Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Mattia Resteghini

8 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio

Abstract:

Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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7 Psychological Biases as Obstacles to Environmental Communication

Authors: De Biase Ilaria, Della Rocca Mattia

Abstract:

Our work aims to highlight the role played by cognitive biases in the reception of environmental information, including scientific communication from expert to the lay public, especially in relationship with environmental data coming from biological and biotechnological recording. Some alternative strategies are suggested in order to maximize public awareness on environmental changes.

Keywords: science communication, environment and psychology, cognitive biases, environmental awareness

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6 On-Line Impulse Buying and Cognitive Dissonance: The Moderating Role of the Positive Affective State

Authors: G. Mattia, A. Di Leo, L. Principato

Abstract:

The purchase impulsiveness is preceded by a lack of self-control: consequently, it is legitimate to believe that a consumer with a low level of self-control can result in a higher probability of cognitive dissonance. Moreover, the process of purchase is influenced by the pre-existing affective state in a considerable way. With reference to on-line purchases, digital behavior cannot be merely ascribed to the rational sphere, given the speed and ease of transactions and the hedonistic dimension of purchases. To our knowledge, this research is among the first cases of verification of the effect of moderation exerted by the positive affective state in the on-line impulse purchase of products with a high expressive value such as a smartphone on the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. To this aim, a moderation analysis was conducted on a sample of 212 impulsive millennials buyers. Three scales were adopted to measure the constructs of interest: IBTS for impulsivity, PANAS for the affective state, Sweeney for cognitive dissonance. The analysis revealed that positive affective state does not affect the onset of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, impulsive buying, online shopping, online consumer behavior

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5 Adoption of Noise and Vibration Management Tools for Major Infrastructure Projects in Sydney, Australia

Authors: Adrian Morris, Rodney Phillips, Mattia Tabacchi

Abstract:

Minimizing construction noise and vibration impacts is a key challenge for major infrastructure projects in urban environments. Before commencing construction works, Construction Noise and Vibration Management Plan (CNVMP) and Construction Noise and Vibration Impact Statements (CNVIS) are required to be prepared and submitted to the relevant government authorities for review and approval. However, the assessment of potential impacts from work activities at pre-approval stage may be inaccurate as works methodology and scheduling are yet to be determined. In response, noise and vibration management tools have been developed to refine and supplement the CNVIS as works progress. These tools have been successfully implemented in major infrastructure projects allowing contractors to plan and assess construction works in a cost effective and timely manner. As a result, noise and vibration management tools have been incorporated into management plans and are increasingly required by regulators.

Keywords: noise management, environmental noise, infrastructure projects, construction, vibration, cost effective

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4 Health and the Politics of Trust: Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kathmandu

Authors: Mattia Testuzza

Abstract:

Public health is a social endeavour, which involves many different actors: from extremely stratified, structured health systems to unofficial networks of people and knowledge. Health and diseases are an intertwined individual and social experiences. Both patients and health workers navigate this public space through relations of trust. Trust in healthcare goes from the personal trust between a patient and her/his doctor to the trust of both the patient and the health worker in the medical knowledge and the healthcare system. Trust it is not a given, but it is continuously negotiated, given and gained. The key to understand these essential relations of trust in health is to recognise them as a social practice, which therefore implies agency and power. In these terms, health is constantly public and made public, as trust emerges as a meaningfully political phenomenon. Trust as a power relation can be observed at play in the implementation of public health policies such as the WHO’s Directly-Observed Theraphy Short-course (DOTS), and with the increasing concern for drug-resistance that tuberculosis pose, looking at the role of trust in the healthcare delivery system and implementation of public health policies becomes significantly relevant. The ethnographic fieldwork was carried out in four months through observation of the daily practices at the National Tuberculosis Center of Nepal, and semi-structured interviews with MultiDrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients at different stages of the treatment, their relatives, MDR-TB specialised nurses, and doctors. Throughout the research, the role which trust plays in tuberculosis treatment emerged as one fundamental ax that cuts through all the different factors intertwined with drug-resistance development, unfolding a tension between the DOTS policy, which undermines trust, and the day-to-day healthcare relations and practices which cannot function without trust. Trust also stands out as a key component of the solutions to unforeseen issues which develop from the overall uncertainty of the context - for example, political instability and extreme poverty - in which tuberculosis treatment is carried out in Nepal.

Keywords: trust, tuberculosis, drug-resistance, politics of health

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3 Planning a European Policy for Increasing Graduate Population: The Conditions That Count

Authors: Alice Civera, Mattia Cattaneo, Michele Meoli, Stefano Paleari

Abstract:

Despite the fact that more equal access to higher education has been an objective public policy for several decades, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative means for achieving such goal. Indeed, nowadays, high level of graduate population can be observed both in countries with the high and low level of fees, or high and low level of public expenditure in higher education. This paper surveys the extant literature providing some background on the economic concepts of the higher education market, and reviews key determinants of demand and supply. A theoretical model of aggregate demand and supply of higher education is derived, with the aim to facilitate the understanding of the challenges in today’s higher education systems, as well as the opportunities for development. The model is validated on some exemplary case studies describing the different relationship between the level of public investment and levels of graduate population and helps to derive general implications. In addition, using a two-stage least squares model, we build a macroeconomic model of supply and demand for European higher education. The model allows interpreting policies shifting either the supply or the demand for higher education, and allows taking into consideration contextual conditions with the aim of comparing divergent policies under a common framework. Results show that the same policy objective (i.e., increasing graduate population) can be obtained by shifting either the demand function (i.e., by strengthening student aid) or the supply function (i.e., by directly supporting higher education institutions). Under this theoretical perspective, the level of tuition fees is irrelevant, and empirically we can observe high levels of graduate population in both countries with high (i.e., the UK) or low (i.e., Germany) levels of tuition fees. In practice, this model provides a conceptual framework to help better understanding what are the external conditions that need to be considered, when planning a policy for increasing graduate population. Extrapolating a policy from results in different countries, under this perspective, is a poor solution when contingent factors are not addressed. The second implication of this conceptual framework is that policies addressing the supply or the demand function needs to address different contingencies. In other words, a government aiming at increasing graduate population needs to implement complementary policies, designing them according to the side of the market that is interested. For example, a ‘supply-driven’ intervention, through the direct financial support of higher education institutions, needs to address the issue of institutions’ moral hazard, by creating incentives to supply higher education services in efficient conditions. By contrast, a ‘demand-driven’ policy, providing student aids, need to tackle the students’ moral hazard, by creating an incentive to responsible behavior.

Keywords: graduates, higher education, higher education policies, tuition fees

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2 Toward Understanding the Glucocorticoid Receptor Network in Cancer

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Mattia Lauriola, Yuval Gilad, Adi Kimchi, Yosef Yarden

Abstract:

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been proposed to play important, but incompletely understood roles in cancer. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as co-medication of various carcinomas, due to their ability to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. Furthermore, GR antagonism has proven to be a strategy to treat triple negative breast cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These observations suggest differential GR involvement in cancer subtypes. The goal of our study has been to elaborate the current understanding of GR signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. Our study involves two cellular models, non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and Ewing sarcoma cells (CHLA9). In our breast cell model, the results indicated that the GR agonist dexamethasone inhibits EGF-induced mammary cell migration, and this effect was blocked when cells were stimulated with a GR antagonist, namely RU486. Microarray analysis for gene expression revealed that the mechanism underlying inhibition involves dexamenthasone-mediated repression of well-known activators of EGFR signaling, alongside with enhancement of several EGFR’s negative feedback loops. Because GR mainly acts primarily through composite response elements (GREs), or via a tethering mechanism, our next aim has been to find the transcription factors (TFs) which can interact with GR in MCF10A cells.The TF-binding motif overrepresented at the promoter of dexamethasone-regulated genes was predicted by using bioinformatics. To validate the prediction, we performed high-throughput Protein Complementation Assays (PCA). For this, we utilized the Gaussia Luciferase PCA strategy, which enabled analysis of protein-protein interactions between GR and predicted TFs of mammary cells. A library comprising both nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, GR) and TFs was fused to fragments of GLuc, namely GLuc(1)-X, X-GLuc(1), and X-GLuc(2), where GLuc(1) and GLuc(2) correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the luciferase gene.The resulting library was screened, in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, for all possible interactions between nuclear receptors and TFs. By screening all of the combinations between TFs and nuclear receptors, we identified several positive interactions, which were strengthened in response to dexamethasone and abolished in response to RU486. Furthermore, the interactions between GR and the candidate TFs were validated by co-immunoprecipitation in MCF10A and in CHLA9 cells. Currently, the roles played by the uncovered interactions are being evaluated in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, our assay provides an unbiased network analysis between nuclear receptors and other TFs, which can lead to important insights into transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in various diseases, in this case of cancer.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor, glucocorticoid receptor, protein complementation assay, transcription factor

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1 Early Biological Effects in Schoolchildren Living in an Area of Salento (Italy) with High Incidence of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: The IMP.AIR. Study

Authors: Alessandra Panico, Francesco Bagordo, Tiziana Grassi, Adele Idolo, Marcello Guido, Francesca Serio, Mattia De Giorgi, Antonella De Donno

Abstract:

In the Province of Lecce (Southeastern Italy) an area with unusual high incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, was recently identified. The causes of this health emergency are still not entirely clear. In order to determine the risk profile of children living in five municipalities included in this area an epidemiological-molecular study was performed in the years 2014-2016: the IMP.AIR. (Impact of air quality on health of residents in the Municipalities of Sternatia, Galatina, Cutrofiano, Sogliano Cavour and Soleto) study. 122 children aged 6-8 years attending primary school in the study area were enrolled to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in their buccal exfoliated cells. The samples were collected in May 2015 by rubbing the oral mucosa with a soft bristle disposable toothbrush. At the same time, a validated questionnaire was administered to parents to obtain information about health, lifestyle and eating habits of the children. In addition, information on airborne pollutants, routinely detected by the Regional Environmental Agency (ARPA Puglia) in the study area, was acquired. A multivariate analysis was performed to detect any significant association between frequency of MNs (dependent variable) and behavioral factors (independent variables). The presence of MNs was highlighted in the buccal exfoliated cells of about 42% of recruited children with a mean frequency of 0.49 MN/1000 cells, greater than in other areas of Salento. The survey on individual characteristics and lifestyles showed that one in three children was overweight and that most of them had unhealthy eating habits with frequent consumption of foods considered ‘risky’. Moreover many parents (40% of fathers and 12% of mothers) were smokers and about 20% of them admitted to smoking in the house where the children lived. Information regarding atmospheric contaminants was poor. Of the few substances routinely detected by the only one monitoring station located in the study area (PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) only ozone showed high concentrations exceeding the limits set by the legislation for 67 times in the year 2015. The study showed that the level of early biological effect markers in children was not negligible. This critical condition could be related to some individual factors and lifestyles such as overweight, unhealthy eating habits and exposure to passive smoking. At present, no relationship with airborne pollutants can be established due to the lack of information on many substances. Therefore, it would be advisable to modify incorrect behaviors and to intensify the monitoring of airborne pollutants (e.g. including detection of PM10, heavy metals, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, benzene) given the epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases registered in this area.

Keywords: chronic respiratory diseases, environmental pollution, lifestyle, micronuclei

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