Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8834

Search results for: care clinic treatment

8834 RV Car Clinic as Cost-Effective Health Care

Authors: Dessy Arumsari, Ais Assana Athqiya, Mulyaminingrum


Healthcare in remote areas is one of the major concerns in Indonesia. Building hospitals in a nation of 18.000 islands with a larger-than-life bureaucracy and problems with corruption, a critical shortage of qualified medical professionals and well-heeled patients resigned to traveling abroad for health care is a hard feat to accomplish. To assuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, a new solution to tackle this problem is with the presence of RV Car Clinic. This car has a concept such as a walking hospital that provides health facilities inside it. All of the health professionals who work in RV Car Clinic will do the rotation for a year in order to the equitable distribution of health workers. We need to advocate the policy makers to help realize RV Car Clinic in remote areas. Health services can be disseminated by the present of RV Car Clinic. Summarily, the local communities can get cost effectively because RV Car Clinic will come to their place and serve the health services.

Keywords: health policy, health professional, remote areas, RV Car Clinic

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8833 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio


Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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8832 The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Spine Clinic on Treatment Rates and Lead Times to Care

Authors: Ishan Naidu, Jessica Ryvlin, Devin Videlefsky


Introduction: Back pain is a leading cause of years lived with disability and economic burden, exceeding over $20 billion in healthcare costs not including indirect costs such as absence from work and caregiving. The multifactorial nature of back pain leads to treatment modalities administered by a variety of specialists, which are often disjointed. Multiple studies have found that patients receiving delayed physical therapy for lower back pain had higher medical-related costs from increased health service utilization as well as a reduced improvement in pain severity compared to early management. Uncoordinated health care delivery can exacerbate the physical and economic toll of the chronic condition, thus improvements in interdisciplinary, shared decision-making may improve outcomes. Objective: To assess whether a multidisciplinary spine clinic (MSC), consisting of orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, pain medicine, and physiatry, alters interventional and non-interventional planning and treatment compared to a traditional unidisciplinary spine clinic (USC) including only orthopedic surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with patients initially presenting for spine care to orthopedic surgeons between July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019. Time to treatment recommendation, time to treatment and rates of treatment recommendations were assessed, including physical therapy, injections and surgery. Treatment rates were compared between MSC and USC using Pearson’s chi-square test logistic regression. Time to treatment recommendation and time to treatment were compared using log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression. All analyses were repeated for the propensity score (PS) matched subsample. Results: This study included 1,764 patients, with 692 at MSC and 1,072 at USC. Patients in MSC were more likely to be recommended injection when compared to USC (8.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.01). When adjusted for confounders, the likelihood of injection recommendation remained greater in MSC than USC (Odds ratio [OR]=2.22, 95% CI: (1.39, 3.53), p=0.001). MSC was also associated with a shorter time to receiving injection recommendation versus USC (median: 21 vs. 32 days, log-rank: p<0.001; hazard ratio [HR]=1.90, 95% CI: (1.25, 2.90), p=0.003). MSC was associated with a higher likelihood of injection treatment (OR=2.27, 95% CI: (1.39, 3.73), p=0.001) and shorter lead time (HR=1.98, 95% CI: (1.27, 3.09), p=0.003). PS-matched analyses yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: Care delivered at a multidisciplinary spine clinic was associated with a higher likelihood of recommending injection and a shorter lead time to injection administration when compared to a traditional unidisciplinary spine surgery clinic. Multidisciplinary clinics may facilitate coordinated care amongst different specialties resulting in increased utilization of less invasive treatment modalities while also improving care efficiency. The multidisciplinary clinic model is an important advancement in care delivery and communication, which can be used as a powerful method of improving patient outcomes as treatment guidelines evolve.

Keywords: coordinated care, epidural steroid injection, multi-disciplinary, non-invasive

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8831 A Systematic Review on Communication and Relations between Health Care Professionals and Patients with Cancer in Outpatient Settings Matter

Authors: Anne Prip, Kirsten Alling Møller, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Mary Jarden, Marie-Helene Olsen, Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen


Background: The development in cancer care has shifted towards shorter hospital stays and more outpatient treatment. Today, cancer care and treatment predominantly takes place in outpatient settings where encounters between patients and health care professionals are often brief. This development will probably continue internationally as the global cancer burden seems to be growing significantly. Furthermore, the number of patients who require ambulatory treatments such as chemotherapy is increasing. Focusing on the encounters between health care professionals and patients during oncology treatment has thus become increasingly important due to a growing trend in outpatient cancer management. Objective: The aim of the systematic review was to summarize the literature from the perspective of the patient, on experiences of and the need for communication and relationships with the health care professional during chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient setting. Method: The review was designed and carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines and PICO framework. The systematic search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database. Results: In all, 1174 studies were identified by literature search. After duplicates were removed, the remaining studies (n = 1053) were screened for inclusion. Nine studies were included; qualitative (n = 5) and quantitative (n = 4) as they met the inclusions criteria. The review identified that communication and relationships between health care professionals and patients were important for the patients’ ability to cope with cancer and also had an impact on patients’ satisfaction with care in the outpatient clinic. Furthermore, the review showed that hope and positivity was a need and strategy for patients with cancer and was facilitated by health care professionals. Finally, it revealed that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. Conclusions: This review identified the significance of communication and the relationships between patients and health care professionals in the outpatient setting as it supports patients’ ability to cope with cancer. The review showed the need for health care professionals to pay attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic as encounters are often brief. Furthermore, the review helps to specify which elements of the communication are central in the patient-health care professional interaction from the patients' perspective. Finally, it shows a need for more research to investigate which type of interaction and intervention would be the most effective in supporting patients’ coping during chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic.

Keywords: ambulatory chemotherapy, communication, health care professional-patient relation, nurse-patient relation, outpatient care, systematic review

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8830 Evaluation of a Staffing to Workload Tool in a Multispecialty Clinic Setting

Authors: Kristin Thooft


— Increasing pressure to manage healthcare costs has resulted in shifting care towards ambulatory settings and is driving a focus on cost transparency. There are few nurse staffing to workload models developed for ambulatory settings, less for multi-specialty clinics. Of the existing models, few have been evaluated against outcomes to understand any impact. This evaluation took place after the AWARD model for nurse staffing to workload was implemented in a multi-specialty clinic at a regional healthcare system in the Midwest. The multi-specialty clinic houses 26 medical and surgical specialty practices. The AWARD model was implemented in two specialty practices in October 2020. Donabedian’s Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model was used to evaluate outcomes based on changes to the structure and processes of care provided. The AWARD model defined and quantified the processes, recommended changes in the structure of day-to-day nurse staffing. Cost of care per patient visit, total visits, a total nurse performed visits used as structural and process measures, influencing the outcomes of cost of care and access to care. Independent t-tests were used to compare the difference in variables pre-and post-implementation. The SPO model was useful as an evaluation tool, providing a simple framework that is understood by a diverse care team. No statistically significant changes in the cost of care, total visits, or nurse visits were observed, but there were differences. Cost of care increased and access to care decreased. Two weeks into the post-implementation period, the multi-specialty clinic paused all non-critical patient visits due to a second surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinic nursing staff was re-allocated to support the inpatient areas. This negatively impacted the ability of the Nurse Manager to utilize the AWARD model to plan daily staffing fully. The SPO framework could be used for the ongoing assessment of nurse staffing performance. Additional variables could be measured, giving a complete picture of the impact of nurse staffing. Going forward, there must be a continued focus on the outcomes of care and the value of nursing

Keywords: ambulatory, clinic, evaluation, outcomes, staffing, staffing model, staffing to workload

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8829 Anxiety Treatment: Comparing Outcomes by Different Types of Providers

Authors: Melissa K. Hord, Stephen P. Whiteside


With lifetime prevalence rates ranging from 6% to 15%, anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood mental health diagnoses. Anxiety disorders diagnosed in childhood generally show an unremitting course, lead to additional psychopathology and interfere with social, emotional, and academic development. Effective evidence-based treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s). However, if anxious children receive any treatment, it is usually through primary care, typically consists of medication, and very rarely includes evidence-based psychotherapy. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders, there have only been two independent research labs that have investigated long-term results for CBT treatment for all childhood anxiety disorders and two for specific anxiety disorders. Generally, the studies indicate that the majority of youth maintain gains up to 7.4 years after treatment. These studies have not been replicated. In addition, little is known about the additional mental health care received by these patients in the intervening years after anxiety treatment, which seems likely to influence maintenance of gains for anxiety symptoms as well as the development of additional psychopathology during the subsequent years. The original sample consisted of 335 children ages 7 to 17 years (mean 13.09, 53% female) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in 2010. Medical record review included provider billing records for mental health appointments during the five years after anxiety treatment. The subsample for this study was classified into three groups: 64 children who received CBT in an anxiety disorders clinic, 56 who received treatment from a psychiatrist, and 10 who were seen in a primary care setting. Chi-square analyses resulted in significant differences in mental health care utilization across the five years after treatment. Youth receiving treatment in primary care averaged less than one appointment each year and the appointments continued at the same rate across time. Children treated by a psychiatrist averaged approximately 3 appointments in the first two years and 2 in the subsequent three years. Importantly, youth treated in the anxiety clinic demonstrated a gradual decrease in mental health appointments across time. The nuanced differences will be presented in greater detail. The results of the current study have important implications for developing dissemination materials to help guide parents when they are selecting treatment for their children. By including all mental health appointments, this study recognizes that anxiety is often comorbid with additional diagnoses and that receiving evidence-based treatment may have long-term benefits that are associated with improvements in broader mental health. One important caveat might be that the acuity of mental health influenced the level of care sought by patients included in this study; however, taking this possibility into account, it seems those seeking care in a primary care setting continued to require similar care at the end of the study, indicating little improvement in symptoms was experienced.

Keywords: anxiety, children, mental health, outcomes

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8828 Case Report of Angioedema after Application of Botulinum Toxin

Authors: Sokol Isaraj, Lorela Bendo


Botulinum toxin is the most commonly used treatment to reduce the appearance of dynamic facial wrinkles. It can smooth out wrinkles and restore a more youthful appearance. Although allergic reactions after botox injection are rare, care should be taken by the physician to diagnose the condition and provide suitable treatment in time. The authors report a case of allergic reaction with angioedema to abobotulinumtoxin A. A 50 year-old woman complaining of dynamic wrinkles was injected in a private clinic with Dysport. After 2 weeks, she returned to the clinic for the touch-up session. Thirty minutes after the completion of the injections in the crow’s feet area, she described the feeling of mild pain and warmth in the injected area, followed by angioedema. The symptoms couldn’t be controlled by IM corticosteroid, and the patient was referred to a hospital center. After adequate systemic treatment for 4 days, there was a resolution of the symptoms. Despite the reported safety of abobotulinumtoxin A, this case warns practitioners of unpredictably adverse reactions, which require rapid recognition and intravenous support.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, side effects, angioedema, injections

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8827 An Observation of Patient-Professional Communication in the Cambodian Dental Setting

Authors: Christina Tran, Lu Khoo, Andrea Waylen


Introduction: The evolution of the dental consultation from paternalism to partnership has been well documented in developed Western countries. Great emphasis is now placed on the importance of empowering patients to make decisions regarding their care, obtaining informed consent, and maintaining patient privacy and confidentiality. With the majority of communication occurring non-verbally, clinicians often adopt behaviours which suggest an approachable and positive attitude. However, evidence indicates that in Asia, a paternalistic model may be favored in medicine. The power imbalance occurring in doctor-patient relationships worldwide may be exacerbated by various factors in Southeast Asia: the strong hierarchical culture, and the large education gap between doctor and patient. Further insight into this matter can be gained by observing patient-dentist communication in Cambodia. The dentist:population ratio in Cambodia is approximately 1:33,000, with rural areas remaining extremely underserviced. We have carried out an observational study of communication in a voluntary dental clinic in Cambodia with the aim of describing whether the patient-dentist relationship follows a paternalistic or patient-centred model. Method: Over a period of two weeks, two clinicians provided dental care as part of a voluntary program in two Cambodian settings: a temporary, rural clinic and a permanent clinic in Phnom Penh. The clinicians independently recorded their experiences in diaries, making observations on the verbal and non-verbal communication between patients and staff. General observations such as the clinic environment were also made. The diaries were then compared and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results: The overall themes that emerged were regarding the clinic environment, verbal communication, and non-verbal communication. Regarding the clinic environment, the rural clinic was arranged in order to easily direct patients from one dentist to another, with little emphasis on continuous patient care. There was also little consideration for patient privacy: patients were often treated in the presence of many observers, including other waiting patients. However, the permanent clinic was structured to allow greater patient privacy, with continuous patient care occurring throughout the appointment. Regarding verbal communication, there was a strongly paternalistic approach to gaining consent and giving instruction. Patients rarely asked questions regarding their treatment, with dentists doing little to encourage patient involvement. Non-verbal communication between patients and dentists was generally paternalistic, with the dentist often addressing the supine patient from above. Patients often avoided making eye-contact, which may have indicated discomfort or lack of engagement. Both adult and paediatric patients rarely raised verbal concerns regarding pain during treatment, despite displaying non-verbal signs of experiencing pain. Anxious paediatric patients were sometimes managed with physical restraint by their mothers to facilitate treatment. Conclusion: Patient-professional communication in the Cambodian dental setting was observed to be generally paternalistic in nature, although more patient-centred aspects were observed in the established, urban setting. However, it should be noted that these observations are subjective in nature, and that the patients’ actual perceptions of their communication experience were unexplored. Further observations in variety of dental settings in Cambodia are needed before any definitive conclusions can be made.

Keywords: patient-dentist communication, paternalism, patient-centered, non-verbal communication

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8826 Identifying Physical and Psycho-Social Issues Facing Breast Cancer Survivors after Definitive Treatment for Early Breast Cancer: A Nurse-Led Clinic Model

Authors: A. Dean, M. Pitcher, L. Storer, K. Shanahan, I. Rio, B. Mann


Purpose: Breast cancer survivors are at risk of specific physical and psycho-social issues, such as arm swelling, fatigue, and depression. Firstly, we investigate symptoms reported by Australia breast cancer survivors upon completion of definitive treatment. Secondly, we evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of a multi-centre pilot program nurse-led clinic to identify these issues and make timely referrals to available services. Methods: Patients post-definitive treatment (excluding ongoing hormonal therapy) for early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were invited to participate. An hour long appointment with a breast care nurse (BCN) was scheduled. In preparation, patients completed validated quality-of-life surveys (FACT-B, Menopause Rating Scale, Distress Thermometer). During the appointment, issues identified in the surveys were addressed and referrals to appropriate services arranged. Results: 183 of 274 (67%) eligible patients attended a nurse-led clinic. Mean age 56.8 years (range 29-87 years), 181/183 women, 105/183 post-menopausal. 96 (55%) participants reported significant level of distress; 31 (18%) participants reported extreme distress or depression. Distress stemmed from a lack of energy (56/175); poor quality of sleep (50/176); inability to work or participate in household activities (35/172) and problems with sex life (28/89). 166 referrals were offered; 94% of patients accepted the referrals. 65% responded to a follow-up survey: the majority of women either strongly agreed or agreed that the BCN was overwhelmingly supportive, helpful in making referrals, and compassionate towards them. 39% reported making lifestyle changes as a result of the BCN. Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors experience a unique set of challenges, including low mood, difficulty sleeping, problems with sex life and fear of disease recurrence. The nurse-led clinic model is an appropriate and effective method to ensure physical and psycho-social issues are identified and managed in a timely manner. This model empowers breast cancer survivors with information about their diagnosis and available services.

Keywords: early breast cancer, survivorship, breast care nursing, oncology nursing and cancer care

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8825 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge


Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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8824 Management of Myofascial Temporomandibular Disorder in Secondary Care: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Rishana Bilimoria, Selina Tang, Sajni Shah, Marianne Henien, Christopher Sproat


Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may affect up to a third of the general population, and there is evidence demonstrating the majority of Myofascial TMD cases improve after education and conservative measures. In 2015 our department implemented a modified care pathway for myofascial TMD patients in an attempt to improve the patient journey. This involved the use of an interactive group therapy approach to deliver education, reinforce conservative measures and promote self-management. Patient reported experience measures from the new group clinic revealed 71% patient satisfaction. This service is efficient in improving aspects of health status while reducing health-care costs and redistributing clinical time. Since its’ establishment, 52 hours of clinical time, resources and funding have been redirected effectively. This Quality Improvement Project was initiated because it was felt that this new service was being underutilised by our surgical teams. The ‘Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle’ (PDSA) framework was employed to analyse utilisation of the service: The ‘plan’ stage involved outlining our aims: to raise awareness amongst clinicians of the unified care pathway and to increase referral to this clinic. The ‘do’ stage involved collecting data from a sample of 96 patients over 4 month period to ascertain the proportion of Myofascial TMD patients who were correctly referred to the designated clinic. ‘Suitable’ patients who weren’t referred were identified. The ‘Study’ phase involved analysis of results, which revealed that 77% of suitable patients weren’t referred to the designated clinic. They were reviewed on other clinics, which are often overbooked, or managed by junior staff members. This correlated with our original prediction. Barriers to referral included: lack of awareness of the clinic, individual consultant treatment preferences and patient, reluctance to be referred to a ‘group’ clinic. The ‘Act’ stage involved presenting our findings to the team at a clinical governance meeting. This included demonstration of the clinical effectiveness of the care-pathway and explaining the referral route and criteria. In light of the evaluation results, it was decided to keep the group clinic and maximize utilisation. The second cycle of data collection following these changes revealed that of 66 Myofascial TMD patients over a 4 month period, only 9% of suitable patients were not seen via the designated pathway; therefore this QIP was successful in meeting the set objectives. Overall, employing the PDSA cycle in this QIP resulted in appropriate utilisation of the modified care pathway for patients with myofascial TMD in Guy’s Oral Surgery Department. In turn, this leads to high patient satisfaction with the service and effectively redirected 52 hours of clinical time. It permitted adoption of a collaborative working style with oral surgery colleagues to investigate problems, identify solutions, and collectively raise standards of clinical care to ensure we adopt a unified care pathway in secondary care management of Myofascial TMD patients.

Keywords: myofascial, quality Improvement, PDSA, TMD

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8823 Prospective Study to Determine the Efficacy of Day Hospital Care to Improve Treatment Adherence for Hospitalized Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Jin Hun Choi, So Hyun Ahn, Seong Keun Wang, Ik-Seung Chee, Jung Lan Kim, Sun Woo Lee


Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of day hospital care in hospitalized schizophrenic patients in terms of treatment adherence and treatment outcomes. Methods: Among schizophrenic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2012, 23 day hospital care patient and 40 control subjects were included in the study. All candidates underwent Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Drug Attitude Inventory, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment and Psychological Well-Being Scale when their symptoms were stabilized during hospitalization, and after being discharged, 23 patients received day hospital care for two months and then changed to out-patient care while 40 patients received out-patient care immediately after discharge. At the point of two months of out-patient care, the treatment adherence of the two groups was evaluated; tracking observation was performed until February, 2013, and survival rates were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment adherence was higher in the day hospital care group than in the control group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a higher survival rate for the day hospital care group compared to the control group. Levels of cognitive insight and quality of life were higher after day hospital care than before day hospital care in the day hospital care group. Conclusions: Through the study, it was confirmed that when hospitalized schizophrenic patients received continuous day hospital care after being discharged, they received further out-patient care more faithfully. The study is considered to aid in the understanding regarding schizophrenic patients’ treatment adherence issues and improvement of treatment outcomes.

Keywords: schizophrenia, day hospital care, adherence, outcomes

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8822 Health Belief Model to Predict Sharps Injuries among Health Care Workers at First Level Care Facilities in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naveed Zafar Janjua


We assessed the frequency and predictors of sharp injuries (SIs) among health care workers (HCWs) at first level care facilities (FLCF) in rural Pakistan. HCWs working at public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLC) were interviewed on universal precautions (UPs) and constructs of health belief model (HBM) to assess their association with SIs through negative-binomial regression. From 365 clinics, 485 HCWs were interviewed. Overall annual rate of Sis was 192/100 HCWs/year; 78/100 HCWs among licensed prescribers, 191/100 HCWs among non-licensed prescribers, 248/100 HCWs among qualified assistants, and 321/100 HCWs among non-qualified assistants. Increasing knowledge score about bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) transmission (rate-ratio (RR): 0.93; 95%CI: 0.89–0.96), fewer years of work experience, being a non-licensed prescriber (RR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.36–2.98) licensed (RR: 2.86; 9%CI: 1.81–4.51) or non-licensed assistant (RR: 2.78; 95%CI: 1.72–4.47) compared to a licensed prescriber, perceived barriers (RR: 1.06;95%CI: 1.03–1.08), and compliance with UPs scores (RR: 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87–0.97) were significant predictors of SIs. Improved knowledge about BBPs, compliance with UPs and reduced barriers to follow UPs could reduce SIs to HCWs.

Keywords: health belief model, sharp injuries, needle stick injuries, healthcare workers

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8821 Management of the Asthma Crisis in the Unit of Intensive Care of the General Hospital of Reference of Kinshasa

Authors: Eddy K. Mukadi


The aim of this study was to provide contributing elements to improve the management of the asthma crisis in the intensive care unit of the General Reference Hospital of Kinshasa. This was a descriptive study of all patients in the intensive care unit presenting with the asthma attack during the period from February 5, 2013 to February 5, 2014. The main data were obtained from consultation registry and medical records. A total of 35 patients, 21 of whom were male (majority) compared to 14 female. Average age of patients was 46.48 plus or minus 16.98 with extremes ranging from 21-75 years. The clinic was dominated by dyspnea in 100% of cases, followed by rales with 91.4% of cases. In spite of the control of the crisis obtained after the treatment with B2 mimetic by inhalation was introduced A 91.5%; 88% corticosteroids; 80% oxygen, the therapeutic principle recommended for the management of asthma attacks was not respected in the majority of cases. This is why we suggest that improving the quality of care to be administered to patients will yield more adequate results.

Keywords: asthma crisis, intensive care, general hospital, Kinshasa

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8820 Patient Scheduling Improvement in a Cancer Treatment Clinic Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Maryam Haghi, Ivan Contreras, Nadia Bhuiyan


Chemotherapy is one of the most popular and effective cancer treatments offered to patients in outpatient oncology centers. In such clinics, patients first consult with an oncologist and the oncologist may prescribe a chemotherapy treatment plan for the patient based on the blood test results and the examination of the health status. Then, when the plan is determined, a set of chemotherapy and consultation appointments should be scheduled for the patient. In this work, a comprehensive mathematical formulation for planning and scheduling different types of chemotherapy patients over a planning horizon considering blood test, consultation, pharmacy and treatment stages has been proposed. To be more realistic and to provide an applicable model, this study is focused on a case study related to a major outpatient cancer treatment clinic in Montreal, Canada. Comparing the results of the proposed model with the current practice of the clinic under study shows significant improvements regarding different performance measures. These major improvements in the patients’ schedules reveal that using optimization techniques in planning and scheduling of patients in such highly demanded cancer treatment clinics is an essential step to provide a good coordination between different involved stages which ultimately increases the efficiency of the entire system and promotes the staff and patients' satisfaction.

Keywords: chemotherapy patients scheduling, integer programming, integrated scheduling, staff balancing

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8819 Lean Implementation in a Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic: A Case Study

Authors: Lily Farris, Chantel E. Canessa, Rena Heathcote, Susan Shumay, Suzanna V. McRae, Alissa Collingridge, Minna K. Miller


Objective: To describe how the Lean approach can be applied to improve access, quality and safety of care in an ambulatory pediatric primary care setting. Background: Lean was originally developed by Toyota manufacturing in Japan, and subsequently adapted for use in the healthcare sector. Lean is a systematic approach, focused on identifying and reducing waste within organizational processes, improving patient-centered care and efficiency. Limited literature is available on the implementation of the Lean methodologies in a pediatric ambulatory care setting. Methods: A strategic continuous improvement event or Rapid Process Improvement Workshop (RPIW) was launched with the aim evaluating and structurally supporting clinic workflow, capacity building, sustainability, and ultimately improving access to care and enhancing the patient experience. The Lean process consists of five specific activities: Current state/process assessment (value stream map); development of a future state map (value stream map after waste reduction); identification, quantification and prioritization of the process improvement opportunities; implementation and evaluation of process changes; and audits to sustain the gains. Staff engagement is a critical component of the Lean process. Results: Through the implementation of the RPIW and shifting workload among the administrative team, four hours of wasted time moving between desks and doing work was eliminated from the Administrative Clerks role. To streamline clinic flow, the Nursing Assistants completed patient measurements and vitals for Nurse Practitioners, reducing patient wait times and adding value to the patients visit with the Nurse Practitioners. Additionally, through the Nurse Practitioners engagement in the Lean processes a need was recognized to articulate clinic vision, mission and the alignment of NP role and scope of practice with the agency and Ministry of Health strategic plan. Conclusions: Continuous improvement work in the Pediatric Primary Care NP Clinic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of care delivered and has facilitated further alignment of the daily continuous improvement work with the strategic priorities of the Ministry of Health.

Keywords: ambulatory care, lean, pediatric primary care, system efficiency

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8818 Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

Authors: Ilirian Laçi, Alketa Spahiu


Modality of treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients depends on the stage of the disease. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification (BCLC) is the preferred staging system. There are many patients initially present with intermediate-stage disease. For these patients, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the treatment of choice. The differences in individual factors that are not captured by the BCLC framework, such as the tumor growth pattern, degree of hypervascularity, and vascular supply, complicate further evaluation of these patients. Because of these differences, not all patients benefit equally from TACE. Several tools have been devised to aid the decision-making process, which have shown promising initial results but have failed external evaluation and have not been translated to the clinic aspects. Criteria for treatment decisions in daily clinical practice are needed in all stages of the disease.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, transarterial chemoembolization, TACE, liver

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8817 Nurses' and Patients’ Perception about Care: A Comparative Study

Authors: Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mairy Gouva, Theodosios Paralikas, Maria Fiaka, Styliani Kotrotsiou, Maria Malliarou


The purpose of this research is to investigate the way nurses perceive the care provided in comparison to the way patients perceive it, taking into account existing literature. As far as the sample of research is concerned, it has come from the population of nurses working in the General Hospital of Thessaloniki, St. Paul and the patients of its surgical clinic. In the present study, the sample consists of 100 nurses and 88 patients. The questionnaire used was the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale: 23-Item Version, created by Cossette et al. (2006). In the case of both patients and nurses, a high score was observed in relational care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of providing nursing care. Overall, patients rated higher clinical care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of the clinical care they were given. On the other hand, nurses rated higher comfort care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in everyday practice, as well as relational care in the area of the importance of nursing care in everyday practice.

Keywords: nursing care, patient needs, patient satisfaction, care giving

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8816 Development of Nursing Service System Integrated Case Manager Concept for the Patients with Epilepsy at the Tertiary Epilepsy Clinic of Thailand

Authors: C. Puangsawat, C. Limotai, P. Srikhachin


Bio-psycho-social caring was required for promoting the quality of life of the patients with epilepsy (PWE), despite controlled seizures. Multifaceted issues emerge at the epilepsy clinic. Unpredicted seizures, antiepileptic drug compliance problems/adverse effects, psychiatric, and social problems are all needed to be explored and managed. The Nursing Service System (NSS) at the tertiary epilepsy clinic (TEC) was consequently developed for improving the clinical care for PWE. Case manager concept was integrated as the framework guiding the processes and strategies used for developing the NSS as well as the roles of the multidisciplinary team at the clinic. This study aimed to report the outcomes of the developed NSS integrated case manager concept. The processes of our developed NSS program included 1) screening for patient’s problems using questionnaire prior to seeing epileptologists i.e., assessing the patient’s risk to develop acute seizures at the clinic, issues related to medication use, and uncovered psychiatric and social problems; and 2) assigning the patients at risk to be evaluated and managed by appropriate team. Nurses specializing in epilepsy in coordination with the multidisciplinary team implemented the NSS to promote coordinated work among the team which consists of epileptologists, nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, and social workers. Determination of the role of each person and their responsibilities along with joint care plan were clearly established. One year after implementation, the rate of acute seizure occurrence at the clinic was decreased, and satisfactory feedback from the patients was received. In order to achieve an optimal goal to promote self-management behaviors in PWE, continuing the NSS and systematic assessment of its effectiveness is required.

Keywords: case manager concept, nursing service system, patients with epilepsy, quality of life

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8815 Socio-Economic Problems in Treatment of Non-Union Both Bones Fracture of the Leg: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia


Treatment of fracture both bones of leg following trauma is done intially at nearby primary health care center.primary management for shock,pain,control of bleeding,plaster application. These are treated for primay fixation of fracture, debridment of wound. Then, they were refered to tertiary care where they were again and planned for further treatment. This leads to loss of lot of time, money, job, etc.

Keywords: fracture both bones leg, non-union, ilizarov, cost

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8814 Optimism, Skepticism, and Uncertainty: A Qualitative Study on the Knowledge and Perceived Impact of the Affordable Care Act among Adult Patients Seeking Care in a Free Clinic

Authors: Mike Wei, Mario Cedillo, Jiahui Lin, Carol Lorraine Storey-Johnson, Carla Boutin-Foster


Purpose: The extent to which health insurance enrollment succeeds under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) rests heavily on the ability to reach the uninsured and motivate them to enroll. We sought to identify perceptions about the ACA among uninsured patients at a free clinic in New York City. Background: The ACA holds tremendous promise for reducing the number of uninsured Americans. As of April 2014, nearly 8 million people had signed up for health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace. Despite this early success, future and continued enrollment rests heavily on the degree of public awareness. Reaching eligible individuals and increasing their awareness and understanding remains a fundamental challenge to realizing the full potential of the ACA. Reaching out to uninsured patients who are seeking care through safety net facilities such as free clinics may provide important avenues for reaching potential enrollees. This project focuses on the experience at the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), and seeks to understand perceptions about the ACA among its patient population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all patients who visited the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic, from July 2013 to May 2014. Patients who provided informed consent at their visit and completed a semi-structured questionnaire were included (N=62). The questionnaire comprised of questions about demographic characteristics and open-ended questions about their knowledge and perception of the impact of the ACA. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population demographics. Qualitative coding techniques were used for open-ended items. Results: Approximately one third of patients surveyed never had health insurance. Of the remaining 65%, 20% lost their insurance within the past year. Only 55% had heard about the ACA, and only 10% knew about the Health Benefits Exchange. Of those who had heard about the ACA, sentiments were tinged with optimistic misperceptions, such as “it will be free health care for all.” While optimistic, most of the responses focused on the economic implications of the ACA. Conclusions: These findings reveal the immense amount of misconception and lack of understanding with regards to the ACA. As such, the study highlights the need to educate and address the concerns of those who remain skeptical or uncertain about the implications of the ACA.

Keywords: Affordable Care Act, demographics, free clinics, underserved.

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8813 Attitude and Practice of Family Physicians in Giving Smoking Cessation Advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh

Authors: Mohammed Alateeq, Abdulaziz Alrshoud


Objectives: To examine the attitude and practice of family physicians in giving smoking cessation advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh. Methods: Cross sectional study using validated self-reported questionnaire that distributed to all family physicians and primary health care doctors at the four main family medicine and primary health care centers, KAMC, Riyadh. Results: 73 physicians are contributed in this study. 28 (38.4%) physicians were from (KASHM ALAN) clinic, 26 (35.6%) physicians were from (UM ALHAMAM) Clinic. 13 (17.8%) physicians were from (ISKAN) clinic. 6 (8.2%) physicians were from the Employee Health Clinic. 73 (100%) of the target population agreed that giving brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. 67 (91.7%) agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice. Only 5 (6.84%) received training courses (1-4 weeks) in smoking cessation interventions. Conclusion: Most of the target population agreed that brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. Also, they agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice although most of them did not received a formal training in smoking cessation advice.

Keywords: advice, attitude, cessation, family physicians, smoking

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8812 Perception of Nursing Care of Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Merve Aydin, Mağfiret Kara Kaşikçi


Aim: To determine the perceptions of inpatients about care at Farabi Hospital in KTU. Material and Method: This research was conducted by using the universe known examples of formulas and probability selected by sampling method with 277 chosen patients in the hospital at least 14 days in other internal and surgical clinics except for pediatric, psychiatry, and intensive care unit services between January-March 2014 in KTU Farabi Hospital. The data was collected through the forms of nursing care perception scale of patients and defining characteristics of patients. In the evaluation of data, percentage, mean, Mann Whitney U, Student t and Kurskall Wallis tests were applied. Results: The average point the patients got in nursing care perception scale is 62.64±10.08’dir. 48.7 % of patients regard nursing care well and 36.8 % of them regard it very well. 19 % of the patients regard nursing care badly. When the age, sex, occupation, marital status, educational background, residential place, income level, hospitalization period, hospitalization clinic and having a hospital attendant were compared with nursing care perception average point, the difference among point averages was not found meaningful statistically (p > 0.05). The average point of nursing care perception was found greater in those having chronic disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The perception point of patients about nursing care is above the average according to the average of the lowest and highest points. The great majority of patients regard nursing care well or very well.

Keywords: hospital, patient, perception of nursing care, nursing care

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8811 The Perspective of Health Care Professionals of Pediatric Palliative Care

Authors: Eunkyo Kang, Jihye Lee, Jiyeon Choo


Background: Pediatric palliative care has been increasing, and the number of studies has focused on the age at which pediatric patient can be notified their terminal illness, pediatric advanced care planning (ACP) and palliative care. However, there is a lack of research on health professionals’ perception. Aim: We aimed to investigate the perceptions of healthcare professionals about appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, awareness of ACP, and the relationship between ACP knowledge and the preference for palliative care for children. Methods: We administered nationwide questionnaires to 928 physicians from the 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association and 1,241 individuals of the general Korean population. We asked about the age at which the pediatric patients could be notified of their terminal illness, by 4 groups; 4 years old or older, 12 years old or older, 15 years old or older, or not. In addition, we surveyed the questionnaires about the knowledge of ACP of the medical staff, the preference of the pediatric hospice palliative care, aggressive treatment, and life-sustaining treatment preference. Results: In the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, there were more respondents in the physicians than in the general population who thought that it was possible even at a younger age. Palliative care preference in pediatric patients who were expected to expire within months was higher when health care professionals had knowledge of ACPs compared to those without knowledge. The same results were obtained when deaths were expected within weeks or days. The age of the terminal status notification, the health care professionals who thought to be available at a lower age have a higher preference for palliative care and has less preference for aggressive treatment and life-sustaining treatment. Conclusion: Despite the importance of pediatric palliative care, our study confirmed that there is a difference in the preference of the health care professionals for pediatric palliative care according to the ACP knowledge of the medical staff or the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness. Future research should focus on strategies for inducing changes in perceptions of health care professionals and identifying other obstacles for the pediatric palliative care.

Keywords: pediatric palliative care, disclosing terminal illness, palliative care, advanced care planning

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8810 Bridging the Gap between Obstetric and Colorectal Services after Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries

Authors: Shachi Joshi


Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pelvic dysfunction symptoms following OASI. The secondary aim was to assess the scope of a dedicated perineal trauma clinic in identifying and investigating women that have experienced faecal incontinence after OASI and if a transitional clinic arrangement to colorectal surgeons would be useful. Methods: The clinical database was used to identify and obtain information about 118 women who sustained an OASI (3rd/ 4th degree tear) between August 2016 and July 2017. A questionnaire was designed to assess symptoms of pelvic dysfunction; this was sent via the post in November 2018. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 45 women (38%). Faecal incontinence was experienced by 42% (N=19), flatus incontinence by 47% (N=21), urinary incontinence by 76% (N=34), dyspareunia by 49% (N=22) and pelvic pain by 33% (N=15). Of the questionnaire respondents, only 62% (N=28) had attended a perineal trauma clinic appointment. 46% (N=13) of these women reported having experienced difficulty controlling flatus or faeces in the questionnaire, however, only 23% (N=3) of these reported ongoing symptoms at the time of clinic attendance and underwent an endoanal ultrasound scan. Conclusion: Pelvic dysfunction symptoms are highly prevalent following an OASI. Perineal trauma clinic attendance alone is not sufficient for identification and follow up of symptoms. Transitional care is needed between obstetric and colorectal teams, to recognize and treat women with ongoing faecal incontinence.

Keywords: incontinence, obstetric anal sphincter, injury, repair

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8809 Health Care Waste Management Practices in Liberia: An Investigative Case Study

Authors: V. Emery David Jr., J. Wenchao, D. Mmereki, Y. John, F. Heriniaina


Healthcare waste management continues to present an array of challenges for developing countries, and Liberia is of no exception. There is insufficient information available regarding the generation, handling, and disposal of health care waste. This face serves as an impediment to healthcare management schemes. The specific objective of this study is to present an evaluation of the current health care management practices in Liberia. It also presented procedures, techniques used, methods of handling, transportation, and disposal methods of wastes as well as the quantity and composition of health care waste. This study was conducted as an investigative case study, covering three different health care facilities; a hospital, a health center, and a clinic in Monrovia, Montserrado County. The average waste generation was found to be 0-7kg per day at the clinic and health center and 8-15kg per/day at the hospital. The composition of the waste includes hazardous and non-hazardous waste i.e. plastic, papers, sharps, and pathological elements etc. Nevertheless, the investigation showed that the healthcare waste generated by the surveyed healthcare facilities were not properly handled because of insufficient guidelines for separate collection, and classification, and adequate methods for storage and proper disposal of generated wastes. This therefore indicates that there is a need for improvement within the healthcare waste management system to improve the existing situation.

Keywords: disposal, healthcare waste, management, Montserrado County, Monrovia

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8808 Demographic Characteristics as a Determinant of the use of Health Care Services: Case of Nsukka, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Beatrice Adeoye


Studies have associated social and demographic characteristics as strong determinants of utilization of health care services; however, not much has been done to explore the dynamics of these variables in Nigeria. This empirical study explores the link between demographic factors and the future use of health care services in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. A total of 543 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The findings of the study showed that majority (56.9%) of the respondents were female while 43.1% were male. More of the respondents were married (50.3%) while 41.80/0 of the respondents were between ages 26-35. Testing the demographic characteristics regarding where people will prefer to go first for treatment with multiple regression, It is only Sex as a demographic variable that indicates positive association for future occurrence to where people will prefer to go first for treatment with 0.08 significance. Age and education indicates no association considering their level of significance. This result shows that sex is one of the determinant factors of where and when people will go for treatment. This is pointing out the realities regarding African society where in the family setting, it is the father that dictates the cause of action. Also to buttress these findings, cross tabulating age with who determines where and when to go for treatment, findings show that majority (58.9%) within age 26-35 said their spouses decide on where and when to go for treatment. Findings showed that patriarchy still plays an important role in the utilization of health care delivery among the people studied.

Keywords: Demographic characters, Determinant, Health Care, treatment, self-medication, symptom,

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8807 Investigating Unplanned Applications and Admissions to Hospitals of Children with Cancer

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Ilknur Kahriman, Birsel C. Demirbag


Introduction and Purpose: The lives of children with cancer are affected by long term hospitalizations in a negative way due to complications arising from diagnosis or treatment. However, the children's parents are known to have difficulties in meeting their children’s needs and providing home care after cancer treatment or during remission process. Supporting these children and their parents by giving a planned discharge training starting from the hospital and home care leads to reducing hospital applications, hospitalizations, hospital costs, shortening the length of hospital stay and increasing the satisfaction of the children with cancer and their families. This study was conducted to investigate the status of children and their parents' unplanned application to hospital and re-hospitalization. Methods: The study was carried out with 65 children with hematological malignancy in 0-17 age group and their families in a hematology clinic and polyclinic of a university hospital in Trabzon. Data were collected with survey methodology between August-November, 2015 through face to face interview using numbers, percentage and chi-square test in the evaluation. Findings: Most of the children were leukemia (90.8%) and 49.2% had been ill over 13 months. Few of the parents (32.3%) stated that they had received discharge and home care training (24.6%) but most of them (69.2%) found themselves enough in providing home care. Very few parents (6.2%) received home care training after their children being discharged and the majority of parents (61.5%) faced difficulties in home care and had no one to call around them. The parents expressed that in providing care to their children with hematological malignance, they faced difficulty in feeding them (74.6%), explaining their disease (50.0%), giving their oral medication (47.5%), providing hygiene (43.5%) and providing oral care (39.3%). The question ‘What are the emergency situations in which you have to bring your children to a doctor immediately?' was replied as fever (89.2%), severe nausea and vomiting (87.7%), hemorrhage (86.2%) and pain (81.5%). The study showed that 50.8% of the children had unplanned applications to hospitals and 33.8% of them identified as unplanned hospitalization and the first causes of this were fever and pain. The study showed that the frequency of applications (%78.8) and hospitalizations (%81.8) was higher for boys and a statistically significant difference was found between gender and unplanned applications (X=4.779; p=0.02). Applications (48.5%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) were found lower for the parents who had received hospital discharge training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=8.021; p=0.00). Similarly, applications (30.3%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) was found lower for the ones who had received home care training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving home care training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=4.758; p=0.02). Conclusion: It was found out that caregivers of children with cancer did not receive training related to home care and complications about treatment after discharging from hospital, so they faced difficulties in providing home care and this led to an increase in unplanned hospital applications and hospitalizations.

Keywords: cancer, children, unplanned application, unplanned hospitalization

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8806 Rationality and Evidence of Pre-Prepared Treatment Plan in Oesophageal HDR Brachytherapy

Authors: Jim S. Meng, Mammo H. Yewondwossen


As a part of routine oesophageal HDR brachytherapy procedure, treatment planning takes about 45 minutes while patients are under light sedation. Some patients may suffer gagging and/or spasms, and the treatment may need to be aborted. A pre-prepared plan generated before the patient’s sedation may reduce the brachytherapy procedure time by forty minutes. This paper reports the rationality and evidence of pre-prepared treatment plans. A retrospective study of 28 patients confirm that all of the pre-prepared plans would be acceptable. The rationality of pre-prepared HDR brachytherapy plans is further confirmed by a systemic study with a wide range of applicator curvature and treatment volume. Detailed comparison between CT based treatment plans and pre-prepared plans are discussed. This argument holds also for endobronchial HDR brachytherapy. With the above evidence, pre-prepared plans have been used for all oesophagus and bronchus HDR brachytherapy cases in our clinic.

Keywords: HDR brachytherapy, treatment planning, oesophageal carcinoma, pre-planning

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8805 Improving the Quality of Discussion and Documentation of Advance Care Directives in a Community-Based Resident Primary Care Clinic

Authors: Jason Ceavers, Travis Thompson, Juan Torres, Ramanakumar Anam, Alan Wong, Andrei Carvalho, Shane Quo, Shawn Alonso, Moises Cintron, Ricardo C. Carrero, German Lopez, Vamsi Garimella, German Giese


Introduction: Advance directives (AD) are essential for patients to communicate their wishes when they are not able to. Ideally, these discussions should not occur for the first time when a patient is hospitalized with an acute life-threatening illness. There is a large number of patients who do not have clearly documented ADs, resulting in misutilization of resources and additional patient harm. This is a nationwide issue, and the Joint Commission has it as one of its national quality metrics. Presented here is a proposed protocol to increase the number of documented AD discussions in a community-based, internal medicine residency primary care clinic in South Florida. Methods: The smart aim for this quality improvement project is to increase documentation of AD discussions in the outpatient setting by 25% within three months in medicare patients. A survey was sent to stakeholders (clinic attendings, residents, medical assistants, front desk staff, and clinic managers), asking them for three factors they believed contributed most to a low documentation rate of AD discussions. The two most important factors were time constraints and systems issues (such as lack of a standard method to document ADs and ADs not being uploaded to the chart) which were brought up by 25% and 21.2% of the 32 survey responders, respectively. Pre-intervention data from clinic patients in 2020-2021 revealed that 17.05% of patients had clear, actionable ADs documented. To address these issues, an AD pocket card was created to give to patients. One side of the card has a brief explanation of what ADs are. The other side has a column of interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, tracheostomy, feeding tube) with boxes patients check off if they want the intervention done, do not want the intervention, do not want to discuss the topic, or need more information. These cards are to be filled out and scanned into their electronic chart to be reviewed by the resident before their appointment. The interventions that patients want more information on will be discussed by the provider. If any changes are made, the card will be re-scanned into their chart. After three months, we will chart review the patients seen in the clinic to determine how many medicare patients have a pocket card uploaded and how many have advance directives discussions documented in a progress note or annual wellness note. If there is not enough time for AD discussion, a follow-up appointment can be scheduled for that discussion. Discussion: ADs are a crucial part of patient care, and failure to understand a patient’s wishes leads to improper utilization of resources, avoidable litigation, and patient harm. Time constraints and systems issues were identified as two major factors contributing to the lack of advance directive discussion in our community-based resident primary care clinic. Our project aims at increasing the documentation rate for ADs through a simple pocket card intervention. These are self-explanatory, easy to read and allow the patients to clearly express what interventions they desire or what they want to discuss further with their physician.

Keywords: advance directives, community-based, pocket card, primary care clinic

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