Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: T2DM

39 Investigation of Kinesiophobia in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ismail Okur, Betul Taspinar, Turkan Pasali Kilit, Eda O. Okur, Ferruh Taspinar

Abstract:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important global health emergencies and every year more and more people are affected by T2DM. T2DM causes life-changing complications by affecting organ and systems. Although diet and exercise are the best way to treat patients with T2DM, those patients generally have a sedentary life style. This study was planned to determine whether patients with T2DM have kinesiophobia (fear of movement). A controlled trial was conducted on 87 adults. Forty-one individuals with T2DM (study group, 34 female and 7 male) and 46 nondiabetic individuals (control group, 39 female and 7 male) were included in the study. Patients were screened for fear of movement using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK). The data including age, sex, weight, height, and TSK scores were obtained. Mann Whitney U test were used to analyse the data. The mean ages and BMI of study and control groups were 51.98 ± 6.03 year and 49.52 ± 5.61 year and 31.82 ± 2.88 kg/m2 and 30.22 ± 2.91 kg/m2, respectively. The groups have similar demographic properties. The kinesiophobia scores of study and control groups were 42.78 ± 5.50 and 39.48 ± 5.05, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.05). This study showed that patients with T2DM had high kinesiophobia scores rather than nondiabetics. Those patients might avoid to do exercise. In other words, patients with T2DM might have lower physical activity level. Therefore the authors suggest that to evaluate and interfere with kinesiophobia before conducting exercise therapy will be useful for diabetes care.

Keywords: diabetes, fear of movement, kinesiophobia, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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38 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana

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Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

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37 Dietary Practices of Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Kitui Out Patient Clinic at Kitui County, Kenya

Authors: Alice W. Theuri, Anselimo O. Makokha, Florence M. Kyallo

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder whose prevalence among adults has been increasing in the last decade. It is estimated that by 2030, the number of cases in Africa will almost double. Diet and lifestyle modifications are considered the cornerstone for the treatment and management of T2DM. Despite this, there is minimum literature assessing the dietary practices and glycemic control in a semi arid region context in Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary practices of adult T2DM patients attending Kitui out patient clinic in Kitui County. This was a cross sectional study design where every consenting second patient attending diabetic clinic was interviewed. A total of 138 T2DM patients were interviewed using a structured interview guide on socio-economic and dietary practices administered. The study was carried out in April and May 2017. There were more female (64%) than male (36%) in this study with majority being unemployed (38.4%). Forty seven percent (47.6%) had elevated HbA1c. Majority took three meals per day while DDS was 4.3 ± 1.09. The mean energy intake for men and women was 2823.8 ± 82.45 and 2766.3.30 ± 76.74 respectively. There was a non significant positive relationship (r= 131; P value = 0.124) between amount energy consumed and glycemic control. There were suboptimal dietary practices leading to poor glycemic control among T2DM patients attending diabetic clinic at Kitui District Hospital.

Keywords: adults, dietary practices, semi arid region, T2DM

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36 Levels of Selected Adipokines in Women with Gestational Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, Their Relationship to Metabolic Parameters

Authors: David Karasek, Veronika Kubickova, Ondrej Krystynik, Dominika Goldmannova, Lubica Cibickova, Jan Schovanek

Abstract:

Introduction: Adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), and Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) are adipokines particularly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to compare their levels in women with gestational diabetes (GDM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy controls and determine their relation with metabolic parameters. Methods: Fifty women with GDM, 50 women with T2DM, and 35 healthy women were included in the study. In addition to adipokines, anthropometric, lipid parameters, and markers, insulin resistance, and glucose control were assessed in all participants. Results: Compared to healthy controls only significantly lower levels of adiponectin were detected in women with GDM, whereas lower levels of adiponectin, higher levels of A-FABP and of WISP-1 were present in women with T2DM. Women with T2DM had also lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of A-FABP compared to women with GDM. In women with GDM or T2DM adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TG), C-peptide and positively with HDL-cholesterol; A-FABP positively correlated with BMI, TG, waist, and C-peptide. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between WISP-1 and C-peptide in women with T2DM. Conclusion: Adverse adipokines production detecting dysfunctional fat tissue is in women with GDM less presented than in women with T2DM, but more expressed compared to healthy women. Acknowledgment: Supported by AZV NV18-01-00139 and MH CZ DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein, wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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35 Genotypic and Allelic Distribution of Polymorphic Variants of Gene SLC47A1 Leu125Phe (rs77474263) and Gly64Asp (rs77630697) and Their Association to the Clinical Response to Metformin in Adult Pakistani T2DM Patients

Authors: Sadaf Moeez, Madiha Khalid, Zoya Khalid, Sania Shaheen, Sumbul Khalid

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Background: Inter-individual variation in response to metformin, which has been considered as a first line therapy for T2DM treatment is considerable. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the impact of two genetic variants Leu125Phe (rs77474263) and Gly64Asp (rs77630697) in gene SLC47A1 on the clinical efficacy of metformin in T2DM Pakistani patients. Methods: The study included 800 T2DM patients (400 metformin responders and 400 metformin non-responders) along with 400 ethnically matched healthy individuals. The genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. In-silico analysis was done to confirm the effect of the two SNPs on the structure of genes. Association was statistically determined using SPSS software. Results: Minor allele frequency for rs77474263 and rs77630697 was 0.13 and 0.12. For SLC47A1 rs77474263 the homozygotes of one mutant allele ‘T’ (CT) of rs77474263 variant were fewer in metformin responders than metformin non-responders (29.2% vs. 35.5 %). Likewise, the efficacy was further reduced (7.2% vs. 4.0 %) in homozygotes of two copies of ‘T’ allele (TT). Remarkably, T2DM cases with two copies of allele ‘C’ (CC) had 2.11 times more probability to respond towards metformin monotherapy. For SLC47A1 rs77630697 the homozygotes of one mutant allele ‘A’ (GA) of rs77630697 variant were fewer in metformin responders than metformin non-responders (33.5% vs. 43.0 %). Likewise, the efficacy was further reduced (8.5% vs. 4.5%) in homozygotes of two copies of ‘A’ allele (AA). Remarkably, T2DM cases with two copies of allele ‘G’ (GG) had 2.41 times more probability to respond towards metformin monotherapy. In-silico analysis revealed that these two variants affect the structure and stability of their corresponding proteins. Conclusion: The present data suggest that SLC47A1 Leu125Phe (rs77474263) and Gly64Asp (rs77630697) polymorphisms were associated with the therapeutic response of metformin in T2DM patients of Pakistan.

Keywords: diabetes, T2DM, SLC47A1, Pakistan, polymorphism

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34 Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Diabetic Patients in Lebanon: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Mohamad Alameddine

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Background: The difficulty of compliance to therapeutic and lifestyle management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) encourages patients to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among diabetics in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in general and Lebanon in particular. Objective: To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers - a public hospital and a private academic medical center in Beirut. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a survey questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence, mode and correlates of CAM use in the study population. The main outcome in this study (CAM use) was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results: A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use in the study population was 38%, 95% CI (33.1-43.5). After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as an alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7 % of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion: The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients. Attention must be dedicated to educating T2DM patients on the importance of disclosing CAM use to their physicians especially patients with a family history of diabetes, and those using conventional therapy for a long time.

Keywords: nutritional supplements, type 2 diabetes mellitus, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), conventional therapy

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33 Association of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Patrianef Darwis, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Raden Suhartono, D. Suryandari, Luluk Yunaini, Tom Ch Adriani

Abstract:

Objective: Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is one of the complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) that can lead to disability and death. Inadequate vascularization condition will affect healing process of DFU. Therefore, we investigated the expression of polymorphism TGF- β1 in the relation of the occurrence of DFU in T2DM. Methods: We designed a case-control study to investigate the polymorphism TGF- β1 gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T in T2DM in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. We used PCR techniques and compared the results in a group of T2DM patients with DFU as the case study and without DFU as the control group. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients control without DFU. 49,8% is male and 50,2% female with mean age about 56 years. Distribution of wild-type genotype TGF-B1 1800469 C > T wild type CC was found in 44,8%, the number of mutant heterozygote CT was 10,8% and mutant homozygote is 11,3%. Distribution of TGF-B1 1982073 C>T wild type CC was 32,5%, mutant heterozygote is 38,9% and mutant homozygote 25,1%. Conclusion: Distribution of alleles from TGF-B1 1800469 C > T is C 75% and T 25% and from TGF-B1 1982073 C > T is C53,8% and T 46,2%. In the other word polymorphism TGF- β1 plays a role in the occurrence and healing process of the DFU in T2DM patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, TGF-β1

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32 Dietary Modification and Its Effects in Overweight or Obese Saudi Women with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Dara A. Al-Disi, Asim Al-Fadda, Mohamed Al-Seif, Gyanendra Tripathi, A. L. Harte, Philip G. Mcternan

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For the last few decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing alarmingly high and is unprecedented at 31.6 %. Preventive measures should be taken to curb down the increasing incidence. In this prospective, 3-month study, we aimed to determine whether dietary modification program would confer favorable affects among overweight and obese adult Saudi women with or without T2DM. A total of 92 Saudi women [18 healthy controls, 24 overweight subjects and 50 overweight or obese patients with early onset T2DM were included in this prospective study. Baseline anthropometrics and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 months. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured routinely. A 500 Kcal deficit energy diet less than their daily recommended dietary allowances were prescribed to all participants. After 3 months of follow-up visit, significant improvements were observed in both the overweight and DMT2 group as compared to baseline with decreased mean BMI [Overweight Group 28.54±1.49 versus 27.95±2.25, p<0.05; DMT2 group 35.24±7.67 versus 35.04±8.07, p<0.05] and hip circumference [Overweight group 109.67±5.01 versus 108.07±4.07, p<0.05; DMT2 group 112.3±13.43 versus 109.21±12.71, p<0.01]. Moreover, in the overweight group, baseline HDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with protein intake and inversely associated with carbohydrate intake in controls. In the DMT2 group, carbohydrate intake at baseline was significantly associated with BMI. A 3-month 500kcal/day deficit dietary modification alone is probably effective among adult overweight or obese Saudi females without or with T2DM. Longer prospective studies are to determine whether the dietary intervention alone can reduce progression of T2DM among high-risk adult Arabs.

Keywords: diet, lipid, obesity, T2DM

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31 Expert Opinions about Barriers to Physical Activity among Ghanaian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Authors: Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Andrea Driscoll

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Background: Physical activity (PA) is a major component of diabetes self-care management; although this is often stressed to patients, many adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)lead sedentary lifestyles, and barriers exist for uptake of PA. Aim: To explore opinions of healthcare professionals about barriers to PA for adults with T2DM in Ghana. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study included 13healthcare professionals (3 Physiotherapists, 3 exercise physiologists, 3 nurses, and 4 physicians) who provide care to individuals with T2DM in Ghana. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews. The social cognitive theory guided the design of the interview schedule. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Four main themeswere identified: 1) Individual-related factors, 2) Interpersonal factors, 3) Environment-related factors, and 4) Health system-related factors. Fear of injury, existing co-morbidities, and lack of time make it difficult for people with T2DM to engage in PA. Lack of family support, fear of social ridicule, and cultural beliefs prevent uptake of PA. Poorly designed community spaces, including safe walkways and lack of exercise facilities, inhibit PA participation. Few physical therapists and physical therapy centres exist to support PA participation among people with T2DM. Some nurses and doctors lack adequate knowledge to deliver proper PA education to clients, thereby making clients lack the needed support. Conclusion: Adults with T2DM may be restricted from partaking in PA arising from personal and external factors. This study has identified that barriers to exercise need consideration when designing PA programs that aim to improve health outcomes for people with T2DM in Ghana.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, physical activity, exercise, ghana, qualitative, barriers

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30 Ramadan as a Model of Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Gut Hormones, Appetite and Body Composition in Diabetes vs. Controls

Authors: Turki J. Alharbi, Jencia Wong, Dennis Yue, Tania P. Markovic, Julie Hetherington, Ted Wu, Belinda Brooks, Radhika Seimon, Alice Gibson, Stephanie L. Silviera, Amanda Sainsbury, Tanya J. Little

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Fasting has been practiced for centuries and is incorporated into the practices of different religions including Islam, whose followers intermittently fast throughout the month of Ramadan. Thus, Ramadan presents a unique model of prolonged intermittent fasting (IF). Despite a growing body of evidence for a cardio-metabolic and endocrine benefit of IF, detailed studies of the effects of IF on these indices in type 2 diabetes are scarce. We studied 5 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 7 healthy controls (C) at baseline (pre), and in the last week of Ramadan (post). Fasting circulating levels of glucose, HbA1c and lipids, as well as body composition (with DXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured. Plasma gut hormone levels and appetite responses to a mixed meal were also studied. Data are means±SEM. Ramadan decreased total fat mass (-907±92 g, p=0.001) and trunk fat (-778±190 g, p=0.014) in T2DM but not in controls, without any reductions in lean mass or REE. There was a trend towards a decline in plasma FFA in both groups. Ramadan had no effect on body weight, glycemia, blood pressure, or plasma lipids in either group. In T2DM only, the area under the curve for post-meal plasma ghrelin concentrations increased after Ramadan (pre:6632±1737 vs. post:9025±2518 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.045). Despite this increase in orexigenic ghrelin, subjective appetite scores were not altered by Ramadan. Meal-induced plasma concentrations of the satiety hormone pancreatic polypeptide did not change during Ramadan, but were higher in T2DM compared to controls (post: C: 23486±6677 vs. T2DM: 62193±6880 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.003. In conclusion, Ramadan, as a model for IF appears to have more favourable effects on body composition in T2DM, without adverse effects on metabolic control or subjective appetite. These data suggest that IF may be particularly beneficial in T2DM as a nutritional intervention. Larger studies are warranted.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, obesity, intermittent fasting, appetite regulating hormones

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29 On the Survival of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United Kingdom: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

Authors: Njabulo Ncube, Elena Kulinskaya, Nicholas Steel, Dmitry Pshezhetskiy

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Life expectancy in the United Kingdom (UK) has been near constant since 2010, particularly for the individuals of 65 years and older. This trend has been also noted in several other countries. This slowdown in the increase of life expectancy was concurrent with the increase in the number of deaths caused by non-communicable diseases. Of particular concern is the world-wide exponential increase in the number of diabetes related deaths. Previous studies have reported increased mortality hazards among diabetics compared to non-diabetics, and on the differing effects of antidiabetic drugs on mortality hazards. This study aimed to estimate the all-cause mortality hazards and related life expectancies among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in the UK using the time-variant Gompertz-Cox model with frailty. The study also aimed to understand the major causes of the change in life expectancy growth in the last decade. A total of 221 182 (30.8% T2DM, 57.6% Males) individuals aged 50 years and above, born between 1930 and 1960, inclusive, and diagnosed between 2000 and 2016, were selected from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database of the UK primary care data and followed up to 31 December 2016. About 13.4% of participants died during the follow-up period. The overall all-cause mortality hazard ratio of T2DM compared to non-diabetic controls was 1.467 (1.381-1.558) and 1.38 (1.307-1.457) when diagnosed between 50 to 59 years and 60 to 74 years, respectively. The estimated life expectancies among T2DM individuals without further comorbidities diagnosed at the age of 60 years were 2.43 (1930-1939 birth cohort), 2.53 (1940-1949 birth cohort) and 3.28 (1950-1960 birth cohort) years less than those of non-diabetic controls. However, the 1950-1960 birth cohort had a steeper hazard function compared to the 1940-1949 birth cohort for both T2DM and non-diabetic individuals. In conclusion, mortality hazards for people with T2DM continue to be higher than for non-diabetics. The steeper mortality hazard slope for the 1950-1960 birth cohort might indicate the sub-population contributing to a slowdown in the growth of the life expectancy.

Keywords: T2DM, Gompetz-Cox model with frailty, all-cause mortality, life expectancy

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28 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Increasing Postpartum Screening to Prevent T2D

Authors: Boma Nellie S, Nambiar Ritu, K. Kanchanmala, T. Rashida, Israell Imelda, Moul Khusnud, Michael Marina

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Gestational diabetes (GDM) imparts an increased life long risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease in women. Once diagnosed with GDM women have up to 74% increased cumulative risk developing T2DM in 10-15 years. Identifying women at increased risk of developing T2DM and offering them pharmacological and lifestyle management interventions will delay or eliminate the development of diabetes in this population. While ADA recommends that all gestational diabetics be offered postnatal screening, worldwide the screening rates from 35-75% and Al Rahba Hospital with a robust universal antenatal screening program for GDM was at a dismal 9% in 2011. A multidisciplinary team was put together involving OB/Gyn Physicians, Midwives, Nurses (ward and OPD) Diabetic Educators, Dietitians, Medical Records, Laboratory & IT with the implementation of multiple strategies to increase the uptake of postpartum screening of the gestational diabetic.

Keywords: GDM, postnatal screening, preventing type 2 diabetes, lifestyle management

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27 Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS1) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Eritreans

Authors: Mengistu G. Woldu, Hani Y. Zaki, Areeg Faggad, Badreldin E. Abdalla

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, degenerative, and multi-factorial disease, which is culpable for huge mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even though relatively significant numbers of studies are conducted on the genetics domain of this disease in the developed world, there is huge information gap in the sub-Saharan Africa region in general and in Eritrea in particular. Objective: The principal aim of this study was to investigate the association of common variants of the Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) genes with T2DM in the Eritrean population. Method: In this cross-sectional case control study 200 T2DM patients and 112 non-diabetes subjects were participated and genotyping of the IRS1 (rs13431179, rs16822615, 16822644rs, rs1801123) and TCF7L2 (rs7092484) tag SNPs were carries out using PCR-RFLP method of analysis. Haplotype analyses were carried out using Plink version 1.07, and Haploview 4.2 software. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analyses were performed using the Plink software. All descriptive statistical data analyses were carried out using SPSS (Version-20) software. Throughout the analysis p-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: Significant association was found between rs13431179 SNP of the IRS1 gene and T2DM under the recessive model of inheritance (OR=9.00, 95%CI=1.17-69.07, p=0.035), and marginally significant association found in the genotypic model (OR=7.50, 95%CI=0.94-60.06, p=0.058). The rs7092484 SNP of the TCF7L2 gene also showed markedly significant association with T2DM in the recessive (OR=3.61, 95%CI=1.70-7.67, p=0.001); and allelic (OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.23-2.62, p=0.002) models. Moreover, eight haplotypes of the IRS1 gene found to have significant association withT2DM (p=0.013 to 0.049). Assessments made on the interactions of genotypes of the rs13431179 and rs7092484 SNPs with various parameters demonstrated that high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), waist circumference (WC), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are the best T2DM onset predicting models. Furthermore, genotypes of the rs7092484 SNP showed significant association with various atherogenic indexes (Atherogenic index of plasma, LDL/HDL, and CHLO/HDL); and Eritreans carrying the GG or GA genotypes were predicted to be more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases onset. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IRS1 (rs13431179) and TCF7L2 (rs7092484) gene polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of T2DM in Eritreans.

Keywords: IRS1, SNP, TCF7L2, type 2 diabetes

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26 Comparison of Serum Levels of Secreted Frizzler Protein 5 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated and Not Treated with Metformin

Authors: Irma Gabriela Lopez-Moreno, Elva Perez-Luque, Herlinda Aguilar-Zavala

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Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by combination of insulin resistance and deterioration of insulin secretion. Sfrp5 is a protein that antagonizes Wnt5a proteins by preventing it from reaching its receptor and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, this pathway is one of the most important regulators of adipogenesis. Although metformin decreases glucose levels its mechanisms of action are not fully known but it has been implicated in the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Objective: The objective was evaluating the effects of metformin on serum levels of Sfrp5 in patients with T2DM treated and not treated with metformin. Methods: Two groups of patients were selected: one group of T2DM patients treated with metformin (n = 35) and another group of subjects with recent diagnosis of T2DM untreated (n = 35) with a mean age of 48 ± 9 years. In these subjects anthropometric measures were taken as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, were calculated the percentage of body fat, visceral fat and muscle mass. In addition, were measured glucose levels, lipid profile, adiponectin and Sfrp5. Results: Sfrp5 were higher in metformin-treated patients compared to the untreated group (19.9 vs 13.6 ng/mL p < 0.001), a negative correlation was found between Sfrp5 levels and total cholesterol levels (r= -0.25, p = 0.03) and percentage of visceral fat (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) and a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adiponectin (r=0.65, p = < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings show that metformin consumption increased levels of Sfrp5, which may lead to a decrease in the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway impacting on adipogenesis.

Keywords: adiponectin, diabetes, metformin, Sfrp5

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25 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal

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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

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24 Autophagy Defects That Modify Human Immune Cell Metabolism and Promote Aging-Associated Inflammation

Authors: Grace McCambridge, Alanna Keady, Madhur Agrawal, Dequina Nicholas Alvarado, Barbara Nikolajczyk, Leena Panneerseelan-Bharath

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Age is a non-modifiable risk factor for the inflammation that underlies pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammation, as indicated by circulating cytokines, rises in aging, but mechanisms that promote this ‘inflammaging’ remain poorly defined. Furthermore, downstream consequences of inflammaging, including the development of an inflammatory profile that predicts comorbidities like T2DM, remain speculative. We tested the possibility that natural aging-associated changes in autophagy, a process that is compromised in both aging and T2DM, regulates inflammatory profiles in older subjects. Our data showed that circulating CD4⁺ T cells from older compared to younger subjects have (i) defects in autophagy; (ii) higher mitochondria accumulation; (iii) a failure to metabolically shift from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis upon αCD3/CD28 activation; (iv) more reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; and (v) a cytokine profile that recapitulates the Th17 profile that predicts T2DM. ROS scavenging in cells from older subjects restored mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (indicators of improved autophagy) and reduced Th17 cytokines to amounts made by T cells from younger subjects. Knock-down of the autophagy protein Atg3 in T cells from younger subjects increased mitochondrial accumulation and Th17 cytokines. To begin translating these findings to clinical practice, we showed that physiological concentrations of the diabetes drug metformin (100 µM) added in vitro enhanced autophagy, prevented mitochondria and ROS accumulation, increased anaerobic glycolysis, and decreased Th17 cytokines in activated CD4⁺ T cells from older subjects. Metformin therefore improves autophagy and multiple downstream pro-inflammatory mechanisms CD4⁺ T cells from older subjects. We conclude that autophagy improvement ameliorates the development of a T2DM-predictive Th17 profile in aging, and thus holds promise for delay or prevention of aging-associated metabolic decline.

Keywords: autophagy, mitochondrial turnover, ROS, glycolysis

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23 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, type 2

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22 Erectile Dysfunction among Bangladeshi Men with Diabetes

Authors: Shahjada Selim

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Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important impediment to quality of life of men. ED is approximate, three times more common in diabetic than non-diabetic men, and diabetic men develop ED earlier than age-matched non-diabetic subjects. Glycemic control and other factors may contribute in developing and or deteriorating ED. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of ED and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) men in Bangladesh. Methods: During 2013-2014, 3980 diabetic men aged 30-69 years were interviewed at the out-patient departments of seven diabetic centers in Dhaka by using the validated Bengali version of the questionnaire of the International index of erectile function (IIEF) for evaluation of baseline erectile function (EF). The indexes indicate a very high correlation between the items and the questionnaire is consistently reliable. Data were analyzed with Chi-squared (χ²) test using SPSS software. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 3790, ED was found in 2046 (53.98%) of T2DM men. The prevalence of ED was increased with age from 10.5% in men aged 30-39 years to 33.6% in those aged over 60 years (P < 0.001). In comparison with patients with reported diabetes lasting ≤ 5 years (26.4%), the prevalence of ED was less than in those with diabetes of 6-11 years (35.3%) and of 12-30 years (42.5%, P <0.001). ED increased significantly in those who had poor glycemic control. The prevalence of ED in patients with good, fair and poor glycemic control was 22.8%, 42.5% and 47.9% respectively (P = 0.004). Treatment modalities (medical nutrition therapy, oral agents, insulin, and insulin plus oral agents) had significant association with ED and its severity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of ED is very high among T2DM men in Bangladesh and can be reduced the burden by improving glycemic status. Glycemic control, duration of diabetes, treatment modalities, increasing age are associated with ED.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, diabetes, men, Bangladesh

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21 Association of Daily Physical Activity with Diabetes Control in Patients with Type II Diabetes

Authors: Chia-Hsun Chang

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Background: Combination of drug treatment, dietary management, and regular exercise can effectively control type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Performing daily physical activities other than structured exercise is much easier and whether daily physical activities including work, walking, housework, gardening, leisure exercise, or transportation have a similar effect on diabetes control is not well studied.Aims and Objectives: This study aims to determine whether daily physical activity undertaken by patients with T2DM is associated with their diabetes control. Design: A correlation study with prospective design. Methods: Purposive sampling of 206 patients with T2DM was recruited from a medical center in Central Taiwan. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess daily levels of physical activities, and the Diabetes Compliance Questionnaire was used to assess medication and dietary compliance. Data of diabetes control (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c)were followed up every three months for one year after recruitment. Results: In this study, the average age of the participants was 62.5 years (±10.4 years), and the average duration of diabetes since diagnosis was 13.2 years (±7.8), 112 of the participants were women (54.4%) and 94 of the participants were men (45.6%). The mean HbA1c level was 7.8% (±1.4), and 78.2% of the participants presented with unsatisfactory diabetes control. Because the participants were distributed across a wide age range, and their physical health, activity levels, and comorbidities might have varied with age, the participants were divided into two groups: 121 participants who were younger than 65 years (58.7%) and 85 participants who were older than 65 years (41.3%). Both younger (< 65 years) and older (> 65 years) patients with diabetes engaged in more moderate and low levels of physical activity (89.3% and 87%, respectively). Results showed that the levels of daily physical activity were not significantly associated with diabetes control after adjustment for medication and dietary compliance in both groups. Conclusion: Performing daily physical activity is not significantly correlated with diabetes control. Daily physical activity cannot completely replace exercise. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Health personnel must encourage patients to engage in exercise that is planned, structured, and repetitive for improving diabetes control.

Keywords: daily physical activity, diabetes control, international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

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20 Diet and Exercise Intervention and Bio–Atherogenic Markers for Obesity Classes of Black South Africans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Oladele V. Adeniyi, B. Longo-Mbenza, Daniel T. Goon

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Background: Lipids are often low or in the normal ranges and controversial in the atherogenesis among Black Africans. The effect of the severity of obesity on some traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors is unclear before and after a diet and exercise maintenance programme among obese black South Africans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors to discriminate obesity classes among patients with T2DM before and after a diet and exercise programme. Methods: This interventional cohort of Black South Africans with T2DM was followed by a very – low calorie diet and exercise programme in Mthatha, between August and November 2013. Gender, age, and the levels of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, monthly income, daily frequency of meals, blood random plasma glucose (RPG), serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL –C, HDL – C, Non-HDL, ratios of TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL were recorded. Univariate analysis (ANOVA) and multivariate discriminant analysis were performed to separate obesity classes: normal weight (BMI = 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI = 25 – 29.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 1 (BMI = 30 – 34.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 2 (BMI = 35 – 39.9 kg/m2), and obesity Class 3 (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Results: At the baseline (1st Month September), all 327 patients were overweight/obese: 19.6% overweight, 42.8% obese class 1, 22.3% obese class 2, and 15.3% obese class 3. In discriminant analysis, only systolic blood pressure (SBP with positive association) and LDL/HDL ratio (negative association) significantly separated increasing obesity classes. At the post – evaluation (3rd Month November), out of all 327 patients, 19.9%, 19.3%, 37.6%, 15%, and 8.3% had normal weight, overweight, obesity class 1, obesity class 2, and obesity class 3, respectively. There was a significant negative association between serum creatinine and increase in BMI. In discriminant analysis, only age (positive association), SBP (U – shaped relationship), monthly income (inverted U – shaped association), daily frequency of meals (positive association), and LDL/HDL ratio (positive association) classified significantly increasing obesity classes. Conclusion: There is an epidemic of diabesity (Obesity + T2DM) in this Black South Africans with some weight loss. Further studies are needed to understand positive or negative linear correlations and paradoxical curvilinear correlations between these markers and increase in BMI among black South African T2DM patients.

Keywords: atherogenic dyslipidaemia, dietary interventions, obesity, south africans

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19 Protective Role of Autophagy Challenging the Stresses of Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia

Authors: Tanima Chatterjee, Maitree Bhattacharyya

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The global challenge of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health concern in this millennium, and researchers are continuously exploring new targets to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often coupled with dyslipidemia increasing the risks for cardiovascular (CVD) complications. Enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stresses appear to be the major risk factors underlying insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, and T2DM pathogenesis. Autophagy emerges to be a promising defense mechanism against stress-mediated cell damage regulating tissue homeostasis, cellular quality control, and energy production, promoting cell survival. In this study, we have attempted to explore the pivotal role of autophagy in T2DM subjects with or without dyslipidemia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and insulin-resistant HepG2 cells utilizing flow cytometric platform, confocal microscopy, and molecular biology techniques like western blotting, immunofluorescence, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the case of T2DM with dyslipidemia higher population of autophagy, positive cells were detected compared to patients with the only T2DM, which might have resulted due to higher stress. Autophagy was observed to be triggered both by oxidative and nitrosative stress revealing a novel finding of our research. LC3 puncta was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and periphery of HepG2 cells in the case of the diabetic and diabetic-dyslipidemic conditions. Increased expression of ATG5, LC3B, and Beclin supports the autophagic pathway in both PBMC and insulin-resistant Hep G2 cells. Upon blocking autophagy by 3-methyl adenine (3MA), the apoptotic cell population increased significantly, as observed by caspase‐3 cleavage and reduced expression of Bcl2. Autophagy has also been evidenced to control oxidative stress-mediated up-regulation of inflammatory markers like IL-6 and TNF-α. To conclude, this study elucidates autophagy to play a protective role in the case of diabetes mellitus with dyslipidemia. In the present scenario, this study demands to have a significant impact on developing a new therapeutic strategy for diabetic dyslipidemic subjects by enhancing autophagic activity.

Keywords: autophagy, apoptosis, dyslipidemia, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, Type 2 diabetes

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18 Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Female College Students in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Noor A. Hakim

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Several studies in the developed countries investigated the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among individuals from different socioeconomic levels and suggested lower rates among the higher socioeconomic groups. However, studies evaluating diabetes risk and prevalence of obesity among the population of middle- to high-income status in developing countries are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the weight status of female students in private universities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study of 121 female students aged ≤ 25 years old was conducted; participants were recruited from two private universities. Diabetes risk was evaluated using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated. Diabetes risk scores indicated that 35.5% of the female students had a slightly elevated risk, and 10.8% had a moderate to high risk to develop T2DM. One-third of the females (29.7%) were overweight or obese. The majority of the normal weight and underweight groups were classified to have a low risk of diabetes, 22.2% of the overweight participants were classified to have moderate to high risk, and over half of the obese participants (55.5%) were classified to be at the moderate to high-risk category. Conclusions: Given that diabetes risk is alarming among the population in Saudi Arabia, healthcare providers should utilize a simple screening tool to identify high-risk individuals and initiate diabetes preventive strategies to prevent, or delay, the onset of T2DM and improve the quality of life.

Keywords: risk of type 2 diabetes, weight status, college students, socioeconomic status

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17 The Associations between Ankle and Brachial Systolic Blood Pressures with Obesity Parameters

Authors: Matei Tudor Berceanu, Hema Viswambharan, Kirti Kain, Chew Weng Cheng

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Background - Obesity parameters, particularly visceral obesity as measured by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), correlate with insulin resistance. The metabolic microvascular changes associated with insulin resistance causes increased peripheral arteriolar resistance primarily to the lower limb vessels. We hypothesize that ankle systolic blood pressures (SBPs) are more significantly associated with visceral obesity than brachial SBPs. Methods - 1098 adults enriched in south Asians or Europeans with diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a primary care practice in West Yorkshire. Their medical histories, including T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, were gathered from an electronic database. The brachial, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial SBPs were measured using a Doppler machine. Their body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated after measuring their weight, height, and waist circumference. Linear regressions were performed between the 6 SBPs and both obesity parameters, after adjusting for covariates. Results - Generally, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=4.559*10⁻¹⁵) and right posterior tibial SBP (P=1.114* 10⁻¹³ ) are the pressures most significantly associated with the BMI, as well as in south Asians (P < 0.001) and Europeans (P < 0.001) specifically. In South Asians, although the left (P=0.032) and right brachial SBP (P=0.045) were associated to the WHtR, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=0.023) showed the strongest association. Conclusion - Regardless of ethnicity, ankle SBPs are more significantly associated with generalized obesity than brachial SBPs, suggesting their screening potential for screening for early detection of T2DM and CVD. A combination of ankle SBPs with WHtR is proposed in south Asians.

Keywords: ankle blood pressures, body mass index, insulin resistance, waist-to-height-ratio

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16 Assessment of Dietary Patterns of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris

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Background: Unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Improvement in diet can be beneficial for countering diabetes. For example, HbA1c, an important biomarker for diabetes, can be reduced by 1.1% through only alteration in diet. Ramadan fasting has been reported to provide positive health benefits. However, optimal benefits are not achieved, often due to poor dietary habits and lifestyle. There is a need to better understand the dietary habits of people fasting during Ramadan, so that necessary improvements can be made to develop this form of fasting as a non-pharmacological strategy for management and prevention of T2DM. Aim: This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of Saudi adult patients with T2DM over three different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and relate this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Dietary patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire in each period. This assessment included the diet type and frequency. Blood samples were collected in each period for determination of HbA1c. Results: The number of meals per day for the participants significantly decreased during Ramadan (P < 0.001). The consumption of fruit and vegetables significantly increased during Ramadan (P = 0.017). However, the consumption of sugary drinks significantly increased during and after Ramadan (P = 0.005). Approximately 60% of the patients indicated that they ate sugary foods at least once per week. The consumption of bread and rice was reported to be at least two times per week. The consumption of rice significantly reduced during Ramadan (P = 0.002). The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan compared to before and after Ramadan. The increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables had a medium effect size on the reduction in HbA1c during Ramadan. There was a variance of 7.7% in the mean difference in HbA1c levels between groups (who changed their fruit and vegetable consumption) which can be accounted for by the increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Likewise, 9.3% of the variance in the mean HbA1c difference between the groups was accounted for by a decrease in the consumption of rice. Conclusion: The increase in the frequency of fruit and vegetables intake, and especially the reduction in the frequency of rice consumption, during Ramadan produce beneficial effects in reducing HbA1c level. Therefore, further improving the dietary habits of patients with T2DM, such as reducing their sugary drinks intake, may help them to obtain greater benefits from Ramadan fasting in the management of their diabetes. It is recommended that dietary guidance is provided to the public to maximise health benefits through Ramadan fasting.

Keywords: Diabetes, Diet, Fasting, HbA1c, Ramadan

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15 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among a St. Lucian Population: What We Know about Lifestyle Modification

Authors: Bradley Fevrier

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable metabolic disorder, is a fast-growing problem for health, as it presents numerous complications and death worldwide. St. Lucia, much like most other emerging nation in the Caribbean, struggles with the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among its populace. Good knowledge, attitude, and practices [KAP] of T2DM are essential in the prevention and management of this disease.Lifestyle adaptation, including increased knowledge, positive attitude, and efficient practice towards lifestyle modifications, can avert the advancement of difficulties associated with diabetes. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the period June 15, 2022, to July15 2022. Data were collected by using the self-administered questionnaire designed to collect the required information from participants, and the data wasanalyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 26. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of lifestyle modification among participants were determined using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 402 participants completed the study, fully yielding an 84% response rate. Overall, the assessed levels of KAP relating to the life-threatening complications of T2DM were moderate. Results further indicated that women outnumbered men 68.4% to 31.6%, respectively. Significant positive correlation (r= 0.244, p<0.001) and (r=.203, p<0.001) were found between the knowledge level as well as the attitude level of study respondents. Conclusion: The overall study findings regarding the level of knowledge and attitude concerning lifestyle modifications among study participants were interpreted as generally high. However, the practice of healthy lifestyle modification habits was poor. The current findings suggest a need for structured educational campaigns prioritizing the importance of lifestyle modifications (weight loss, smoking cessation, physical exercise) to the general population.

Keywords: Diabetes, knowledge, lifestyle, survey

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14 High-Risk Gene Variant Profiling Models Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Vulnerability

Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Weiping Chen, Guanjie Chen, Jason Flannick, Emma Fikse, Glenda Smerin, Yanqin Yang, Yulong Li, John A. Hanover, William F. Simonds

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Ethnic disparities in many diseases are well recognized and reflect the consequences of genetic, behavior, and environmental factors. However, direct scientific evidence connecting the ethnic genetic variations and the disease disparities has been elusive, which may have led to the ethnic inequalities in large scale genetic studies. Through the genome-wide analysis of data representing 185,934 subjects, including 14,955 from our own studies of the African America Diabetes Mellitus, we discovered sets of genetic variants either unique to or conserved in all ethnicities. We further developed a quantitative gene function-based high-risk variant index (hrVI) of 20,428 genes to establish profiles that strongly correlate with the subjects' self-identified ethnicities. With respect to the ability to detect human essential and pathogenic genes, the hrVI analysis method is both comparable with and complementary to the well-known genetic analysis methods, pLI and VIRlof. Application of the ethnicity-specific hrVI analysis to the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) national repository, containing 20,791 cases and 24,440 controls, identified 114 candidate T2DM-associated genes, 8.8-fold greater than that of ethnicity-blind analysis. All the genes identified are defined as either pathogenic or likely-pathogenic in ClinVar database, with 33.3% diabetes-associated and 54.4% obesity-associated genes. These results demonstrate the utility of hrVI analysis and provide the first genetic evidence by clustering patterns of how genetic variations among ethnicities may impede the discovery of diabetes and foreseeably other disease-associated genes.

Keywords: diabetes-associated genes, ethnic health disparities, high-risk variant index, hrVI, T2DM

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13 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

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A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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12 Assessment of Physical Activity and Sun Exposure of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris

Abstract:

Background: Physical activity is an important factor in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Reduction in HbA1c level, an important diabetes biomarker, was reported in patients who increased their daily physical activity. Although the ambient temperature was reported to be positively correlated to a negative impact on health and increase the incidences of diabetes, the exposure to bright sunlight was recently found to be associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved beta-cell function. How Ramadan alters physical activity, and especially sunlight exposure, has not been adequately investigated. Aim: This study aimed to assess the physical activity and sun exposure of Saudis with T2DM over different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and related this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudis with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for this study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Physical activity and sun exposure were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while the sun exposure was assessed by asking the patients about their hours per week of direct exposure to the sun, and daily hours spent outdoors. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Low physical activity was observed in more than 60% of the patients, with no significant changes between periods. There were no significant variances between periods in the daily hours spent outdoors and the total number of weekly hours of direct exposure to the sun. The majority of patients reported only few hours of exposure to the sun (1h or less per week) and time spent outdoors (1h or less per day). The mean HbA1c significantly changed between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan. There were significant differences in the mean HbA1c between the groups for the level of physical activity (P < 0.001), with significant lower mean HbA1c in the higher-level group. There were no significant variances in the mean of HbA1c between the groups for the daily hours spent outdoors. The mean HbA1c of the patients, who reported never in their total weekly hours of exposure to the sun, was significantly lower than the mean HbA1c of those who reported 1 hour or less (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Physical inactivity was prevalent among the study population with very little exposure to the sun or time spent outdoors. Higher level of physical activity was associated with lower mean HbA1c levels. Encouraging T2DM patients to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity may help them to obtain greater benefits of Ramadan fasting, such as reducing their HbA1c levels. The impact of low direct exposure to the sun and the time spent outdoors needs to be further investigated in both healthy and diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetes, fasting, physical activity, sunlight, Ramadan

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11 Potential of Polyphenols from Tamarix Gallica towards Common Pathological Features of Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Diseases

Authors: Asma Ben Hmidene, Mizuho Hanaki, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Hiroko Isoda, Hideyuki Shigemori

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized as a peripheral metabolic disorder and a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, respectively. It is now widely recognized that T2DM and AD share many pathophysiological features including glucose metabolism, increased oxidative stress and amyloid aggregation. Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the components of the amyloid deposits in the AD brain and while the component of the amyloidogenic peptide deposit in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is identified as human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). These two proteins are originated from the amyloid precursor protein and have a high sequence similarity. Although the amino acid sequences of amyloidogenic proteins are diverse, they all adopt a similar structure in aggregates called cross-beta-spine. Add at that, extensive studies in the past years have found that like Aβ1-42, IAPP forms early intermediate assemblies as spherical oligomers, implicating that these oligomers possess a common folding pattern or conformation. These similarities can be used in the search for effective pharmacotherapy for DM, since potent therapeutic agents such as antioxidants with a catechol moiety, proved to inhibit Aβ aggregation, may play a key role in the inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP treatment of patients with DM. Tamarix gallica is one of the halophyte species having a powerful antioxidant system. Although it was traditionally used for the treatment of various liver metabolic disorders, there is no report about the use of this plant for the treatment or prevention of T2DM and AD. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate their protective effect towards T2DM and AD by isolation and identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors, with antioxidant potential, that play an important role in the glucose metabolism in diabetic patient, as well as, the polymerization of hIAPP and Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship study was conducted for both assays. And as for α-glucosidase inhibitors, their mechanism of action and their synergistic potential when applied with a very low concentration of acarbose were also suggesting that they can be used not only as α-glucosidase inhibitors but also be combined with established α-glucosidase inhibitors to reduce their adverse effect. The antioxidant potential of the purified substances was evaluated by DPPH and SOD assays. Th-T assay using 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) for AD and hIAPP which is a 37-residue peptide secreted by the pancreatic β –cells for T2DM and Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were conducted to evaluate the amyloid aggragation of the actives substances. For α-glucosidase, p-NPG and glucose oxidase assays were performed for determining the inhibition potential and structure-activity relationship study. The Enzyme kinetic protocol was used to study the mechanism of action. From this research, it was concluded that polyphenols playing a role in the glucose metabolism and oxidative stress can also inhibit the amyloid aggregation, and that substances with a catechol and glucuronide moieties inhibiting amyloid-β aggregation, might be used to inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP.

Keywords: α-glucosidase inhibitors, amyloid aggregation inhibition, mechanism of action, polyphenols, structure activity relationship, synergistic potential, tamarix gallica

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10 The Effect of Nutrition Education on Glycemic and Lipidemic Control in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Samira Rabiei, Faezeh Askari, Reza Rastmanesh

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education and adherence to a healthy diet on glycemic and lipidemic control in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 494 patients with T2DM, aged 14-87 years from both sexes who were selected by convenience sampling from referees to Aliebneabitaleb hospital in Ghom. The participants were divided into two 247 person groups by stratified randomization. Both groups received a diet adjusted based on ideal body weight, and the intervention group was additionally educated about healthy food choices regarding diabetes. Information on medications, psychological factors, diet and physical activity was obtained from questionnaires. Blood samples were collected to measure FBS, 2 hPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. After 2 months, weight and biochemical parameters were measured again. Independent T-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon were used as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio of abnormal glycemic and lipidemic control according to the intervention. Results: The mean weight, FBS, 2 hPG, cholesterol and triglyceride after intervention were significantly lower than before that (p < 0.05). Discussion: Nutrition education plus a weigh reducer diet is more effective on glycemic and lipidemic control than a weight reducer diet, alone.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, nutrition education, glycemic control, lipid profile

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