Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: coronavirus

112 The Effect of Coronavirus on Social Adjustment and Depression of Arak University Students

Authors: Mansour Abdi


The aim of this study has been the investigation of coronavirus influence/impact on social adjustment and depression of Arak University students. The samples of study are 100 available female students at Arak University. They were assessed by the Bell Social Adjustment Questionnaire and Beck Depression. They were asked to answer two situations before the corona outbreak and the present. The result of evaluating/assessing the difference between social adjustment before and after coronavirus was not significant but, the averages indicate a decrease in the adjustment of students before and after the coronavirus. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in depression findings but, in the present, the average amount of depression indicated an increase than its amount before the corona.

Keywords: depression, social adjustment student, coronavirus, student

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111 Coronavirus Anxiety and Job Burnout of Polish Front-Line Health-Care Workers. Mediation Effect of Insomnia

Authors: Lukasz Baka


Objective. The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion from the perspective of Hobfol Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. According to COR theory, critical events (e.g. the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleep troubles, which over time, results in an increase in exhaustion. Materials and Methods: Data were collected among 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance, and wardens. Three measurements were used: Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ, sleep trouble subscale) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI, exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested by the use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleep problems depleted healthcare providers’ resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients, therefore researches into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety are needed.

Keywords: coronavirus anxiety, front-line healt-care workers, insomnia, job burnout

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110 An Analysis of Iranian Social Media Users’ Perceptions of Published Images of Coronavirus Deaths

Authors: Ali Gheshmi


The highest rate of death, after World War II, is due to the Coronavirus epidemic and more than 2 million people have died since the epidemic outbreak in December 2019, so the word “death” is one of the highest frequency words in social media; moreover, the use of social media has grown due to quarantine and successive restrictions and lockdowns. The most important aspects of the approach used by this study include the analysis of Iranian social media users’ reactions to the images of those who died due to Coronavirus, investigating if seeing such images via social media is effective on the users’ perception of the closeness of death, and evaluating the extent to which the fear of Coronavirus death is instrumental in persuading users to observe health protocols or causing mental problems in social media users. Since the goal of this study is to discover how social media users perceive and react to the images of people who died of Coronavirus, the cultural studies approach is used Receipt analysis method and in-depth interviews will be used for collecting data from Iranian users; also, snowball sampling is used in this study. The probable results would show that cyberspace users experience the closeness of “death” more than any time else and to cope with these annoying images, avoid viewing them or if they view, it will lead them to suffer from mental problems.

Keywords: death, receipt analysis method, mental health, social media, Covid-19

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109 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci


The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: cryptosporidium sp., bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve, ELISA

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108 Infodemic and Misinformation in the Era of Coronavirus: An Analysis of Selected Rhetoric from Africa

Authors: Kunle Oparinde


The Covid-19 pandemic has seen several rumors and conspiracy theories overtake the truth in many online platforms across several African countries. Just as the coronavirus has travelled widely, misinformation has equally spread. Thus, it is important to launch investigations into these conspiracy theories in order to detect them early and as a result, implore health practitioners and agencies to be more proactive in repelling misinformation while at the same time provide the general populace with purely undiluted information regarding the virus. Through social media posts on platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp, as well as online platforms such as Google, this study intends to draw as many instances as possible of infodemic and misinformation by reviewing and analyzing these texts and the resulting implication if the misinformation continues to gain popularity. The study discovers the use of conspiracy theories, rumors, hyperbolism, and unverified claims as elements of infodemic used during the coronavirus pandemic. Importantly, the findings of the study will assist the public to be cautious and vigilant against false information that are being peddled as original.

Keywords: infodemic, miscommunication, accuracy, social media, rumors, conspiracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
107 Applications for Tracking Close Contact with COVID-19 Patients in Malaysia

Authors: Bih Ni Lee


This paper discusses the unending coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. The activity of detecting, testing those with symptoms, and isolating their contacts is the most effective method of stopping the chain of coronavirus infection. The number of cases of coronavirus continues to increase with some reporting a cure, but not a few die. Efforts to treat and prevent continue to fight COVID-19 with flu-like symptoms. The importance of the study is to identify smartphone applications that can track the movement of individuals in an effort to curb the spread of COVID-19, especially in Malaysia. This research method used a literature review, which included new insights into the quality of action and scientific papers. It synthesized information gleaned from a variety of sources. The findings of the study are that the Government of Malaysia has launched three main applications to track the movement of individuals, namely Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera. Similarly, every state in Malaysia has its own state government application to track individual movements. Overall, Malaysia is one of the countries in the world that has successfully curbed the spread of COVID-19; Covid-19 cases in Malaysia are under control.

Keywords: COVID-19 app, national security council, Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera

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106 A Political-Economic Analysis of Next Generation EU Recovery Fund

Authors: Fernando Martín-Espejo, Christophe Crombez


This paper presents a political-economic analysis of the reforms introduced during the coronavirus crisis at the EU level with a special emphasis on the recovery fund Next Generation EU (NGEU). It also introduces a spatial model to evaluate whether the governmental features of the recovery fund can be framed inside the community method. Particularly, by evaluating the brake clause in the NGEU legislation, this paper analyses theoretically the political and legislative implications of the introduction of flexibility clauses in the EU decision-making process.

Keywords: EU, legislative procedures, spatial model, coronavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
105 Adapting Strategies of Subaltern Counterpublics under Coronavirus-Related Restrictions

Authors: Alisa Sheppental


The focus of this paper is the impact of coronavirus-related restrictions on the legitimacy and efficacy of subaltern counter publics and political resistance. Both difficulties and alterations of strategies needed to be considered by modern political movements within the counter-public sphere will be illustrated based on recent examples of protests in Hong Kong, Thailand, Belarus, Poland, and France. The dynamics of the modern globalized world have previously required a high level of adaptability, which resulted in a number of new features of modern political resistance in contrast with previous decades, including digitalization of protests and higher involvement of previously fewer active citizens (women, elderly, people with disabilities, etc.) However, a global pandemic situation, along with massive restrictions of daily lives, provide new input for both theoretical and empirical analysis. The following paper represents an attempt to summarize coping and adapting strategies of subaltern counter publics and activist groups under coronavirus-related restrictions.

Keywords: citizenship, political activism, subaltern counterpublics, discourse ethics

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104 The Impact of the Corona Virus Outbreak Crisis on Startups

Authors: Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Sara Miri


Due to the recent events surrounding the global health crisis and the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19), the activities of many businesses and start-up companies have been disrupted. It solves many economic problems and can reduce unemployment in countries because governments can take advantage of their potential without direct investment. However, with the help of their innovative ideas and new technologies, these companies can develop and grow the economy. But it is essential to consider that there will be no guarantee of their success in the event of unforeseen events, as the coronavirus outbreak in the last two years has seriously damaged these companies and, like other businesses, challenges and stagnation have started. The startup companies' challenge in the face of coronavirus begins with its impact on customers. Changing customer behavior can affect their products and distribution channels. On the other hand, to prevent countless losses in this crisis, startup companies require creative solutions to address challenges in various areas of human capital, supply chain management, sales and marketing, and so on. Therefore, all business leaders must consider and plan for the current crisis and the future; after overcoming these conditions and returning to regular business routines, it will no longer be an option, and new situations will prevail in a competitive environment. The essential strategies for developing and growing startups during the Coronavirus outbreak can be connecting with the global startup ecosystem, hosting webinars, providing podcasts and free question and answer sessions, mentoring services to growing teams, and consulting pointed out this to firms for digitalization.

Keywords: business, COVID-19, digitalization, startups

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
103 COVID-19 Case: A Definition of Infodemia through Online Italian Journalism

Authors: Concetta Papapicco


The spreading of new Coronavirus (COVID-19) in addition to becoming a global phenomenon, following the declaration of a pandemic state, has generated excessive access to information, sometimes not thoroughly screened, which makes it difficult to navigate a given topic because of the difficulty of finding reliable sources. As a result, there is a high level of contagion, understood as the spread of the virus, but also as the spread of information in a viral and harmful way, which prompted the World Health Organization to coin the term Infodemia to give 'a name' the phenomenon of excessive information. With neologism 'Infodemia', the World Health Organization (OMS) wanted, in these days when fear of the coronavirus is raging, point out that perhaps the greatest danger of global society in the age of social media. This phenomenon is the distortion of reality in the rumble of echoes and comments of the global community on real or often invented facts. The general purpose of the exploratory study is to investigate how the coronavirus situation is described from journalistic communication. Starting from La Repubblica online, as a reference journalistic magazine, as a specific objective, the research aims to understand the way in which journalistic communication describes the phenomenon of the COVID-19 virus spread, the spread of contagion and restrictive measures of social distancing in the Italian context. The study starts from the hypothesis that if the circulation of information helps to create a social representation of the phenomenon, the excessive accessibility to sources of information (Infodemia) can be modulated by the 'how' the phenomenon is described by the journalists. The methodology proposed, in fact, in the exploratory study is a quanti-qualitative (mixed) method. A Content Analysis with the SketchEngine software is carried out first. In support of the Content Analysis, a Diatextual Analysis was carried out. The Diatextual Analysis is a qualitative analysis useful to detect in the analyzed texts, that is the online articles of La Repubblica on the topic of coronavirus, Subjectivity, Argomentativity, and Mode. The research focuses mainly on 'Mode' or 'How' are the events related to coronavirus in the online articles of La Repubblica about COVID-19 phenomenon. The results show the presence of the contrast vision about COVID-19 situation in Italy.

Keywords: coronavirus, Italian infodemia, La Republica online, mix method

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102 Effect of Positive Psychology (PP) Interventions on College Students’ Well-Being, Career Stress and Coronavirus Anxiety

Authors: Erva Kaygun


The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of positive psychology interventions on college students' positive-negative emotions, coronavirus anxiety, and career stress. 4 groups of college students are compared in terms of the level of exposure to PP constructs ( Non-Psychology, Psychology, Positive Psychology Course, and Positive Psychology Boot Camp). In this research, Pearson Correlation, independent t-tests, ANOVA, and Post-Hoc tests are conducted. Without being significant, the groups exposed to PP constructs showed higher positive emotions and total PERMA scores, whereas negative emotions, career stress, and coronavirus stress remained similar. It is crucial to indicate that career stress is higher among all psychology students when compared to non-psychology students. The results showed that the highest exposure group (PP Boot Camp) showed no difference in negative emotions, whereas higher PERMA scores and positive emotion scores were on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale.

Keywords: positive psychology, college students, well being, anxiety

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101 Evaluation of Orthodontic Patients’ Dental Visits and Problems During Covid-19 Pandemic in Sari Dental School in 2021

Authors: Mobina Bagherianlemraski, Parastoo Namdar


Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease has affected most countries. This virus has high transmission power. Due to the closure of most dental clinics, millions of orthodontic patients missed their appointments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and sent to patients receiving orthodontic treatment at a public or private clinic. Results: A total of 200 responses were analyzed: These included 153 women (76.5%) and 47 men (23.5%). The mean and standard deviation of their age was 18.92±7.23 years, with an age range of 8 to 40 years. One hundred eighty-nine patients (94.5%) had fixed appliances, and 11 patients (5.5%) had removable appliances. Of all participants, 35% (70) missed their appointments. The highest and lowest reasons for stopping appointments were concerned about the spread of COVID-19 with 28 cases (40%) and the closure of the clinic with 15 cases (21.4%). Of the 53 patients who contacted their orthodontists, 86.8 % (46) communicated via office phone and 5.7% (3) through social media. Conclusion: This study determined that the coronavirus pandemic and quarantine have had an important impact on orthodontic treatments. The greatest concern of orthodontic patients was increasing in treatment duration. Patients who used fixed appliances reported missing dental appointments more than others. Therefore, during COVID 19 Pandemic, orthodontists should prepare patients to solve their problems linked to orthodontic appliances when possible.

Keywords: orthodontic patients, coronavirus pandemic, appointments, COVID-19

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100 RNA-Seq Analysis of Coronaviridae Family and SARS-Cov-2 Prediction Using Proposed ANN

Authors: Busra Mutlu Ipek, Merve Mutlu, Ahmet Mutlu


Novel coronavirus COVID-19, which has recently influenced the world, poses a great threat to humanity. In order to overcome this challenging situation, scientists are working on developing effective vaccine against coronavirus. Many experts and researchers have also produced articles and done studies on this highly important subject. In this direction, this special topic was chosen for article to make a contribution to this area. The purpose of this article is to perform RNA sequence analysis of selected virus forms in the Coronaviridae family and predict/classify SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) from other selected complete genomes in coronaviridae family using proposed Artificial Neural Network(ANN) algorithm.

Keywords: Coronaviridae family, COVID-19, RNA sequencing, ANN, neural network

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99 Analysis and Prediction of COVID-19 by Using Recurrent LSTM Neural Network Model in Machine Learning

Authors: Grienggrai Rajchakit


As we all know that coronavirus is announced as a pandemic in the world by WHO. It is speeded all over the world with few days of time. To control this spreading, every citizen maintains social distance and self-preventive measures are the best strategies. As of now, many researchers and scientists are continuing their research in finding out the exact vaccine. The machine learning model finds that the coronavirus disease behaves in an exponential manner. To abolish the consequence of this pandemic, an efficient step should be taken to analyze this disease. In this paper, a recurrent neural network model is chosen to predict the number of active cases in a particular state. To make this prediction of active cases, we need a database. The database of COVID-19 is downloaded from the KAGGLE website and is analyzed by applying a recurrent LSTM neural network with univariant features to predict the number of active cases of patients suffering from the corona virus. The downloaded database is divided into training and testing the chosen neural network model. The model is trained with the training data set and tested with a testing dataset to predict the number of active cases in a particular state; here, we have concentrated on Andhra Pradesh state.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, KAGGLE, LSTM neural network, machine learning

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98 Face Shield Design with Additive Manufacturing Practice Combating COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: May M. Youssef


This article introduces a design, for additive manufacturing technology, face shield as Personal Protective Equipment from the respiratory viruses such as coronavirus 2. The face shields help to reduce ocular exposure and play a vital role in diverting away from the respiratory COVID-19 air droplets around the users' face. The proposed face shield comprises three assembled polymer parts. The frame with a transparency overhead projector sheet visor is suitable for frontline health care workers and ordinary citizens. The frame design allows tightening the shield around the user’s head and permits rubber elastic straps to be used if required. That ergonomically designed with a unique face mask support used in case of wearing extra protective mask was created using computer aided design (CAD) software package. The finite element analysis (FEA) structural verification of the proposed design is performed by an advanced simulation technique. Subsequently, the prototype model was fabricated by a 3D printing using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) as a globally developed face shield product. This study provides a different face shield designs for global production, which showed to be suitable and effective toward supply chain shortages and frequent needs of personal protective goods during coronavirus disease and similar viruses.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Coronavirus-19, face shield, personal protective equipment, 3D printing

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97 How Pandemic Changed the Protective Aids for People in Day to Day Life

Authors: Jinali Chaklasiya


The importance of face masks, gloves, sanitizer, face shield Were only Applied for Doctor Amenities, and because of the outbreak of coronavirus, everybody has to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for health measures. . The main focus of this research paper is in the area of how doctor amenities changed the importance of gloves, face masks, sanitizer, face shield in day to day life of people. For this research, we have collected data from a quantitative survey. A questionnaire survey was conducted to note down the user point of view in doctor amenities and why is it important. The result of the questionnaire survey has helped to design parameters which were used to ideate new protective products. Thus, it is concluded to keep in mind that these protective devices can be used in day-to-day life by people across the globe. In the coming future, the protective device can make a difference and protect us from other common viruses.

Keywords: equpiment, coronavirus, products, protective, environment

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96 Comprehensive Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in "COVID-19"

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurrence has carried considerabletrials to the world health system, comprising the training of dental and maxillofacial radiology (DMFR). DMFR will keep avital role in healthcare throughout this disaster. Severe acute breathing disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus producing the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is not only extremely contagious but can make solemn consequences in susceptible persons comprising dental patients and dental health care personnel (DHCPs). Reactions to COVID-19 have been available by the Cores for Infection Switch and Inhibition and the American Dental Association, but a more detailed answer is necessary for the harmless preparation of oral and maxillofacial radiology. Our goal is to evaluation the existing information just how the illness threatens patients and DHCPs and how to define which patients are possible to be SARS-CoV-2 infected; study how the usage of private shielding utensils and contamination control measures based on recent top observes, and knowledge can decrease the danger of virus spread in radiologic trials; and scrutinize how intraoral radiography, with its actually superior danger of scattering the infection, might be changed by extraoralradiographic methods for definite diagnostic jobs. In the pandemic, teleradiology has been extensively recycled for diagnostic determinations of COVID-19 patients, for discussions with radiologists in crisis cases, or managing of distance among radiology clinics. Dentists can have the digital radiographic images of their emergency patients through online service area also by electronic message or messaging applications to view in their smart phones, laptops, or other electronic devices.

Keywords: radiology, dental, oral, COVID-19, infection

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95 Coronavirus Academic Paper Sorting Application

Authors: Christina A. van Hal, Xiaoqian Jiang, Luyao Chen, Yan Chu, Robert D. Jolly, Yaobin Lin, Jitian Zhao, Kang Lin Hsieh


The COVID-19 Literature Summary App was created for the primary purpose of enabling academicians and clinicians to quickly sort through the vast array of recent coronavirus publications by topics of interest. Multiple methods of summarizing and sorting the manuscripts were created. A summary page introduces the application function and capabilities, while an interactive map provides daily updates on infection, death, and recovery rates. A page with a pivot table allows publication sorting by topic, with an interactive data table that allows sorting topics by columns, as wells as the capability to view abstracts. Additionally, publications may be sorted by the medical topics they cover. We used the CORD-19 database to compile lists of publications. The data table can sort binary variables, allowing the user to pick desired publication topics, such as papers that describe COVID-19 symptoms. The application is primarily designed for use by researchers but can be used by anybody who wants a faster and more efficient means of locating papers of interest.

Keywords: COVID-19, literature summary, information retrieval, Snorkel

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94 Conspiracy Theory in Discussions of the Coronavirus Pandemic in the Gulf Region

Authors: Rasha Salameh


In light of the tense relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran, this research paper sheds some light on Al-Arabiya’s reporting of Coronavirus in the Gulf. Particularly because most of the cases, in the beginning, were coming from Iran, some programs of this Saudi channel embraced a conspiracy theory. Hate speech has been used in talking about the topic and discussing it. The results of these discussions will be detailed in this paper in percentages with regard to the research sample, which includes five programs on Al-Arabiya channel: ‘DNA’, ‘Marraya’ (Mirrors), ‘Panorama’, ‘Tafaolcom’ (Your Interaction) and the ‘Diplomatic Street’, in the period between January 19, that is, the date of the first case in Iran, and April 10, 2020. The research shows the use of a conspiracy theory in the programs, in addition to some professional violations. The surveyed sample also shows that the matter receded due to the Arab Gulf states' preoccupation with the successively increasing cases that have appeared there since the start of the pandemic. The results indicate that hate speech was present in the sample at a rate of 98.1% and that most of the programs that dealt with the Iranian issue under the Corona pandemic on Al Arabiya used the conspiracy theory at a rate of 75.5%.

Keywords: Al-Arabiya, Iran, Corona, hate speech, conspiracy theory, politicization of the pandemic

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93 High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Features during Pandemic 'COVID-19'

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


By the development of new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been one of the main investigative implements. To realize timely and truthful diagnostics, defining the radiological features of the infection is of excessive value. The purpose of this impression was to consider the imaging demonstrations of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to run an imaging base for a primary finding of supposed cases and stratified interference. The right prophetic rate of HRCT was 85%, sensitivity was 73% for all patients. Total accuracy was 68%. There was no important change in these values for symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. These consequences were besides free of the period of X-ray from the beginning of signs or interaction. Therefore, we suggest that HRCT is a brilliant attachment for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in adding to the role of predictive gauge for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients experienced non-contrast HRCT chest checkups and images were restored in a thin 1.25 mm lung window. Images were estimated for the existence of lung scratches & a CT severity notch was allocated separately for each patient based on the number of lung lobes convoluted.

Keywords: COVID-19, radiology, respiratory diseases, HRCT

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92 Fear of Covid-19 a Major Contributing Factor to Insomnia in General Iranian Population

Authors: Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Samaneh Akbarour, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Farnaz Etesam, Arezu Najafi, Mahnaz Khalafehnilsaz


Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease has considerably burdened the healthcare system in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of insomnia experienced by the general Iranian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A scale(FCV-19) was used for Fear of COVID-19, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 (GAD-2) for detailed characterization of insomnia and its patterns Results: In total, 675 people with insomnia with the mean age of 40.28 years (SD=11.15) participated in this study. Prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) were 91.4%, 86.7%, and 77%, respectively. DIS, DMS, and EMA were more common in people with depression and anxiety. FCV-19 score was higher in those with more severe types of DIS, DMS, and EMA (P<0.001). FCV-19 was a risk factor for all patterns of insomnia (OR=1.19, 1.12, 1.02 for DIS, DMS, and EMA, respectively). Conclusion: fear of COVID-19 is a major factor to insomnia patterns. Investigation of COVID-19 fear in people with insomnia and the addition of attributed relieving or management strategies to conventional management of insomnia are reasonable approaches to improve the sleep condition of people in the pandemic.

Keywords: insomnia, difficulty maintaining sleep, COVID-19, Coronavirus

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91 COVID-19-Related Posttraumatic Distress Syndrome among Jordanian Nurses during the Pandemic

Authors: Mohammed Qutishat, Loai Abu Sharour, Kholoud Al-Damery, Ibtisam Al Harthy, Sulaiman Al-Sabei


Background: The 2019 coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic and has greatly affected both patients and healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experiences among nurses as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan. Method: This study used a cross-sectional study design with a convenience sampling approach. A sample of 259 participants completed the study questionnaires, including a sociodemographic questionnaire and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM‐5, between May and July 2020. Result: The prevalence of PTSD among the study participants was 37.1%. The majority of study participants who exhibited PTSD symptoms presented the lowest level of PTSD (17%). The results indicated significant differences in overall COVID-19-related PTSD according to the participant’s age (F = 14.750, P = .000), gender (F = 30.340, P = .000), level of education (F = 51.983, P =.000), years of experience (F = 52.33, P = .000), place of work (F = 19.593, P = .000), and working position (F = 11.597, P = .000), as determined by one-way ANOVA. Conclusion: Nurses must be qualified and accredited to cope with reported PTSD cases and their consequences in relation to COVID-19 outbreaks. Close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team is required to recognise, manage, and encourage safety literacy among health care professionals and individuals diagnosed with or suspected of PTSD due to COVID-19 outbreaks or any other viral outbreaks.

Keywords: PTSD, nursing, coronavirus, pandemic, infectious disease

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90 The Impact of COVID-19 on Italian Tourism: the Current Scenario, Opportunity and Future Tourism Organizational Strategies

Authors: Marco Camilli


This article examines the impact of the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the tourism sector in Italy, analyzing the current scenario, the government decisions and the private company reaction for the summer season 2020. The framework of the data analyzed shows how massive it’s the impact of the pandemic outbreak in the tourism revenue, and the weaknesses of the measures proposed. Keywords Travel &Tourism, Transportation, Sustainability, COVID-19, Businesses Introduction The current COVID-19 scenario shows a shocking situation for the tourism and transportation sectors: it could be the most affected by the Coronavirus in Italy. According to forecasts, depending on the duration of the epidemic outbreak and the lockdown strategy applied by the Government, businesses in the supply chain could lose between 24 and 66 billion in turnover in the period of 2020-21, with huge diversified impacts at the national and regional level. Many tourist companies are on the verge of survival and if there are no massive measures by the government they risk closure. Data analysis The tourism and transport sector could be among the sectors most damaged by Covid-19 in Italy. Considering the two-year period 2020-21, companies operating in the travel & tourism sector (Tour operator, Travel Agencies, Hotel, Guides, Bus Company, etc..) could in suffer losses in revenues of 24 to 64 billion euros, especially in the sectors such as the travel agencies, hotel and rental. According to Statista Research Department, from April 2020 estimated that the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic will have a significant impact on revenues of the tourism industry in Italy. Revenues are expected to decrease by over 40 billion euros in the first semester of 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year. According to the study, hotel and non-hotel accommodations will experience the highest loss. Revenues of this sector are expected to decrease by 13 billion euros compared to the first semester of 2019 when accommodations registered revenues for about 17 billion euros. According to, in 2020, Italy is expected to register a decrease of roughly 28.5 million tourist arrivals due to the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the country's tourist sector. According to the estimate, the region of Veneto will record the highest drop with a decrease of roughly 4.61 million arrivals. Similarly, Lombardy is expected to register a decrease of about 3.87 million arrivals in 2020.

Keywords: travel and tourism, sustainability, COVID-19, businesses, transportation

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89 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad


The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

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88 An Examination of Crisis Communication in Sport: Lessons from Sport Organizations Responding to Coronavirus Disease Outbreak

Authors: Geumchan Hwang


Professional sport leagues in Europe and North America are shut down due to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Football leagues in Europe (e.g., La Liga, English Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1) and big four professional sport leagues in North America (e.g., National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and National Hockey League) are indefinitely suspended or delayed. COVID-19 outbreak has a growing negative impact on economics of sport leagues. For example, loss of revenue in Europe’s top five leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated at € 4 billion and loss of revenue in the NBA was estimated at $650 million as of March 2020. In the unprecedented difficult situation, sport teams and leagues try to communicate with sport fans through diverse media platforms. In sport, however, very few studies have been done regarding how sport organizations effectively communicate with sport fans during pandemics, such as COVID-19 outbreak. Understanding sport organizations’ crisis communication is important to develop effective crisis management strategies for sport organizations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine how sport organizations communicate with sport fans via online platforms in COVID-19 outbreak and how sport fans evaluate their communication strategies. 9 official sport league sites (i.e., five major football leagues in Europe and four major sport leagues in North America) and COVID-19 news articles published between January and June in 2020 will be analyzed in terms of coronavirus information, teams and players’ live update, fan interaction, fan support, and community engagement. In addition, comments posted on social media sites (i.e., Facebook and Twitter) of major sport leagues will be also analyzed to examine how sport fans perceive online messages provided by sport leagues as an effective communication strategy. To measure the effectiveness of crisis communication performance, five components (i.e., prompt, compassionate, honest, informative, and interactive) of crisis communication will be collected from leagues’ official websites information and social media posts. Upon completing data collection, content analysis method will be used to evaluate effectiveness of crisis communication among 9 professional sport leagues. The results of the study will provide athletic directors, administrators, and public relations managers in sport organizations with practical information regarding how athlete celebrities and sport organizations should interact with their fans in pandemic situations. In particular, this study will contribute to developing specific crisis management plan for sport organizations. For instance, football teams and leagues in Europe will be able to create standard manuals to minimize damages caused by disease outbreak, such as COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, communication, sport leagues, fans

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87 Seroprevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) Infection among Healthy and High Risk Individuals in Qatar

Authors: Raham El-Kahlout, Hadi Yassin, Asmaa Athani, Marwan Abou Madi, Gheyath Nasrallah


Background: Since its first isolation in September 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has diffused across 27 countries infecting more than two thousand individuals with a high case fatality rate. MERS-CoV–specific antibodies are widely found in Dromedary camel along with viral shedding of similar viruses detected in human at same region, suggesting that MERS epidemiology may be central role by camel. Interestingly, MERS-CoV has also been also reported to be asymptomatic or to cause influenza-like mild illnesses. Therefore, in a country like Qatar (bordered Saudi Arabia), where camels are widely spread, serological surveys are important to explore the role of camels in MERS-CoV transmission. However, widespread strategic serological surveillances of MERS-CoV among populations, particularly in endemic country, are infrequent. In the absence of clear epidemiological view, cross-sectional MERS antibody surveillances in human populations are of global concern. Method: We performed a comparative serological screening of 4719 healthy blood donors, 135 baseline case contacts (high risk individual), and four MERS confirmed patients (by PCR) for the presence of anti-MERS IgG. Initially, samples were screened using Euroimmune anti- MERS-CoV IgG ELISA kit, the only commercial kit available in the market and recommended by the CDC as a screening kit. To confirm ELISA test results, farther serological testing was performed for all borderline and positive samples using two assays; the anti MERS-CoV IgG and IgM Euroimmune indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT) and pseudoviral particle neutralizing assay (PPNA). Additionally, to test cross reactivity of anti-MERS-CoV antibody with other family members of coronavirus, borderline and positive samples were tested for the presence of the of IgG antibody of the following viruses; SARS, HCoV-229E, HKU1 using the Euroimmune IIFT for SARS and HCoV-229E and ELISA for HKU1. Results: In all of 4858 screened 15 samples [10 donors (0.21%, 10/4719), 1 case contact (0.77 %, 1/130), 3 patients (75%, 3/4)] anti-MERS IgG reactive/borderline samples were seen in ELISA. However, only 7 (0.14%) of them gave positive with in IIFT and only 3 (0.06%) was confirmed by the specific anti-MERS PPNA. One of the interesting findings was, a donor, who was selected in the control group as a negative anti-MERS IgG ELISA, yield reactive for anti-MERS IgM IIFT and was confirmed with the PPNA. Further, our preliminary results showed that there was a strong cross reactivity between anti- MERS-COV IgG with both HCoV-229E or anti-HKU1 IgG, yet, no cross reactivity of SARS were found. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MERS-CoV is not heavily circulated among the population of Qatar and this is also indicated by low number of confirmed cases (only 18) since 2012. Additionally, the presence of antibody of other pathogenic human coronavirus may cause false positive results of both ELISA and IIFT, which stress the need for more evaluation studies for the available serological assays. Conclusion: this study provides an insight about the epidemiological view for MERS-CoV in Qatar population. It also provides a performance evaluation for the available serologic tests for MERS-CoV in a view of serologic status to other human coronaviruses.

Keywords: seroprevalence, MERS-CoV, healthy individuals, Qatar

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86 Qualitative Study of Organizational Variables Affecting Nurses’ Resilience in Pandemic Condition

Authors: Zahra Soltani Shal


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic marks an extraordinary global public health crisis unseen in the last century, with its rapid spread worldwide and associated mortality burden. Healthcare resilience during a pandemic is crucial not only for continuous and safe patients care but also for control of any outbreak. Aim: The present study was conducted to discover the organizational variables effective in increasing resilience and continuing the work of nurses in critical and stressful pandemic conditions. Method: The study population is nurses working in hospitals for patients with coronavirus. Sampling was done purposefully and information was collected from 15 nurses through In-depth semi-structured interviews. The interview was conducted to analyze the data using the framework analysis method consisting of five steps and is classified in the table. Results: According to the findings through semi-structural interviews, among organizational variables, organizational commitment (Affective commitment, continuous commitment, normative commitment) has played a prominent role in nurses' resilience. Discussion: despite the non-withdrawal of nurses and their resilience, due to the negative quality of their working life, the mentioned variable has affected their level of performance and ability and leads to fatigue and physical and mental exhaustion. Implications for practice: By equipping hospitals and improving the facilities of nurses, their organizational commitment can be increased and lead to their resilience in critical situations. Supervisors and senior officials at the hospitals should be responsible for nurses' health and safety. A clear and codified program in critical situations and comprehensive management is effective in improving the quality of the work-life of nurses. Creating an empathetic and interactive environment can help promote nurses' mental health.

Keywords: organizational commitment, quality of work life, nurses resilience, pandemic, coronavirus

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85 Qualitative Study of Organizational Variables Affecting Nurses’ Resilience in Pandemic Conditions

Authors: Zahra Soltani Shal


The COVID-19 pandemic marks an extraordinary global public health crisis unseen in the last century, with its rapid spread worldwide and associated mortality burden. Healthcare resilience during a pandemic is crucial not only for continuous and safe patients care but also for control of any outbreak. Aim: The present study was conducted to discover the organizational variables effective in increasing resilience and continuing the work of nurses in critical and stressful pandemic conditions. Method: The study population is nurses working in hospitals for patients with coronavirus. Sampling was done purposefully and information was collected from 15 nurses through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted to analyze the data using the framework analysis method consisting of five steps and is classified in the table. Results: According to the findings through semi-structural interviews, among organizational variables, organizational commitment (affective commitment, continuous commitment, normative commitment) has played a prominent role in nurses' resilience. Discussion: Despite the non-withdrawal of nurses and their resilience, due to the negative quality of their working life, the mentioned variable has affected their level of performance and ability and leads to fatigue and physical and mental exhaustion. Implications for practice: By equipping hospitals and improving the facilities of nurses, their organizational commitment can be increased and lead to their resilience in critical situations. Supervisors and senior officials at the hospitals should be responsible for nurses' health and safety. Given the stressful nature of working in hospitals, having accurate and purposeful planning for critical situations can help maintain nurses' mental and physical health. Since nurses are exposed to significant injuries, the necessary measures to promote their mental health should be considered.

Keywords: organizational commitment, quality of work life, nurses' resilience, pandemic, coronavirus, COVID-19

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84 Yellow Necklacepod and Shih-Balady: Possible Promising Sources Against Human Coronaviruses

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Omnia Kutkat, Yassmin Moatasim, Magda T. Ibrahim, Marwa A. Mostafa, Mohamed GabAllah, Mounir M. El-Safty


Artemisia judaica (known shih-balady), Azadirachta indica and Sophora tomentosa (known yellow necklace pod) are members of available medicinal plants well-known for their traditional medical use in Egypt which suggests that they probably harbor broad-spectrum antiviral, immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Their ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) extracts were evaluated for the potential anti-Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (anti-MERS-CoV) activity. Their cytotoxic activity was tested in Vero-E6 cells using 3-(4,-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method with minor modification. The plot of percentage cytotoxicity for each extract concentration has calculated the concentration which exhibited 50% cytotoxic concentration (TC50). A plaque reduction assay was employed using safe dose of extract to evaluate its effect on virus propagation. The highest inhibition percentage was recorded for the yellow necklace pod, followed by Shih-balady. The possible mode of action of virus inhibition was studied at three different levels viral replication, viral adsorption and virucidal activity. The necklace pod leaves have induced virucidal effects and direct effects on the replication of virus. Phytochemical investigation of the promising necklace pod led to the isolation and structure determination of nine compounds. The structure of each compound was determined by a variety of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4-O-methyl sorbitol 1, 8-methoxy daidzin 6 and 6-methoxy apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 8 were isolated for the first time from the Sophora genus and the other six compounds were the first time that they were isolated from this species according to available works of literature. Generally, the highest anti-CoV 2 activity of S. tomentosa was associated with the crude ethanolic extract, indicating the possibility of synergy among the antiviral phytochemical constituents (1-9).

Keywords: coronavirus, MERS-CoV, mode of action, necklace pod, shih-balady

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83 COVID-19 in Nigeria: An external Analysis from the perspective of social media

Authors: Huseyin Arasli, Maryam Abdullahi, Tugrul Gunay


One of the prominence elements used by the destination marketing organization (DMO) as a marketing strategy is the application of Social media tools. During the current spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), travel restriction was placed in most countries of the world, leading to the closure of borders movement. It should be noted that most tourism travelers depend on social media to obtain and exchange different kinds of information about COVID-19 in an unprecedented scale. The situational information people received is valued, which calls for the response of the tourism industry on the epidemic. Therefore, it is highly important to recognize such situational information and to understand how people spread this propaganda on social media platforms so that suitable information that relates the COVID-19 epidemic is available in a manner that will not tarnish the marketing strategies, festival planners. Data for this research study was collected from the desk review, which is a secondary source data, online blogs, and interview through social media chat. The results of this research show that the widespread of COVID-19 pandemics led to rapid lockdown in states and cities all over Nigeria, causing declining demands in hotels, airlines, recreation, and tourism centers. Additionally, billions of dollars lost has been recorded in the high increase of hotels and travel bookings cancellations which caused hundreds and thousands of job loss in the country. The result of this research also revealed that COVID-19 is causing more havoc on the unemployment rate indices of the country. Similarly, the over-dependence of government on petroleum has further caused considerable revenue loss, thereby raising a high poverty rate among less privileged Nigerians. Based on this result, the study suggested that there is an urgent need for the government to diversify its economy by looking at other different sectors such as tourism and agricultural farm produce to harmonize other commercial trades sectors in the country.

Keywords: social media, destination marketing organizations, DMOs, cultural COVID-19, coronavirus, hospitality, travel tour, tourism

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