discussion in our community-based resident primary care clinic. Our project aims at increasing the documentation rate for ADs through a simple pocket card intervention. These are self-explanatory, easy to read and allow the patients to clearly express what interventions they desire or what they want to discuss further with their physician.

Keywords: advance directives, community-based, pocket card, primary care clinic

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379 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam


Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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378 Financial Analysis of Selected Private Healthcare Organizations with Special Referance to Guwahati City, Assam

Authors: Mrigakshi Das


The private sector investments and quantum of money required in this sector critically hinges on the financial risk and returns the sector offers to providers of capital. Therefore, it becomes important to understand financial performance of hospitals. Financial Analysis is useful for decision makers in a variety of settings. Consider the small proprietary hospitals, say, Physicians Clinic. The managers of such clinic need the information that financial statements provide. Attention to Financial Statements of healthcare Organizations can provide answers to questions like: How are they doing? What is their rate of profit? What is their solvency and liquidity position? What are their sources and application of funds? What is their Operational Efficiency? The researcher has studied Financial Statements of 5 Private Healthcare Organizations in Guwahati City.

Keywords: not-for-profit organizations, financial analysis, ratio analysis, profitability analysis, liquidity analysis, operational efficiency, capital structure analysis

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377 Correlation between Creatinine Level with Erectile Dysfunction among Diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Zainie Bin Hassan


Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication commonly seen among men with diabetes which can be assessed based upon International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Creatinine level is a blood test that indicates kidney functionality. Object: To evaluate the association between ED, determined by the IIEF-5scores and Creatinine level in diabetic men attending Temerloh Health Clinic, Pahang, Malaysia.Hence, to identify raising Creatinine level related with ED or not. Methods: All married diabetic patients will be investigated face to face after consented for answering the IIEF-5 questionnaire. Creatinine level will be taken by using standard method.Patients with no sexual partner, refuse to answer the questionnaire, cancer, stroke, heart disease and language barrier will be excluded.Data obtained from IIEF-5 score and Creatinine level will be analyzed by using Pearson correlation. All statistical value determined by p=0.05. ED will be categorized accordingly to IIEF-5 scores: no ED (22-25), mild (17-21), moderate (12-16), severe (8-11) and very severe (1-7). Results: A total of 450 patients were investigated with 385 patients were included (85.6% respondant rate) and 65 patients were excluded in this study with age range from 29 to 85 years old. 7% had no ED, 28% mild ED, 34% moderate ED, 16% severe ED and 15% had very severe ED. There was a significant negative correlation between Creatinine level and IIEF-5 scores (r=-0.218, p <0.001). This result implicated that poor kidney function which indicated by high Creatinine level associated significantly with erectile dysfunction. 93% had ED with a different range of severity which triggers for appropriate aggressive ED management among diabetics. Conclusion: The high level of Creatinine is associated with erectile dysfunction among diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic.

Keywords: correlation, creatinine level, erectile dysfunction, ED, diabetes

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376 Lean Implementation in a Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic: A Case Study

Authors: Lily Farris, Chantel E. Canessa, Rena Heathcote, Susan Shumay, Suzanna V. McRae, Alissa Collingridge, Minna K. Miller


Objective: To describe how the Lean approach can be applied to improve access, quality and safety of care in an ambulatory pediatric primary care setting. Background: Lean was originally developed by Toyota manufacturing in Japan, and subsequently adapted for use in the healthcare sector. Lean is a systematic approach, focused on identifying and reducing waste within organizational processes, improving patient-centered care and efficiency. Limited literature is available on the implementation of the Lean methodologies in a pediatric ambulatory care setting. Methods: A strategic continuous improvement event or Rapid Process Improvement Workshop (RPIW) was launched with the aim evaluating and structurally supporting clinic workflow, capacity building, sustainability, and ultimately improving access to care and enhancing the patient experience. The Lean process consists of five specific activities: Current state/process assessment (value stream map); development of a future state map (value stream map after waste reduction); identification, quantification and prioritization of the process improvement opportunities; implementation and evaluation of process changes; and audits to sustain the gains. Staff engagement is a critical component of the Lean process. Results: Through the implementation of the RPIW and shifting workload among the administrative team, four hours of wasted time moving between desks and doing work was eliminated from the Administrative Clerks role. To streamline clinic flow, the Nursing Assistants completed patient measurements and vitals for Nurse Practitioners, reducing patient wait times and adding value to the patients visit with the Nurse Practitioners. Additionally, through the Nurse Practitioners engagement in the Lean processes a need was recognized to articulate clinic vision, mission and the alignment of NP role and scope of practice with the agency and Ministry of Health strategic plan. Conclusions: Continuous improvement work in the Pediatric Primary Care NP Clinic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of care delivered and has facilitated further alignment of the daily continuous improvement work with the strategic priorities of the Ministry of Health.

Keywords: ambulatory care, lean, pediatric primary care, system efficiency

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375 Management of Myofascial Temporomandibular Disorder in Secondary Care: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Rishana Bilimoria, Selina Tang, Sajni Shah, Marianne Henien, Christopher Sproat


Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may affect up to a third of the general population, and there is evidence demonstrating the majority of Myofascial TMD cases improve after education and conservative measures. In 2015 our department implemented a modified care pathway for myofascial TMD patients in an attempt to improve the patient journey. This involved the use of an interactive group therapy approach to deliver education, reinforce conservative measures and promote self-management. Patient reported experience measures from the new group clinic revealed 71% patient satisfaction. This service is efficient in improving aspects of health status while reducing health-care costs and redistributing clinical time. Since its’ establishment, 52 hours of clinical time, resources and funding have been redirected effectively. This Quality Improvement Project was initiated because it was felt that this new service was being underutilised by our surgical teams. The ‘Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle’ (PDSA) framework was employed to analyse utilisation of the service: The ‘plan’ stage involved outlining our aims: to raise awareness amongst clinicians of the unified care pathway and to increase referral to this clinic. The ‘do’ stage involved collecting data from a sample of 96 patients over 4 month period to ascertain the proportion of Myofascial TMD patients who were correctly referred to the designated clinic. ‘Suitable’ patients who weren’t referred were identified. The ‘Study’ phase involved analysis of results, which revealed that 77% of suitable patients weren’t referred to the designated clinic. They were reviewed on other clinics, which are often overbooked, or managed by junior staff members. This correlated with our original prediction. Barriers to referral included: lack of awareness of the clinic, individual consultant treatment preferences and patient, reluctance to be referred to a ‘group’ clinic. The ‘Act’ stage involved presenting our findings to the team at a clinical governance meeting. This included demonstration of the clinical effectiveness of the care-pathway and explaining the referral route and criteria. In light of the evaluation results, it was decided to keep the group clinic and maximize utilisation. The second cycle of data collection following these changes revealed that of 66 Myofascial TMD patients over a 4 month period, only 9% of suitable patients were not seen via the designated pathway; therefore this QIP was successful in meeting the set objectives. Overall, employing the PDSA cycle in this QIP resulted in appropriate utilisation of the modified care pathway for patients with myofascial TMD in Guy’s Oral Surgery Department. In turn, this leads to high patient satisfaction with the service and effectively redirected 52 hours of clinical time. It permitted adoption of a collaborative working style with oral surgery colleagues to investigate problems, identify solutions, and collectively raise standards of clinical care to ensure we adopt a unified care pathway in secondary care management of Myofascial TMD patients.

Keywords: myofascial, quality Improvement, PDSA, TMD

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374 Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy among HIV Patients in a University Teaching Hospital in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Okunola Oluseye Ademola


The study investigated various socio-cultural factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral drugs among people living with HIV in a University Teaching Hospital in South-western Nigeria. The objectives are to examine the perception of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, investigate the influence of socio-cultural factors on adherence of PLWHA to treatment regimen in the study area and assess the prevalence of adherence to ART among PLWHA in the study area. It was a cross-sectional where both qualitative and quantitative research methods were adopted. The participants were HIV diagnosed patients attending clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex in Ile-Ife between the ages of 18 and 60 years. Also three healthcare delivery personnel working in the clinic were interviewed. Out of the 3007 patients receiving treatment, using Fischer’s formula of sampling technique, 336 patients living with HIV/AIDS were selected for the study. These participants had been on antiretroviral drugs for more than six months prior to the study and were selected using simple random sampling technique. Two focus group discussion sessions comprising of 10 male and 10 female living with HIV and currently on ART were conducted. These groups were purposively selected based on their being on ART for more than one year. Also in-depth interviews were conducted among three purposively selected healthcare givers (an experienced nurse, a doctor and a pharmacist) who are working in this clinic. All the participants were interviewed at the clinic on the various clinic days. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, an interview guide and tape-recorder. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Content analysis was employed to analyse responses from IDI and FGD sessions. The findings from the study revealed a very positive perception to ART among PLWHA which was about 86.3% while the level of adherence to ART was 89.0% among the respondents. There was a very strong relationship between social and family supports and the degree of adherence to ART in the PLWHA. Nutrition, polygamy, difficulty in financing transportation fare to the clinic, unemployment, drug hawkers, religion, excuse duty from work and waking up very early were highlighted as socio-cultural barriers to adherence to ART. Fear of death, strong family support, religion belief, not seeking alternative treatment, absence of rituals and perceived improved health status were identified as very strong facilitators to adherence. The study concluded that to achieve a very optimal outcome in the management of HIV among PLWHA, various social and cultural contexts should be taken into consideration as this study was able to ascertain the influence of various socio-cultural factors militating and facilitating adherence to ART.

Keywords: ART, HIV, PLWHA, socio-cultural

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373 Telemedicine Versus Face-to-Face Follow up in General Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Teagan Fink, Lynn Chong, Michael Hii, Brett Knowles


Background: Telemedicine is a rapidly advancing field providing healthcare to patients at a distance from their treating clinician. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence detailing the safety and acceptability of telemedicine for postoperative outpatient follow-up. This randomized controlled trial – conducted prior to the COVID 19 pandemic – aimed to assess patient satisfaction and safety (as determined by readmission, reoperation and complication rates) of telephone compared to face-to-face clinic follow-up after uncomplicated general surgical procedures. Methods: Patients following uncomplicated laparoscopic appendicectomy or cholecystectomy and laparoscopic or open umbilical or inguinal hernia repairs were randomized to a telephone or face-to-face outpatient clinic follow-up. Data points including patient demographics, perioperative details and postoperative outcomes (eg. wound healing complications, pain scores, unplanned readmission to hospital and return to daily activities) were compared between groups. Patients also completed a Likert patient satisfaction survey following their consultation. Results: 103 patients were recruited over a 12-month period (21 laparoscopic appendicectomies, 65 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, nine open umbilical hernia repairs, six laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs and two laparoscopic umbilical hernia repairs). Baseline patient demographics and operative interventions were the same in both groups. Patient or clinician-reported concerns on postoperative pain, use of analgesia, wound healing complications and return to daily activities at clinic follow-up were not significantly different between the two groups. Of the 58 patients randomized to the telemedicine arm, 40% reported high and 60% reported very high patient satisfaction. Telemedicine clinic mean consultation times were significantly shorter than face-to-face consultation times (telemedicine 10.3 +/- 7.2 minutes, face-to-face 19.2 +/- 23.8 minutes, p-value = 0.014). Rates of failing to attend clinic were not significantly different (telemedicine 3%, control 6%). There was no increased rate of postoperative complications in patients followed up by telemedicine compared to in-person. There were no unplanned readmissions, return to theatre, or mortalities in this study. Conclusion: Telemedicine follow-up of patients undergoing uncomplicated general surgery is safe and does not result in any missed diagnosis or higher rates of complications. Telemedicine provides high patient satisfaction and steps to implement this modality in inpatient care should be undertaken.

Keywords: general surgery, telemedicine, patient satisfaction, patient safety

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372 Baseline Data from Specialist Obesity Clinic in a Large Tertiary Care Facility, Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Ahmed, Farah Khalid, Sahlah Sohail, Saira Banusokwalla, Sabiha Banu, Inaara Akbar, Safia Awan, Syed Iqbal Azam


Background and Objectives: The level of knowledge regarding obesity as a disease condition and health-seeking behavior regarding its management is grossly lacking. We present data from our multidisciplinary obesity clinic at the large tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan, to provide baseline profiles and outcomes of patients attending these clinics. Methods: 260 who attended the obesity clinic between June 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled in this study. The analysis included descriptive and ROC analysis to identify the best cut-offs of theanthropometric measurements to diagnose obesity-related comorbid conditions. Results: The majority of the studied population were women (72.3%) and employed(43.7%) with a mean age of 35.5 years. Mean BMIwas 37.4, waist circumference was 112.4 cm, visceral fat was 11.7%, and HbA1C was 6.9%. The most common comorbidities were HTN & D.M (33 &31%, respectively). The prevalence of MetS was 16.3% in patients and was slightly higher in males. Visceral fat was the main factor in predicting D.M (0.750; 95% CI: 0.665, 0.836) and MetS (0.709; 95% CI: 0.590, 0.838) compared to total body fat, waist circumference, and BMI. The risk of predicting DM &MetS for the visceral fat above 9.5% in women had the highest sensitivity (80% for D.M & 79% for MetS) and an NPV (92.75% for D.M & 95% for MetS). Conclusions: This study describes and establishes characteristics of these obese individuals, which can help inform clinical practices. These practices may involve using visceral fat for earlier identification and counseling-based interventions to prevent more severe surgical interventions down the line.

Keywords: obesity, metabolic syndrome, tertiary care facility, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat

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371 Nutritional Status of People Living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Attending Anti-Retro Viral Treatment Clinic of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal

Authors: Ghimire K., Mehta R. S., Parajuli P., Chettri R.


Background: Malnutrition is a common hallmark of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) disease. It plays a synergistic role in immunosuppression which is initiated by Human Immuno Virus itself, and malnutrition forms an independent risk factor for disease progression. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status of the people living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome attending the Anti-Retro viral Treatment Clinic and find the association of nutritional status with different socio-demographic variables. Methods: A total of 101 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were selected by convenient sampling technique. The study was conducted at the ART clinic of BPKIHS. A subjective global assessment tool was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The study demonstrated that the mean age of the respondents was 40.97+8.650 years. 65.3% were well-nourished, and 34.7% of the participants were mildly/moderately malnourished, whereas none of them were severely malnourished. BMI was statistically significant with education status, family income, and duration of illness of the participants, and nutritional status was statistically significant with gender, marital status, education status, and family history of HIV. Conclusion: On the basis of the result, it can be concluded that more than half of the respondents were well nourished. Gender, marital status, and education are associated with nutritional status.

Keywords: nutritional status, people living with HIV/AIDS, ART treatment, Nepal

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