Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1254

Search results for: substance use disorder

1254 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam

Abstract:

Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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1253 Anxiety Sensitivity and Coping Motives Predict Substance Use Craving and Relapse

Authors: Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

Abstract:

Introduction: Substance use disorder is conceptualized as a chronic relapsing condition where relapse is usually defined as the return to problematic substance use following treatment. An issue of great importance is the identification of the predictors of relapse and the development of treatments that may help prevent relapse. One of the strongest predictors of relapse is craving. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives on craving. Materials and method: Participants (n=74) were male opiate users recruited from a semi-private clinic providing de-toxification and treatment services for substance users. Anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, coping motives and craving were assessed using relevant questionnaires. The addiction severity index was used to assess addiction severity. Results: All patients were methadone maintained and one year after detoxification, 36 patients (48.64%) relapsed. Stress and anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, addiction severity and coping motives predicted craving and relapse. Anxiety sensitivity specifically predicted early relapse. Conclusion: Substance use is a severe mental disorder, with high relapse rates. Substance users high in anxiety sensitivity are particularly prone to relapse during the first six months of treatment. Addiction severity and coping motives need to be taken into account when providing interventional services for substance users. Findings imply the significance of additional psychological attention to methadone maintained patients to prevent craving and relapse.

Keywords: anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, relapse, substance use craving

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1252 Blogging Towards Recovery: The Benefits of Blogging about Recovery

Authors: Jayme R. Swanke

Abstract:

This study examined the benefits of maintaining public blogs about substance use disorder recovery. The data analyzed for this study included statements about the benefits derived by individuals who blogged about their recovery. The researcher developed classifications of statements that expressed what these individuals gained from blogging into common themes and developed an emerging theory based on these patterns. The findings indicate that these individuals in recovery benefit from blogging by developing connections, processing emotions, remaining accountable, as well as enjoying.

Keywords: substance use disorder recovery, connection, blogging, accountability, processing emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1251 Perceived Criticism, Anxiety Disorders, Substance Use Disorders in Women with Borderline Personality Disorders

Authors: Ipek Sensu

Abstract:

Comorbid Axis I disorders are highly common for suicidal borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, especially substance use disorder and anxiety disorders. Since interpersonal dysfunction is one of the core symptoms in BPD, the purpose of the current study is to examine perceived criticism and anxiety disorders and also substance abuse disorders (SUD) for women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who attempt suicide at least once in their lifetime. In the current study, it was suggested that the perceived criticism from others and being upset by criticism differ between suicidal women with BPD with comorbidity of anxiety disorders and SUD (separately) and suicidal women with BPD without anxiety disorders and without SUD (separately). The participants in this study included ninety-nine women who have already been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and also have had at least two episodes of deliberate self-harm, in other words, suicide attempts and/or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the last five years and at least one episode in the 8-week period before joining the research study and at least one suicide attempt in the previous year. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) and Social History Interview (SHI) were conducted to determine the comorbid axis I disorders and level of perceived criticism. As a result of the independent sample t-tests, the first hypothesis was rejected, in other words, women with BPD and a comorbid anxiety disorder did not show significantly higher levels of ‘criticized by others’, compared to women with BPD alone. However, the levels of ‘upset at criticism’ were significantly different between suicidal women with BPD with or without any anxiety disorders, which is the second hypothesis. In addition, the third hypothesis was also accepted; this means, women with BPD who had any substance use dependence would show significantly higher levels of 'criticized by others' compared to women with BPD alone. Finally, the fourth hypothesis was partly accepted: that is, women with BPD with alcohol dependence had significantly higher levels of ‘how upset when they expose to criticism’, compared to those without alcohol dependence. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, borderline personality disorders, perceived criticism, substance use disorders

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1250 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Management at the Montfort Hospital

Authors: Kay-Anne Haykal, Issack Biyong

Abstract:

The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rises from exposure to a traumatic event and appears by a persistent experience of this event. Several psychiatric co-morbidities are associated with PTSD and include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. The main objective was to compare the criteria for PTSD according to the literature to those used to diagnose a patient in a francophone hospital and to check the correspondence of these two criteria. 700 medical charts of admitted patients on the medicine or psychiatric unit at the Montfort Hospital were identified with the following diagnoses: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, substance abuse, and PTSD for the period of time between April 2005 and March 2006. Multiple demographic criteria were assembled. Also, for every chart analyzed, the PTSD criteria, according to the Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV were found, identified, and grouped according to pre-established codes. An analysis using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method was elaborated for the study of data. A sample of 57 women and 50 men was studied. Age was varying between 18 and 88 years with a median age of 48. According to the PTSD criteria in the DSM IV, 12 patients should have the diagnosis of PTSD in opposition to only two identified in the medical charts. The ROC method establishes that with the combination of data from PTSD and depression, the sensitivity varies between 0,127 and 0,282, and the specificity varies between 0,889 and 0,917. Otherwise, if we examine the PTSD data alone, the sensibility jumps to 0.50, and the specificity varies between 0,781 and 0,895. This study confirms the presence of an underdiagnosed and treated PTSD that causes severe perturbations for the affected individual.

Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, co-morbidities, diagnosis, mental health disorders

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1249 W. Norris Clarke’s “Substance-In-Relation”: A Viable Model for Reconstruction of African Personalism

Authors: Aloysius Ezeoba

Abstract:

W. Norris Clarke described his personalism as “substance-in-relation” which emphasizes the equality of primordial modes of substance and relation as a solution to the dichotomy between substance and relation created in the history of metaphysics of the human person. But African personalism seems to conceive the human person as essentially relational, which is mostly expressed in the saying: “I am because we are.” The problem with African personalism is that it tends to overemphasize the relational aspect of the human person, which makes it inclined toward collectivism, that most often seems to lead to repression of the individual (substance). The aim of this article is to attempt a proposal of a reconstruction of African communal personalism using the model of Clarke's personalism by laying equal emphasis on the primordial modes of substance and relation in order to guard against such repression of the individual or substance.

Keywords: substance, relation, human person, Chi, community, African personalism

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1248 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

Abstract:

Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: delinquency, life satisfaction, substance abuse, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1247 Current Judicial Discourse Regarding the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on Crime in Canada

Authors: Ellen McClure

Abstract:

It is generally well-known that a number of inmates suffer from some form of substance or alcohol use disorder. This study identifies, analyses, classifies and codifies the most recent Canadian criminal judgments involving an accused diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder specifically. From this research, patterns in judicial discourse and sentencing norms can be established, and these findings can be juxtaposed with existing relevant academic literature, particular attention will be given to this discussion at the sentencing stage, and the subsequent incarceration of those with alcohol use disorders. This topic will be explored with an overarching emphasis on the effects that a lack of conversation regarding a possible correlation between alcohol consumption and crime may have. Although comparisons may be made in order to clarify or highlight certain issues, particular attention will be paid to jurisdictions within Canada. This paper explores the existing judicial discourse in sentencing regarding the relationship between alcohol and crime, and how this might explain the higher incarceration rates of those suffering from alcohol use disorders in Canada. The research questions are as follows: (1) What are the existing judicial discourses in sentencing around the relationship between alcohol and crime? (2) To what extent has the current discourse on alcohol addiction among judges and legal academics contributed to the incarceration of alcoholics?The major findings of this research indicate a strong correlation between a lack of judicial discussion regarding the accused’s alcohol use disorder and an increased tendency to consider an alcohol use disorder as an aggravating factor. Furthermore, it was found that an 82% of judges who discussed the alcohol use disorder meaningfully referred to the disorder as a mitigating factor. This can be compared with 6.7% of judges who referred to the alcohol use disorder as a mitigating factor in cases where the disorder was not meaningfully discussed.

Keywords: alcohol use disorder, addiction, criminal justice, judicial discourse

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1246 The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients

Authors: Sahra Setorg

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p<0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences.

Keywords: meta-cognitive therapy, meta-cognitive defects, emotional regulation, substance dependence disorder

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1245 School-Related Variables and Adolescents Substance Use

Authors: Nicolas Meylan, Eric Tardif

Abstract:

Many studies have highlighted the links between substance use and school difficulties. However, most of these studies address only the consumption in terms of frequency without considering the different types of behavior (use, abuse, dependence). Moreover, little is known about the associations between substance use and variables such as school engagement and school burnout recently described as a positive state of mind and an exhaustion syndrome related to school, respectively. Through this study, we wish to describe and compare school-related variables in adolescents with different type of substance use. Our study focuses on 402 Swiss adolescents, aged between 14 and 19 years old. They responded collectively and anonymously to a set of scales assessing substance use and several school variables (social support, stress, burnout, engagement and school climate). First, results on frequency and severity of substance use are relatively close to those observed in other studies. Second, it also appears that certain dimensions of stress, burnout, engagement and school climate are associated with the frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption. Finally, adolescents’ substance abusers show particularly high scores of burnout, cynicism and stress related to workload, which can be understand as self-medication behavior. Additional analyzes are underway to clarify these associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and clinical practice in academic burnout.

Keywords: school burnout, school engagement, adolescence, substance use, self-medication

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1244 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

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1243 Exploring Factors Associated with Substance Use among Pregnant Women in a Cape Town Community

Authors: Mutshinye Manguvhewa, Maria Florence, Mansoo Yu, Elize Koch, Kamal Kamaloodien

Abstract:

Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential factors are associated with substance use among women of childbearing age. The study explored factors associated with substance use among pregnant women using a qualitative research design and the bio-ecological theoretical framework to explore and guide the researcher throughout the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Only participants accessed from the Department of Social Development meeting the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Immediate referral for psychological intervention during the interview was available for participants who needed it. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were utilised to analyse the data. The study adheres to ethical guidelines for the participants' protection. Participants were informed about the study before the initiation of the interviews and the details of their voluntary participation were explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that socio-cultural factors, personal factors, emotional response and intimate relationships are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant women in this sample. The results outline the preventative measures that pregnant women implement. Lastly, the study reveals the positive and negative perceptions of substance use programmes that participants share. Some of the study findings are similar to the existing literature and some of the findings differed. Recommendations emanating from the study include that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centres, Department of Health and future researchers should act proactively against substance use during pregnancy.

Keywords: substance addiction, antenatal care, pregnancy, substance use

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1242 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: Imaneh Abbasi, Ladan Fata, Majid Sadeghi, Sara Banihashemi, Abolfazl Mohammadee

Abstract:

Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors of development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is to compare some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical population were selected using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there were not any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, emotion regulation

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1241 Development of International Entry-Level Nursing Competencies to Address the Continuum of Substance Use

Authors: Cheyenne Johnson, Samantha Robinson, Christina Chant, Ann M. Mitchell, Carol Price, Carmel Clancy, Adam Searby, Deborah S. Finnell

Abstract:

Introduction: Substance use along the continuum from at-risk use to a substance use disorder (SUD) contributes substantially to the burden of disease and related harms worldwide. There is a growing body of literature that highlights the lack of substance use related content in nursing curricula. Furthermore, there is also a lack of consensus on key competencies necessary for entry-level nurses. Globally, there is a lack of established nursing competencies related to prevention, health promotion, harm reduction and treatment of at-risk substance use and SUDs. At a critical time in public health, this gap in nursing curricula contributes to a lack of preparation for entry-level nurses to support people along the continuum of substance use. Thus, in practice, early opportunities for screening, support, and interventions may be missed. To address this gap, an international committee was convened to develop international entry-level nursing competencies specifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities that all nurses should possess in order to address the continuum of substance use. Methodology: An international steering committee, including representation from Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia was established to lead this work over a one-year time period. The steering committee conducted a scoping review, undertaken to examine nursing competency frameworks, and to inform a competency structure that would guide this work. The next steps were to outline key competency areas and establish leaders for working groups to develop the competencies. In addition, a larger international committee was gathered to contribute to competency working groups, review the collective work and concur on the final document. Findings: A comprehensive framework was developed with competencies covering a wide spectrum of substance use across the lifespan and in the context of prevention, health promotion, harm reduction and treatment, including special populations. The development of this competency-based framework meets an identified need to provide guidance for universities, health authorities, policy makers, nursing regulators and other organizations that provide and support nursing education which focuses on care for patients and families with at-risk substance use and SUDs. Conclusion: Utilizing these global competencies as expected outcomes of an educational and skill building curricula for entry-level nurses holds great promise for incorporating evidence-informed training in the care and management of people across the continuum of substance use.

Keywords: addiction nursing, addiction nursing curriculum, competencies, substance use

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1240 The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis

Authors: Merve Cebi, Turker Tekin Erguzel, Gokben Hizli Sayar

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Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, dissociation, absolute power, coherence

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1239 The Catholic Aristotle: Metaphysics and the Transubstantiation of the Eucharist

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Aristotle’s definition of substance from Metaphysics is relevant to the Catholic transubstantiation of the Eucharist, the idea that the actual substance of bread and wine is replaced by the substance of the body and blood of Christ. Assuming the physiological nature of the subjects do not change, the Aristotelian view on the nature of substance seems to be incompatible with this belief, since bread and wine have essential qualities different from those of flesh and blood. However, based on a theological view of the essence of the body and blood of Christ as salvation along with the essence of Eucharist, transubstantiation can fit within Aristotle’s brackets. This is one step further than theologians like Aquinas have gone in their similar discussions. Using his work as a method by which to understand the apparently impossible act of transforming food to flesh provides a logical angle on a question of faith.

Keywords: aristotle, catholicism, eucharist, metaphysics transubstantiation

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1238 Identifying Factors Linking Childhood Neglect to Opiate Use

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and internalizing problems in the relationship between childhood neglect and motives for opiate use. Seventy-two adolescent opiate users were recruited for the study. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, distress, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that distress, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that internalizing problems may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional neglect to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment that are at risk for substance use.

Keywords: childhood neglect, impulsiveness, internalizing problems, substance use motives

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1237 Divulging Discursive Constructions On Alcohol Consumption Among Filipino Men Who Are Recovering From Alcoholism: A Foucauldian Approach

Authors: Quervin Zacary M. Roldan, Gwyneth Gabrielle M. Fajardo, Carmela M. Maciar

Abstract:

Alcohol in the Philippines is regarded as a part of their culture however, it is also stigmatized, as alcohol addiction is prevalent among Filipino Males leading them to develop Alcohol Use Disorder. With this, Discourses of alcohol consumption from Individuals recovering from AUD from different rehabilitation centers in the Philippines were analyzed in the study to explore how they ‘talk’ about their alcohol consumption. By utilizing the Foucauldian Discourse Analysis following the six steps by Carla Willig, four (4) major discourses were major construed by the recovering individuals of AUD which are: (1) Being alcohol-free was a dream, (2) Drinking alcohol turns you into a demon that will destroy your life, (3) Drinking alcohol as ‘doing’ drugs and (4) Alcohol is a temporary solution. These discourses construct alcohol consumption as something that is being referred to as a 'bad' substance which is both normalized and stigmatized in Philippine society.

Keywords: alcohol, alcohol consumption, alcohol-based beverages, psychological effects, discourse, alcohol use disorder, stigma

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1236 Family Management, Relations Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Substance Abuse in South Africa

Authors: Beatrice Wamuyu Muchiri, Monika M. L. Dos Santos

Abstract:

An increasingly recognised prevention approach for substance use entails reduction in risk factors and enhancement of promotive or protective factors in individuals and the environment surrounding them during their growth and development. However, in order to enhance the effectiveness of this approach, continuous study of risk aspects targeting different cultures, social groups and mixture of society has been recommended. This study evaluated the impact of potential risk and protective factors associated with family management and relations on adolescent substance abuse in South Africa. Exploratory analysis and cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression modelling was performed on the data while controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics on adolescent substance use. The most intensely used substances were tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and alcohol in decreasing order of use intensity. The specific protective or risk impact of family management or relations factors varied from substance to substance. Risk factors associated with demographic and socio-economic factors included being male, younger age, being in lower education grades, coloured ethnicity, adolescents from divorced parents and unemployed or fully employed mothers. Significant family relations risk and protective factors against substance use were classified as either family functioning and conflict or family bonding and support. Several family management factors, categorised as parental monitoring, discipline, behavioural control and rewards, demonstrated either risk or protective effect on adolescent substance use. Some factors had either interactive risk or protective impact on substance use or lost significance when analysed jointly with other factors such as controlled variables. Interaction amongst risk or protective factors as well as the type of substance should be considered when further considering interventions based on these risk or protective factors. Studies in other geographical regions, institutions and with better gender balance are recommended to improve upon the representativeness of the results. Several other considerations to be made when formulating interventions, the shortcomings of this study and possible improvements as well as future studies are also suggested.

Keywords: risk factors, protective factors, substance use, adolescents

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1235 In vitro Disaggregation and Dissolution of Four IR Lamotrigine Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: Ilaria Manca, Ilaria Manca, Francesca Pettinau, Ignazia Mocci, Elisabetta M. Usai, Barbara Pittau

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Lamotrigine is a phenyltriazine used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder type I. The purpose of this study was to test and compare various solid forms of immediate release (IR) lamotrigine products, at different strenghts, in order to study their disaggregation and dissolution behavior. IR products are designed to release their active substance promptly after administration. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice is about 0.1-0.001 M, so FDA (Food and Drug Administration) recommends, for lamotrigine regular tablets, dissolution tests in HCl 0.1 M.Toinvestigate the pH dependency of drug release in the entire gastrointestinal tract, we worked at two additional media with different pH values (4.5 and 6.8), that reflect conditions in it. To afford acceptable dissolution rates, tablets must disintegrate. Disaggregation of constituent particles increases the surface area and substantially increases the dissolution rate. For this reason availability of an active substance from tablets depends on its ability to disintegrate fast in dissolution media. pH of gastrointestinal fluid affects drug absorption by conditioning its solubility and dissolution, but also tablet disintegration may be influenced by it. To obtain information about the quantitative relationship between different mixture components, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used. We also investigate tablet hardness. The investigation carried out confirms pH 1.2 as the ideal environment for the immediate availability of the active substance.

Keywords: dissolution, disaggregation, Lamotrigine, bioequivalence

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1234 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

Abstract:

Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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1233 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka

Abstract:

At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: addiction treatment, gender segregation, stigma, transgender

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1232 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

Abstract:

Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder, comorbidity, genetic

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1231 Changing Pattern of Drug Abuse: An Outpatient Department Based Study from India

Authors: Anshu Gupta, Charu Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Punjab, a border state in India has achieved notoriety world over for its drug abuse problem. People right from school kids to elderly are hooked to drugs. This pattern of substance abuse is prevalent in both cities and villages alike. Excess of younger population in India has further aggravated the situation. It is feared that the benefits of India’s economic growth may well be negated by the rising substance abuse especially in this part of the country. It is quite evident that the pattern of substance abuse tends to change over time which is an impediment in the formulation of effective strategies to tackle this issue. Aim: Purpose of the study was to ascertain the change in the pattern of drug abuse for two consecutive years in the out patient department (OPD) population. Method: The study population comprised of all the patients reporting for deaddiction to the psychiatry outpatient department over a period of twelve months for two consecutive years. All the patients were evaluated by the International Classification of Diseases; 10 criteria for substance abuse/dependence. Results: A considerably high prevalence of substance abuse was present in the Indian population. In general, there was an increase in prevalence from first to the second year, especially among the female population. Increase in prevalence of substance abuse appeared to be more prominent among the younger age group of both the sexes. A significant increase in intravenous drug abuse was observed. Peer pressure and parental imitation were the major factors fueling substance abuse. Precipitation or fear of withdrawal symptoms was the major factor preventing abstinence. Substance abuse had a significant effect on the health and interpersonal relations of these patients. Summary/Conclusion: Drug abuse and addiction are on the rise throughout India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds appear to be leading to initiation of substance abuse. Need of the hour is to formulate a comprehensive strategy to bring about an overall reduction in the use of drugs.

Keywords: deaddiction, peer pressure, parental imitation, substance abuse/dependance

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1230 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1229 Influence of Rational Emotive Therapy on Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students in Benue State

Authors: Justina I. Reamen

Abstract:

The study examined the influence of rational emotive therapy on the treatment of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School Students in Makurdi metropolis Benue State Nigeria. This research adopted youth self report scale which was distributed to 1,690 SSS Students drawn from Government day Secondary School Makurdi and Government Model College Makurdi. Afterwards, 200 who were identified to indulge in substance abuse were selected for the study, 100 each from the two schools. 100 were taken as the control group and 100 as the experimental group, (50 of each group from each school). The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) intervention program was presented to the experimental group for seven (7) weeks. The students were taught how to apply REBT’s cognitive, Emotive and Behavioral techniques on their problems. After which post test was conducted to find out the impact of REBT on the treatment of adolescent students with substance abuse problem. GLM repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyze the data from the study. The study reveals that REBT has positive impact on the treatment of adolescent students that abuse substances in the study area. Between pretest to post-test scores, a significant difference was observed (F=26.939; P=000) in substance abuse where a decrease of 1.12 (pre-10.91, post-9.79) scores was noticed irrespective of the groups. However, when the decrease in substance abuse were analyzed group wise, (experimental control) again significant F value (F=38.782; P=000) was obtained. From the mean scores it is evident that experimental group decreased it means by 2.56 (Pre-10.04 - Post-8.83) scores compared to control group, which changed its scores by only 0.32 scores (pre 11.04 - Post 11.36). Recommendations were made based on the findings of the research.

Keywords: abuse, influence, substance, therapy, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1228 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

Abstract:

The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
1227 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

Abstract:

The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
1226 Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

Abstract:

Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.

Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
1225 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

Abstract:

The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: autism, stress, parents, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 225