Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: staffing

35 Critical and Strategic Issues in Compensation, Staffing and Personnel Management in Nigeria

Authors: Shonuga Olajumoke Adedoyinsola

Abstract:

Staffing and Compensation are at the core of any employment exchange, and they serve as the defining characteristics of any employment relationship. Most organizations understand the benefits that a longer term approach to staff planning can bring and the answer to this problem lies not in trying to implement the traditional approach more effectively, but in implementing a completely different kind of process for strategic staffing. The study focuses on critical points of compensation, staffing and personnel management. The fundamentals of these programs include the elements of vision, potential, communication and motivation. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important attributes of compensation and incentives, staffing and personnel management. Research method is the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, logical, comparative and graphic representation. On the basis of analysis, the author presents the models of these systems for positive employee attitudes and behaviors.

Keywords: compensation, employees, incentives, staffing, personnel management

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34 Evaluation of a Staffing to Workload Tool in a Multispecialty Clinic Setting

Authors: Kristin Thooft

Abstract:

— Increasing pressure to manage healthcare costs has resulted in shifting care towards ambulatory settings and is driving a focus on cost transparency. There are few nurse staffing to workload models developed for ambulatory settings, less for multi-specialty clinics. Of the existing models, few have been evaluated against outcomes to understand any impact. This evaluation took place after the AWARD model for nurse staffing to workload was implemented in a multi-specialty clinic at a regional healthcare system in the Midwest. The multi-specialty clinic houses 26 medical and surgical specialty practices. The AWARD model was implemented in two specialty practices in October 2020. Donabedian’s Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model was used to evaluate outcomes based on changes to the structure and processes of care provided. The AWARD model defined and quantified the processes, recommended changes in the structure of day-to-day nurse staffing. Cost of care per patient visit, total visits, a total nurse performed visits used as structural and process measures, influencing the outcomes of cost of care and access to care. Independent t-tests were used to compare the difference in variables pre-and post-implementation. The SPO model was useful as an evaluation tool, providing a simple framework that is understood by a diverse care team. No statistically significant changes in the cost of care, total visits, or nurse visits were observed, but there were differences. Cost of care increased and access to care decreased. Two weeks into the post-implementation period, the multi-specialty clinic paused all non-critical patient visits due to a second surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinic nursing staff was re-allocated to support the inpatient areas. This negatively impacted the ability of the Nurse Manager to utilize the AWARD model to plan daily staffing fully. The SPO framework could be used for the ongoing assessment of nurse staffing performance. Additional variables could be measured, giving a complete picture of the impact of nurse staffing. Going forward, there must be a continued focus on the outcomes of care and the value of nursing

Keywords: ambulatory, clinic, evaluation, outcomes, staffing, staffing model, staffing to workload

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33 Patient Care Needs Assessment: An Evidence-Based Process to Inform Quality Care and Decision Making

Authors: Wynne De Jong, Robert Miller, Ross Riggs

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Beyond the number of nurses providing care for patients, having nurses with the right skills, experience and education is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients. Research studies continue to link nurse staffing and skill mix with nurse-sensitive patient outcomes; numerous studies clearly show that superior patient outcomes are associated with higher levels of regulated staff. Due to the limited number of tools and processes available to assist nurse leaders with staffing models of care, nurse leaders are constantly faced with the ongoing challenge to ensure their staffing models of care best suit their patient population. In 2009, several hospitals in Ontario, Canada participated in a research study to develop and evaluate an RN/RPN utilization toolkit. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a toolkit for Registered Nurses/Registered Practical Nurses Staff mix decision-making based on the College of Nurses of Ontario, Canada practice standards for the utilization of RNs and RPNs. This paper will highlight how an organization has further developed the Patient Care Needs Assessment (PCNA) questionnaire, a major component of the toolkit. Moreover, it will demonstrate how it has utilized the information from PCNA to clearly identify patient and family care needs, thus providing evidence-based results to assist leaders with matching the best staffing skill mix to their patients.

Keywords: nurse staffing models of care, skill mix, nursing health human resources, patient safety

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32 How Validated Nursing Workload and Patient Acuity Data Can Promote Sustained Change and Improvements within District Health Boards. the New Zealand Experience

Authors: Rebecca Oakes

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In the New Zealand public health system, work has been taking place to use electronic systems to convey data from the ‘floor to the board’ that makes patient needs, and therefore nursing work, visible. For nurses, these developments in health information technology puts us in a very new and exciting position of being able to articulate the work of nursing through a language understood at all levels of an organisation, the language of acuity. Nurses increasingly have a considerable stake-hold in patient acuity data. Patient acuity systems, when used well, can assist greatly in demonstrating how much work is required, the type of work, and when it will be required. The New Zealand Safe Staffing Unit is supporting New Zealand nurses to create a culture of shared governance, where nursing data is informing policies, staffing methodologies and forecasting within their organisations. Assisting organisations to understand their acuity data, strengthening user confidence in using electronic patient acuity systems, and ensuring nursing and midwifery workload is accurately reflected is critical to the success of the safe staffing programme. Nurses and midwives have the capacity via an acuity tool to become key informers of organisational planning. Quality patient care, best use of health resources and a quality work environment are essential components of a safe, resilient and well resourced organisation. Nurses are the key informers of this information. In New Zealand a national level approach is paving the way for significant changes to the understanding and use of patient acuity and nursing workload information.

Keywords: nursing workload, patient acuity, safe staffing, New Zealand

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31 Aviation versus Aerospace: A Differential Analysis of Workforce Jobs via Text Mining

Authors: Sarah Werner, Michael J. Pritchard

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From pilots to engineers, the skills development within the aerospace industry is exceptionally broad. Employers often struggle with finding the right mixture of qualified skills to fill their organizational demands. This effort to find qualified talent is further complicated by the industrial delineation between two key areas: aviation and aerospace. In a broad sense, the aerospace industry overlaps with the aviation industry. In turn, the aviation industry is a smaller sector segment within the context of the broader definition of the aerospace industry. Furthermore, it could be conceptually argued that -in practice- there is little distinction between these two sectors (i.e., aviation and aerospace). However, through our unstructured text analysis of over 6,000 job listings captured, our team found a clear delineation between aviation-related jobs and aerospace-related jobs. Using techniques in natural language processing, our research identifies an integrated workforce skill pattern that clearly breaks between these two sectors. While the aviation sector has largely maintained its need for pilots, mechanics, and associated support personnel, the staffing needs of the aerospace industry are being progressively driven by integrative engineering needs. Increasingly, this is leading many aerospace-based organizations towards the acquisition of 'system level' staffing requirements. This research helps to better align higher educational institutions with the current industrial staffing complexities within the broader aerospace sector.

Keywords: aerospace industry, job demand, text mining, workforce development

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30 Investigation of Stress and Its Effects on Health Workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria

Authors: Chisom N. Nwaigwe, Blessing N. Egbulefu, Angela Uwakwem

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A study on Stress and its’ effect on the health of workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria is presented. The aim is to evaluate how much stress related hazards health workers in our tertiary health institutions are exposed to and to create awareness and reduce the rate at which stress affect the health of the working population in Nigeria, using workers in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia as a case study. The descriptive survey design was adopted with the aid of 100 questionnaires delivered to the respondents in order to obtain first-hand information. From the findings, the major causes of stress were identified as inadequate staffing, unresolved family problems and psychological/cultural factors like the return of a lactating mother to work after three months post-delivery. The effects of stress on the workers were identified as hypertension, poor job performances, depression, asthma, and peptic ulcers. The study recommended instituting counseling units for stress management, holding seminars on stress management and increasing the salary scale (remuneration) and proper roster planning as solutions to stress reduction in our hospitals. This study is important to management in planning staffing, roaster, and a rehabilitation programme for her staff.

Keywords: stress, causes, effects, workers

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29 Relations between the Internal Employment Conditions of International Organizations and the Characteristics of the National Civil Service

Authors: Renata Hrecska

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This research seeks to fully examine the internal employment law of international organizations by comparing it with the characteristics of the national civil service. The aim of the research is to compare the legal system that has developed over many centuries and the relatively new internal staffing regulations to find out what solution schemes can help each other through mutual legal development in order to respond effectively to the social challenges of everyday life. Generally, the rules of civil service of any country or international entity have in common that they have, in their pragmatics inherently, the characteristic that makes them serving public interests. Though behind the common base there are many differences: there is the clear fragmentation of state regulation and the unity of organizational regulation. On the other hand, however, this difference disappears to some extent: the public service regulation of international organizations can be considered uniform until we examine it within, but not outside an organization. As soon as we compare the different organizations we may find many different solutions for staffing regulations. It is clear that the national civil service is a strong model for international organizations, but the question may be whether the staffing policy of international organizations can serve the national civil service as an example, too. In this respect, the easiest way to imagine a legislative environment would be to have a single comprehensive code, the general part of which is the Civil Service Act itself, and the specific part containing specific, necessarily differentiating rules for each layer of the civil service. Would it be advantageous to follow the footsteps of the leading international organizations, or is there any speciality in national level civil service that we cannot avoid during regulating processes? In addition to the above, the personal competencies of officials working in international organizations and public administrations also show a high degree of similarity, regardless of the type of employment. Thus, the whole public service system is characterized by the fundamental and special values that a person capable of holding a public office must be able to demonstrate, in some cases, even without special qualifications. It is also interesting how we can compare the two spheres of employment in light of the theory of Lawyer Louis Brandeis, a judge at the US Supreme Court, who formulated a complex theory of profession as distinguished from other occupations. From this point of view we can examine the continuous development of research and specialized knowledge at work; the community recognition and social status; that to what extent we can see a close-knit professional organization of altruistic philosophy; that how stability grows in the working conditions due to the stability of the profession; and that how the autonomy of the profession can prevail.

Keywords: civil service, comparative law, international organizations, regulatory systems

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28 Impact of Increased Radiology Staffing on after Hours Radiology Reporting Efficiency and Quality

Authors: Peregrine J. Dalziel, Phillip V. Tran

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Objective / Introduction: Demand for radiology services from Emergency Departments (ED) continues to increase with greater demands placed on radiology staff providing reports for the management of complex cases. Queuing theory indicates that wide variability of process time with the random nature of request arrival increases the probability of significant queues. This can lead to delays in the time-to-availability of radiology reports (TTA-RR) and potentially impaired ED patient flow. In addition, greater “cognitive workload” of greater volume may lead to reduced productivity and increased errors. We sought to quantify the improvement in TTA-RR and potential ED flow improvements that were obtained from increased staffing of radiology providers serving 3 hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, from a time and a cost/revenue perspective as well as potentially improved quality of radiology reports. Methods & Materials: The Western Health Medical Imaging Department moved from single resident coverage on weekend days 8:30 am-10:30 pm to a limited period of 2 resident coverage 1 pm-6 pm on both weekend days. The TTA-RR for weekend CT scans was calculated from the PACs database for the 8 month period symmetrically around the date of staffing change. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to isolate the improvement in TTA-RR between the two 4-months periods. Daily and hourly scan volume at the time of each CT scan was calculated to assess the impact of varying department workload. To assess any improvement in report quality/errors, a random sample of 200 studies was assessed to compare the average number of clinically significant over-read addendums to reports between the 2 periods. The marginal cost of the additional staff member was compared to a conservative estimate economic benefit of potentially improved ED patient throughput using the Australian national insurance rebate for private ED attendance. Results: The primary resident on call and the type of scan accounted for most of the explained variability in time to report availability (R2=0.29). Increasing daily volume and hourly volume were associated with increased TTA-RR (1.5m (p<0.01) and 4.8m (p<0.01), respectively, per additional scan ordered within each time frame. Reports were available 25.9 minutes sooner on average in the 4 months post-implementation of double coverage (p<0.01) with additional 23.6 minutes improvement when 2 residents were on-site concomitantly (p<0.01). The aggregate average improvement in TTA-RR was 24.8 hours per weekend day. This represents the increased decision-making time available to ED physicians and potential improvement in ED bed utilisation. 5% of reports from the intervention period contained clinically significant addendums vs. 7% in the single resident period, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.7). The marginal cost was less than the anticipated economic benefit based assuming 50% capture of improved TTA-RR inpatient disposition and using the lowest available national insurance rebate as a proxy for economic benefit. Conclusion: TTA-RR improved significantly during the period of increased staff availability, both during the specific period of increased staffing and throughout the day. Increased labor utilisation is cost-effective compared with the potential improved productivity for ED cases requiring CT imaging.

Keywords: operations, administration, efficiency, workflow, quality, wokforce

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27 State of Freelancing in IT and Future Trends

Authors: Mihai Gheorghe

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Freelancing in IT has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because of the fast Internet adoption in the countries with emerging economies, correlated with the continuous seek for reduced development costs as well with the rise of online platforms which address planning, coordination, and various development tasks. This paper conducts an overview of the most relevant Freelance Marketplaces available and studies the market structure, distribution of the workforce and trends in IT freelancing.

Keywords: freelancing in IT, freelance marketplaces, freelance market structure, globalization, online staffing, trends in freelancing

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26 Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Weekly Safety Briefing in a Tertiary Paediatric Cardiothoracic Transplant Unit

Authors: Lauren Dhugga, Meena Parameswaran, David Blundell, Abbas Khushnood

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Context: A multidisciplinary weekly safety briefing was implemented at the Paediatric Cardiothoracic Unit at the Freeman Hospital in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It is a tertiary referral centre with a quarternary cardiac paediatric intensive care unit and provides complexed care including heart and lung transplants, mechanical support and advanced heart failure assessment. Aim: The aim of this briefing is to provide a structured platform of communication, in an effort to improve efficiency, safety, and patient care. Problem: The paediatric cardiothoracic unit is made up of a vast multidisciplinary team including doctors, intensivists, anaesthetists, surgeons, specialist nurses, echocardiogram technicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, dentists, and dietitians. It provides care for children with congenital and acquired cardiac disease and is one of only two units in the UK to offer paediatric heart transplant. The complexity of cases means that there can be many teams involved in providing care to each patient, and frequent movement of children between ward, high dependency, and intensive care areas. Currently, there is no structured forum for communicating important information across the department, for example, staffing shortages, prescribing errors and significant events. Strategy: An initial survey questioning the need for better communication found 90% of respondents agreed that they could think of an incident that had occurred due to ineffective communication, and 85% felt that incident could have been avoided had there been a better form of communication. Lastly, 80% of respondents felt that a weekly 60 second safety briefing would be beneficial to improve communication within our multidisciplinary team. Based on those promising results, a weekly 60 second safety briefing was implemented to be conducted on a Monday morning. The safety briefing covered four key areas (SAFE): staffing, awareness, fix and events. This was to highlight any staffing gaps, any incident reports to be learned from, any issues that required fixing and any events including teachings for the week ahead. The teams were encouraged to email suggestions or issues to be raised for the week or to approach in person with information to add. The safety briefing was implemented using change theory. Effect: The safety briefing has been trialled over 6 weeks and has received a good buy in from staff across specialties. The aim is to embed this safety briefing into a weekly meeting using the PDSA cycle. There will be a second survey in one month to assess the efficacy of the safety briefing and to continue to improve the delivery of information. The project will be presented at the next clinical governance briefing to attract wider feedback and input from across the trust. Lessons: The briefing displays promise as a tool to improve vigilance and communication in a busy multi-disciplinary unit. We have learned about how to implement quality improvement and about the culture of our hospital - how hierarchy influences change. We demonstrate how to implement change through a grassroots process, using a junior led briefing to improve the efficiency, safety, and communication in the workplace.

Keywords: briefing, communication, safety, team

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25 Communities as a Source of Evidence: A Case of Advocating for Improved Human Resources for Health in Uganda

Authors: Asinguza P. Allan

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The Advocacy for Better Health aims to equip citizens with enabling environment and systems to effectively advocate for strong action plans to improve health services. This is because the 2020 Government target for Uganda to transform into a middle income country will be achieved if investment is made in keeping the population healthy and productive. Citizen participation as an important foundation for change has been emphasized to gather data through participatory rural appraisal and inform evidence-based advocacy for recruitment and motivation of human resources. Citizens conduct problem ranking during advocacy forums on staffing levels and health worker absenteeism. Citizens prioritised inadequate number of midwives and absenteeism. On triangulation, health worker to population ratio in Uganda remains at 0.25/1,000 which is far below the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold of 2.3/1,000. Working with IntraHealth, the project advocated for recruitment of critical skilled staff (doctors and midwives) and scale up health workers motivation strategy to reduce Uganda’s Neonatal Mortality Rate of 22/1,000 and Maternal Mortality Ratio of 320/100,000. Government has committed to increase staffing to 80% by 2018 (10 districts have passed ordinances and revived use of duty rosters to address health worker absenteeism. On the other hand, the better health advocacy debate has been elevated with need to increase health sector budget allocations from 8% to 10%. The project has learnt that building a body of evidence from citizens enhances the advocacy agenda. Communities will further monitor government commitments to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio. The project has learnt that interface meeting between duty bearers and the community allows for immediate feedback and the process is a strong instrument for empowerment. It facilitates monitoring and performance evaluation of services, projects and government administrative units (like district assemblies) by the community members themselves. This, in turn, makes the human resources in health to be accountable, transparent and responsive to communities where they work. This, in turn, promotes human resource performance.

Keywords: advocacy, empowerment, evidence, human resources

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24 Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Nigerian Universities: The Management Imperative

Authors: F. O Anugom

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The general functions of the university amongst other things include teaching, research and community service. Universities are recognized as the apex of learning, accumulating and imparting knowledge and skills of all kinds to students to enable them to be productive, earn their living and to make optimum contributions to national development. This is equivalent to the production of human capital in the form of high level manpower needed to administer the educational society, be useful to the society and manage the economy. Quality has become a matter of major importance for university education in Nigeria. Accreditation is the systematic review of educational programs to ensure that acceptable standards of education, scholarship and infrastructure are being maintained. Accreditation ensures that institution maintain quality. The process is designed to determine whether or not an institution has met or exceeded the published standards for accreditation, and whether it is achieving its mission and stated purposes. Ensuring quality assurance in accreditation process falls in the hands of university management which justified the need for this study. This study examined accreditation and quality assurance: the management imperative. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The design was a correlation survey with a population of 2,893 university administrators out of which 578 Heads of department and Dean of faculties were sampled. The instrument for data collection was titled Programme Accreditation Exercise scale with high levels of reliability. The research questions were answered with Pearson ‘r’ statistics. T-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses. It was found among others that the quality of accredited programme depends on the level of funding of universities in Nigeria. It was also indicated that quality of programme accreditation and physical facilities of universities in Nigeria have high relationship. But it was also revealed that programme accreditation is positively related to staffing in Nigerian universities. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommend that academic administrators should be included in the team of those who ensure quality programs in the universities. Private sector partnership should be encouraged to fund programs to ensure quality of programme in the universities. Independent agencies should be engaged to monitor the activities of accreditation teams to avoid bias.

Keywords: accreditation, quality assurance, national universities commission , physical facilities, staffing

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23 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom

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Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: disaster planning, emergency preparedness, major incident planning, mass casualty event

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22 Social Work Education in Gujarat: Challenges and Responses

Authors: Rajeshkumar Mahendrabhai Patel, Narendrakumar D. Vasava

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It is seen that higher education in India requires a high degree of attention for the quality. The Government of India has been putting its efforts to improvise the quality of higher education through different means such as need based changes in the policy of higher education, accreditation of the institutions of higher education and many others. The Social Work education in India started way back in Tata School of Social Sciences in the year 1936. Gradually the need for social work education was felt, and different institution started imparting social work education in different regions. Due to the poor educational policy of Gujarat state (The Concept of Self-Financed Education) different Universities initiated the MSW program on a self-financed basis. The present scenario of the Social work Education in Gujarat faces ample challenges and problems which need to be addressed consciously. The present paper will try to examine and analyze the challenges and problems such as curriculum, staffing, quality of teaching, the pattern of education etc. The probable responses to this scenario are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: social work education, challenges, problems, responses, self-financed education in Gujarat

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21 Managing the Local Manager: A Comparative Study of Core HRM Functions in Multinationals

Authors: Maria Khan

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Framing good core Human Resource Management (HRM) functions like recruitment, selection, training and development, which if executed effectively, can become a strategic advantage for a company. HRM policies related to mid-level managers can depend on the type of top management. This may be due to the difference in perception of effective HRM policies of an expatriate and local leadership. This comparative case study assesses how local mid-level managers are managed in leading multinational telecom companies in Pakistan. Core HRM functions related to managers were analysed through field research based on semi-structured interviews with relevant Human Resource Managers. Results suggest that recruitment and selection practices are not too different and are in compliance with best HRM practices. However, there is a difference in the effective implementation of Training and Development policies. Changing global management trends and skill development dictate that MNCs continuously develop the local talent effectively for local and international success.

Keywords: recruitment, selection, training, development, core HRM, human resource management, subsidiary, international staffing, managers, MNC, expatriate

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20 Analysis of the Interventions Performed in Pediatric Cardiology Unit Based on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th): A Pilot Study

Authors: Ji Wen Sun, Nan Ping Shen, Yi Bei Wu

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This study used Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th) to identify the interventions performed in a pediatric cardiology unit, and then to analysis its frequency, time and difficulty, so as to give a brief review on what our nurses have done. The research team selected a 35 beds pediatric cardiology unit, and drawn all the nursing interventions in the nursing record from our hospital information system (HIS) from 1 October 2015 to 30 November 2015, using NIC-6th to do the matching and then counting their frequencies. Then giving each intervention its own time and difficulty code according to NIC-6th. The results showed that nurses in pediatric cardiology unit performed totally 43 interventions from 5394 statements, and most of them were in RN(basic) education level needed and less than 15 minutes time needed. There still had some interventions just needed by a nursing assistant but done by nurses, which should call for nurse managers to think about the suitable staffing. Thus, counting the summary of the product of frequency, time and difficulty for each intervention of each nurse can know one's performance. Acknowledgement Clinical Management Optimization Project of Shanghai Shen Kang Hospital Development Center (SHDC2014615); Hundred-Talent Program of Construction of Nursing Plateau Discipline (hlgy16073qnhb).

Keywords: nursing interventions, nursing interventions classification, nursing record, pediatric cardiology

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19 Academic Staff Recruitment in Islamic University: A Proposed Holistic Model

Authors: Syahruddin Sumardi, Indra Fajar Alamsyah, Junaidah Hashim

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This study attempts to explore and presents a proposed recruitment model in Islamic university which aligned with holistic role. It is a conceptual paper in nature. In turn, this study is designed to utilize exploratory approach. Literature and document review that related to this topic are used as the methods to analyse the content found. Recruitment for any organization is fundamental to achieve its goal effectively. Staffing in universities is vital due to the importance role of lecturers. Currently, Islamic universities still adopt the common process of recruitment for their academic staffs. Whereas, they have own characteristics which are embedded in their institutions. Furthermore, the FCWC (Foundation, Capability, Worldview and Commitment) model of recruitment proposes to suit the holistic character of Islamic university. Further studies are required to empirically validate the concept through systematic investigations. Additionally, measuring this model by a designed means is appreciated. The model provides the map and alternative tool of recruitment for Islamic universities to determine the process of recruitment which can appropriate their institutions. In addition, it also allows stakeholders and policy makers to consider regarding Islamic values that should inculcate in the Islamic higher learning institutions. This study initiates a foundational contribution for an early sequence of research.

Keywords: academic staff, Islamic values, recruitment model, university

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18 Academic Staff Recruitment in Islamic University: A Proposed Holistic Model

Authors: Syahruddin Sumardi Samindjaya, Indra Fajar Alamsyah, Junaidah Hashim

Abstract:

Purpose: This study attempts to explore and presents a proposed recruitment model in Islamic university which aligned with holistic role. Design/methodology/approach: It is a conceptual paper in nature. In turn, this study is designed to utilize exploratory approach. Literature and document review that related to this topic are used as the methods to analyse the content found. Findings: Recruitment for any organization is fundamental to achieve its goal effectively. Staffing in universities is vital due to the important role of lecturers. Currently, Islamic universities still adopt the common process of recruitment for their academic staffs. Whereas, they have own characteristics which are embedded in their institutions. Furthermore, the FCWC (Foundation, Capability, Worldview and Commitment) model of recruitment proposes to suit the holistic character of Islamic university. Research limitation/implications: Further studies are required to empirically validate the concept through systematic investigations. Additionally, measuring this model by a designed means is appreciated. Practical implications: The model provides the map and alternative tool of recruitment for Islamic universities to determine the process of recruitment which can appropriate their institutions. In addition, it also allows stakeholders and policy makers to consider regarding Islamic values that should inculcate in the Islamic higher learning institutions. Originality/value: This study initiates a foundational contribution for an early sequence of research.

Keywords: academic staff, Islamic values, recruitment model, university

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17 Need Assessments of Midwives in Public's Health Center (Puskesmas) at Sukabumi Municipal, Province of Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Authors: Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, Dian Ayyubi

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Sukabumi municipal has highest rank for maternal mortality in Indonesia with 102 by 100,000 live birth with almost 80% of birth were not attended by skilled birth attendant (SBA). Although universal health coverage has been implemented, availability and sufficiency of SBA, such as midwife in this developing country, are problematic agenda for the quality of public healthcare as well as decreasing maternal mortality rate. This study aims to describe the equal distribution of midwives in Sukabumi municipal as support of government’s program named Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that suppressed maternal mortality rate in Indonesia. We conducted an observational study with Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) analysis to present the dispersion of midwives by their activities and workloads in 37 Puskesmas. We also generated in-depth interview with several executive chief of health sections, including chief of health offices in Sukabumi municipal. It resulted inferentially that several activities in midwives’ program were differed at once of existing than needed condition ideally (ρ value = 0.002 < 0.05). Meanwhile, decision for midwives’ procurement and placement were held by un-systematically procedure such as based on where the midwife was staying, and it also progressed by neighborhood issue priorities. The absence of formal regulation in local government is a serious problem that indicated poor political commitment, while access to SBA shall be focused carefully.

Keywords: developing country, health professional resources, health policy, need assessment

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16 Patient Service Improvement in Public Emergency Department Using Discrete Event Simulation

Authors: Dana Mohammed, Fatemah Abdullah, Hawraa Ali, Najat Al-Shaer, Rawan Al-Awadhi, , Magdy Helal

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We study the patient service performance at the emergency department of a major Kuwaiti public hospital, using discrete simulation and lean concepts. In addition to the common problems in such health care systems (over crowdedness, facilities planning and usage, scheduling and staffing, capacity planning) the emergency department suffered from several cultural and patient behavioural issues. Those contributed significantly to the system problems and constituted major obstacles in maintaining the performance in control. This led to overly long waiting times and the potential of delaying providing help to critical cases. We utilized the visual management tools to mitigate the impact of the patients’ behaviours and attitudes and improve the logistics inside the system. In addition a proposal is made to automate the date collection and communication within the department using RFID-based barcoding system. Discrete event simulation models were developed as decision support systems; to study the operational problems and assess achieved improvements. The simulation analysis resulted in cutting the patient delays to about 35% of their current values by reallocating and rescheduling the medical staff. Combined with the application of the visual management concepts, this provided the basis to improving patient service without any major investments.

Keywords: simulation, visual management, health care system, patient

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15 Evaluation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mir Mohammad Reza Hosseini

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In new years immune checkpoint inhibitors have gathered care as being one of the greatest talented kinds of immunotherapy on the prospect. There has been a specific emphasis on the immune checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). In 2011, ipilimumab, the primary antibody obstructive an immune checkpoint (CTLA4) was authorized. It is now documented that recognized tumors have many devices of overpowering the antitumor immune response, counting manufacture of repressive cytokines, staffing of immunosuppressive immune cells, and upregulation of coinhibitory receptors recognized as immune checkpoints. This was fast followed by the growth of monoclonal antibodies directing PD1 (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and PDL1 (atezolizumab and durvalumab). Anti-PD1/PDL1 antibodies have developed some of the greatest extensively set anticancer therapies. We also compare and difference their present place in cancer therapy and designs of immune-related toxicities and deliberate the role of dual immune checkpoint inhibition and plans for the organization of immune-related opposing proceedings. In this review, the employed code and present growth of numerous immune checkpoint inhibitors are abridged, while the communicating device and new development of Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy-based synergistic therapies with additional immunotherapy, chemotherapy, phototherapy, and radiotherapy in important and clinical educations in the historical 5 years are portrayed and tinted. Lastly, we disapprovingly measure these methods and effort to find their fortes and faintness based on pre-clinical and clinical information.

Keywords: checkpoint, cancer therapy, PD-1, PDL-1, CTLA4, immunosuppressive

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14 Empirical Examination of High Performance Work System, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizen Behavior: A Mediation of Model of Vietnam Organizations

Authors: Giang Vu, Duong Nguyen, Yuan-Ling Chen

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Vietnam is a fast developing country with highly economic growth, and Vietnam organizations strive to utilize high performance work system (HPWS) in reinforcing employee in-role performance. HPWS, a bundle of human resource (HR) practices, are composed of eight sets of HR practices, namely selective staffing, extensive training, internal mobility, employment security, clear job description, result-oriented appraisal, incentive reward, and participation. However, whether HPWS stimulate employee extra-role behaviors remains understudied in a booming economic context. In this study, we aim to investigate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a Vietnam context and, as a central issue, disentangle how HPWS elicits in employee OCB. On the other hand, recently, a deliberation of so-called 'black-box' HPWS issue has explored the role of employee commitment, suggesting that organizational commitment is a compelling source of employee OCB. We draw upon social exchange theory to predict that when employees perceive the organizational investment, like HPWS, in heightening their abilities, knowledge, and motivation, they are more likely to pay back with commitment; consequently, they will take initiatives in OCB. Hence, we hypothesize an individual level framework, in which organizational commitment mediates the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. We collected data on HPWS, organizational commitment, OCB, and demographic variables, all at line managers of Vietnamese firms in Hanoi and Hochiminh. We conclude with research findings, implications, and future research suggestions.

Keywords: high performance work system, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, Vietnam

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13 Psychiatric Risk Assessment in the Emergency Department: The Impact of NEAT on the Management of Mental Health Patients

Authors: Euan Donley

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Emergency Departments (EDs) are heavily burdened as presentation rates continue to rise. To improve patient flow National Emergency Access Targets (NEAT) were introduced. NEAT implements timelines for ED presentations, such as discharging patients within four hours of arrival. Mental health patients use EDs more than the general population and are generally more complex in their presentations. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of NEAT on psychiatric risk assessment of mental health patients in the ED. Seventy-eight mental health clinicians from 7 Victoria, Australia, hospital EDs participated in a mixed method analysis via anonymous online survey. NEAT was considered helpful as mental health patients were seen quicker, were less likely to abscond, could improve teamwork amongst ED staff, and in some cases administrative processes were better streamlined. However, clinicians felt that NEAT was also responsible for less time with patients and relatives’, resulted in rushed assessments, placed undue pressure on mental health clinicians, was not conducive to training, and the emphasis on time was the wrong focus for patient treatment. The profile of a patient typically likely to be treated within NEAT timelines showed a perfect storm of luck and compliance. If a patient was sober, medically stable, referred early, did not require much collateral information and did not have distressed relatives, NEAT was more likely to be met. Organisationally participants reported no organisational change or training to meet NEAT. Poor mental health staffing, multiple ED presentations and a shortage of mental health beds also hamper meeting NEAT. Findings suggest participants were supportive of NEAT in principle, but a demanding workload and organisational barriers meant NEAT had an overall negative effect on psychiatric risk assessment of mental health patients in ED.

Keywords: assessment, emergency, risk, psychiatric

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12 Reallocation of Bed Capacity in a Hospital Combining Discrete Event Simulation and Integer Linear Programming

Authors: Muhammed Ordu, Eren Demir, Chris Tofallis

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The number of inpatient admissions in the UK has been significantly increasing over the past decade. These increases cause bed occupancy rates to exceed the target level (85%) set by the Department of Health in England. Therefore, hospital service managers are struggling to better manage key resource such as beds. On the other hand, this severe demand pressure might lead to confusion in wards. For example, patients can be admitted to the ward of another inpatient specialty due to lack of resources (i.e., bed). This study aims to develop a simulation-optimization model to reallocate the available number of beds in a mid-sized hospital in the UK. A hospital simulation model was developed to capture the stochastic behaviours of the hospital by taking into account the accident and emergency department, all outpatient and inpatient services, and the interactions between each other. A couple of outputs of the simulation model (e.g., average length of stay and revenue) were generated as inputs to be used in the optimization model. An integer linear programming was developed under a number of constraints (financial, demand, target level of bed occupancy rate and staffing level) with the aims of maximizing number of admitted patients. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was carried out by taking into account unexpected increases on inpatient demand over the next 12 months. As a result, the major findings of the approach proposed in this study optimally reallocate the available number of beds for each inpatient speciality and reveal that 74 beds are idle. In addition, the findings of the study indicate that the hospital wards will be able to cope with 14% demand increase at most in the projected year. In conclusion, this paper sheds a new light on how best to reallocate beds in order to cope with current and future demand for healthcare services.

Keywords: bed occupancy rate, bed reallocation, discrete event simulation, inpatient admissions, integer linear programming, projected usage

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11 Financial Performance Model of Local Economic Enterprises in Matalam, Cotabato

Authors: Kristel Faye Tandog

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The State Owned Enterprise (SOE) or also called Public Enterprise (PE) has been playing a vital role in a country’s social and economic development. Following this idea, this study focused on the Factor Structures of Financial Performance of the Local Economic Enterprises (LEEs) namely: Food Court, Market, Slaughterhouse, and Terminal in Matalam, Cotabato. It aimed to determine the profile of the LEEs in terms of organizational structure, manner of creation, years in operation, source of initial operating requirements, annual operating budget, geographical location, and size or description of the facility. This study also included the different financial ratios of LEE that covered a five year period from Calendar Year 2009 to 2013. Primary data using survey questionnaire was administered to 468 respondents and secondary data were sourced out from the government archives and financial documents of the said LGU. There were 12 dominant factors identified namely: “management”, “enforcement of laws”, “strategic location”, “existence of non-formal competitors”, “proper maintenance”, “pricing”, “customer service”, “collection process”, “rentals and services”, “efficient use of resources”, “staffing”, and “timeliness and accuracy”. On the other hand, the financial performance of the LEE of Matalam, Cotabato using financial ratios needs reformatting. This denotes that refinement as to the following ratios: Cash Flow Indicator, Activity, Profitability and Growth is necessary. The cash flow indicator ratio showed difficulty in covering its debts in successive years. Likewise, the activity ratios showed that the LEE had not been effective in putting its investment at work. Moreover, profitability ratios revealed that it had operated in minimum capacity and had incurred net losses and thus, it had a weak profit performance. Furthermore, growth ratios showed that LEE had a declining growth trend particularly in net income.

Keywords: factor structures, financial performance, financial ratios, state owned enterprises

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10 Promoting Effective Institutional Governance in Cameroon Higher Education: A Governance Equalizer Perspective

Authors: Jean Patrick Mve

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The increasing quest for efficiency, accountability, and transparency has led to the implementation of massive governance reforms among higher education systems worldwide. This is causing many changes in the governance of higher education institutions. Governments over the world are trying to adopt business-like organizational strategies to enhance the performance of higher education institutions. This study explores the changes that have taken place in the Cameroonian higher education sector. It also attempts to draw a picture of the likely future of higher education governance and the actions to be taken for the promotion of institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions. The “governance equalizer” is used as an analytical tool to this end. It covers the five dimensions of the New Public Management (NPM), namely: state regulation, stakeholder guidance, academic self-governance, managerial self-governance, and competition. Qualitative data are used, including semi-structured interviews with key informants at the organizational level and other academic stakeholders, documents and archival data from the university and from the ministry of higher education. It has been found that state regulation among higher education institutions in Cameroon is excessively high, causing the institutional autonomy to be very low, especially at the level of financial management, staffing and promotion, and other internal administrative affairs; at the level of stakeholder guidance there is a higher degree of stakeholders consideration in the academic and research activities among universities, though the government’s interest to keep its hands in most management activities is still high; academic self-governance is also very weak as the assignment of academics is done more on the basis of political considerations than competence; there is no real managerial self-governance among higher education institutions due to the lack of institutional capacity and insufficient autonomy at the level of decision making; there is a plan to promote competition among universities but a real competitive environment is not yet put into place. The study concludes that the government’s policy should make state control more relaxed and concentrate on steering and supervision. As well, real institutional autonomy, professional competence building for top management and stakeholder participation should be considered to guarantee competition and institutional effectiveness.

Keywords: Cameroon higher education, effective institutional governance, governance equalizer, institutional autonomy, institutional effectiveness

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9 A Descriptive Study of the Characteristics of Introductory Accounting Courses Offered by Community Colleges

Authors: Jonathan Nash, Allen Hartt, Catherine Plante

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In many nations, community colleges, or similar institutions, play a crucial role in higher education. For example, in the United States more than half of all undergraduate students enroll in a community college at some point during their academic career. Similar statistics have been reported for Australia and Canada. Recognizing the important role these institutions play in educating future accountants, the American Accounting Association has called for research that contributes to a better understanding of these members of the academic community. Although previous literature has shown that community colleges and 4-year institutions differ on many levels, the extant literature has provided data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses for four-year institutions but not for community colleges. We fill a void in the literature by providing data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses offered by community colleges in the United States. Data are collected on several dimensions including: course size and staffing, pedagogical orientation, standardization of course elements, textbook selection, and use of technology-based course management tools. Many of these dimensions have been used in previous research examining four-year institutions thereby facilitating comparisons. The resulting data should be of interest to instructors, regulators and administrators, researchers, and the accounting profession. The data provide information on the introductory accounting courses completed by the average community college student which can help instructors identify areas where transfer students’ experiences might differ from their contemporaries at four-year colleges. Regulators and administrators may be interested in the differences between accounting courses offered by two- and four-year institutions when implementing standardized transfer programs. Researchers might use the data to motivate future research into whether differences between two- and four-year institutions affect outcomes like the probability of students choosing to major in accounting and their performance within the major. Accounting professionals may use our findings as a springboard for facilitating discussions related to the accounting labor supply.

Keywords: Accounting curricula, Community college, Descriptive study, Introductory accounting

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8 Managing Work–Family Conflict in Today's Nursing Profession: The Role of Supervisors

Authors: Alshutwi Sitah

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Many countries around the world are struggling to maintain an adequate number of nurses. Inadequate nursing staffing could compromise the quality of patient care. Among many factors that contribute to registered nurses (RN) turnover, the influence of work–family conflict (WFC) has gained little attention. WFC was found to be significantly associated with increased turnover intention (TI) among employees. Furthermore, WFC has been linked to a number of negative consequences, including lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sleep insufficiency, and high cholesterol. In an effort to find strategies to manage the consequences of WFC, many behavioral, psychological, and career scholars have focused on the role of supervisor support. Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) has been found to be a promising approach contributing to the reduction of TI in employees’ experiencing WFC. Despite the importance of work–family issues and the influence of FSSB, limited studies have been conducted among the nursing population and none were found that included a sample from Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the main Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of FSSB on the relationship among WFC, Stress, and TI in Saudi Arabian registered nurses. Method: A cross-sectional study. Sample: Convenience sampling; 113 Saudi female nurse. Result: Fifty percent of nurses intended to leave their workplace, 68 % of nurses reported having a conflict between work and family, and 44% reported having a high level of stress. A significant positive correlation was found between WFC and TI (r= .43, P < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between FSSB and TI (r= -.53, P < 0.01). Both WFC and stress were associated with TI; however, these associations were buffered (weaken), when nurses had higher FSSB. Conclusion: The FSSB could be seen as a tool to help married, female nurses to demonstrate their professional role without compromising their family responsibilities. Nurses’ turnover is a complex issue that may require multiple prevention strategies; however, enhancing FSSB could be a key resource for maintaining a positive workplace environment and reducing TI.

Keywords: turnover intention, work-family conflict, supervisor support, nursing retention

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7 Factors Determining the Vulnerability to Occupational Health Risk and Safety of Call Center Agents in the Philippines

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young-Woong Song

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The business process outsourcing (BPO) in the Philippines is expanding rapidly attracting more than 2% of total employment. Currently, the BPO industry is confronted with several issues pertaining to sustainable productivity such as meeting the staffing gap, high rate of employees’ turnover and workforce retention, and the occupational health and safety (OHS) of call center agents. We conducted a survey of OHS programs and health concerns among call center agents in the Philippines and determined the sociocultural factors that affect the vulnerability of call center agents to occupational health risks and hazards. The majority of the agents affirmed that OHS are implemented and OHS orientation and emergency procedures were conducted at employment initiations, perceived favorable and convenient working environment except for occasional noise disturbances and acoustic shock, visual, and voice fatigues. Male agents can easily adjust to the demands and changes in their work environment and flexible work schedules than female agents. Female agents have a higher tendency to be pressured and humiliated by low work performance, experience a higher incidence of emotional abuse, psychological abuse, and experience more physical stress than male agents. The majority of the call center agents had a night-shift schedule and regardless of other factors, night shift work brings higher stress to agents. While working in a call center, higher incidence of headaches and insomnia, burnout, suppressed anger, anxiety, and depressions were experienced by female, younger (21-25 years old) and those at night shift than their counterpart. Most common musculoskeletal disorders include body pain in the neck, shoulders and back; and hand and wrist disorders and these are commonly experienced by female and younger workers. About 30% experienced symptoms of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders and weakened immune systems. Overall, these findings have shown the variable vulnerability by a different subpopulation of call center agents and are important in the occupational health risk prevention and management towards a sustainable human resource for BPO industry in the Philippines.

Keywords: business process outsourcing industry, health risk of call center agents, socio-cultural determinants, Philippines

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6 Changing Employment Relations Practices in Hong Kong: Cases of Two Multinational Retail Banks since 1997

Authors: Teresa Shuk-Ching Poon

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This paper sets out to examine the changing employment relations practices in Hong Kong’s retail banking sector over a period of more than 10 years. The major objective of the research is to examine whether and to what extent local institutional influences have overshadowed global market forces in shaping strategic management decisions and employment relations practices in Hong Kong, with a view to drawing implications to comparative employment relations studies. Examining the changing pattern of employment relations, this paper finds the industrial relations strategic choice model (Kochan, McKersie and Cappelli, 1984) appropriate to use as a framework for the study. Four broad aspects of employment relations are examined, including work organisation and job design; staffing and labour adjustment; performance appraisal, compensation and employee development; and labour unions and employment relations. Changes in the employment relations practices in two multinational retail banks operated in Hong Kong are examined in detail. The retail banking sector in Hong Kong is chosen as a case to examine as it is a highly competitive segment in the financial service industry very much susceptible to global market influences. This is well illustrated by the fact that Hong Kong was hit hard by both the Asian and the Global Financial Crises. This sector is also subject to increasing institutional influences, especially after the return of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since 1997. The case study method is used as it is a suitable research design able to capture the complex institutional and environmental context which is the subject-matter to be examined in the paper. The paper concludes that operation of the retail banks in Hong Kong has been subject to both institutional and global market changes at different points in time. Information obtained from the two cases examined tends to support the conclusion that the relative significance of institutional as against global market factors in influencing retail banks’ operation and their employment relations practices is depended very much on the time in which these influences emerged and the scale and intensity of these influences. This case study highlights the importance of placing comparative employment relations studies within a context where employment relations practices in different countries or different regions/cities within the same country could be examined and compared over a longer period of time to make the comparison more meaningful.

Keywords: employment relations, institutional influences, global market forces, strategic management decisions, retail banks, Hong Kong

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