Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5929

Search results for: operational efficiency

5929 Impacts of Financial Development and Operational Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu

Abstract:

This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operational scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises of unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese enlisted in domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. The effect of operational scale exerts a significantly positive effect on bank efficiencies, but the gain of efficiency is decreased gradually when operational scale increases. Furthermore, increase in capital adequacy ratio and market power of banks leads to a growth of bank efficiencies.

Keywords: financial development, operational scale, efficiency, DEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
5928 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan

Abstract:

Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

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5927 Operational Excellence Performance in Pharmaceutical Quality Control Labs: An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness and Efficiency Relation

Authors: Stephan Koehler, Thomas Friedli

Abstract:

Performance measurement has evolved over time from a unidimensional short-term efficiency focused approach into a balanced multidimensional approach. Today, integrated performance measurement frameworks are often used to avoid local optimization and to encourage continuous improvement of an organization. In literature, the multidimensional characteristic of performance measurement is often described by competitive priorities. At the same time, on the highest abstraction level an effectiveness and efficiency dimension of performance measurement can be distinguished. This paper aims at a better understanding of the composition of effectiveness and efficiency and their relation in pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research comprises a lab-specific operationalization of effectiveness and efficiency and examines how the two dimensions are interlinked. The basis for the analysis represents a database of the University of St. Gallen including a divers set of 40 different pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research provides empirical evidence that labs with a high effectiveness also accompany a high efficiency. Lab effectiveness explains 29.5 % of the variance in lab efficiency. In addition, labs with an above median operational excellence performance have a statistically significantly higher lab effectiveness and lab efficiency compared to the below median performing labs.

Keywords: empirical study, operational excellence, performance measurement, pharmaceutical quality control lab

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
5926 The Influence of Operational Changes on Efficiency and Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Dimitrios Kafetzopoulos

Abstract:

Nowadays, companies are more concerned with adopting their own strategies for increased efficiency and sustainability. Dynamic environments are fertile fields for developing operational changes. For this purpose, organizations need to implement an advanced management philosophy that boosts changes to companies’ operation. Changes refer to new applications of knowledge, ideas, methods, and skills that can generate unique capabilities and leverage an organization’s competitiveness. So, in order to survive and compete in the global and niche markets, companies should incorporate the adoption of operational changes into their strategy with regard to their products and their processes. Creating the appropriate culture for changes in terms of products and processes helps companies to gain a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the role of both incremental and radical changes into operations of a company, taking into consideration not only product changes but also process changes, and continues by measuring the impact of these two types of changes on business efficiency and sustainability of Greek manufacturing companies. The above discussion leads to the following hypotheses: H1: Radical operational changes have a positive impact on firm efficiency. H2: Incremental operational changes have a positive impact on firm efficiency. H3: Radical operational changes have a positive impact on firm sustainability. H4: Incremental operational changes have a positive impact on firm sustainability. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a research study was carried out in Greek manufacturing firms. A total of 380 valid questionnaires were received while a seven-point Likert scale was used to measure all the questionnaire items of the constructs (radical changes, incremental changes, efficiency and sustainability). The constructs of radical and incremental operational changes, each one as one variable, has been subdivided into product and process changes. Non-response bias, common method variance, multicollinearity, multivariate normal distribution and outliers have been checked. Moreover, the unidimensionality, reliability and validity of the latent factors were assessed. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to check the factorial structure of the constructs and the factor loadings of the items. In order to test the research hypotheses, the SEM technique was applied (maximum likelihood method). The goodness of fit of the basic structural model indicates an acceptable fit of the proposed model. According to the present study findings, radical operational changes and incremental operational changes significantly influence both efficiency and sustainability of Greek manufacturing firms. However, it is in the dimension of radical operational changes, meaning those in process and product, that the most significant contributors to firm efficiency are to be found, while its influence on sustainability is low albeit statistically significant. On the contrary, incremental operational changes influence sustainability more than firms’ efficiency. From the above, it is apparent that the embodiment of the concept of the changes into the products and processes operational practices of a firm has direct and positive consequences for what it achieves from efficiency and sustainability perspective.

Keywords: incremental operational changes, radical operational changes, efficiency, sustainability

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5925 Increase of Energy Efficiency by Means of Application of Active Bearings

Authors: Alexander Babin, Leonid Savin

Abstract:

In the present paper, increasing of energy efficiency of a thrust hybrid bearing with a central feeding chamber is considered. The mathematical model was developed to determine the pressure distribution and the reaction forces, based on the Reynolds equation and static characteristics’ equations. The boundary problem of pressure distribution calculation was solved using the method of finite differences. For various types of lubricants, geometry and operational characteristics, axial gaps can be determined, where the minimal friction coefficient is provided. The next part of the study considers the application of servovalves in order to maintain the desired position of the rotor. The report features the calculation results and the analysis of the influence of the operational and geometric parameters on the energy efficiency of mechatronic fluid-film bearings.

Keywords: active bearings, energy efficiency, mathematical model, mechatronics, thrust multipad bearing

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5924 Comparative Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaameran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative analysis of photovoltaic systems (PVS) and proposes practical techniques to improve operational efficiency of the PVS. The best engineering and construction practices for PVS are identified and field oriented recommendation are made. Comparative analysis of central and string inverter based, as well as 600 and 1000 VDC PVS are performed. In addition, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module based systems are compared. Comparison shows that 1000 V DC String Inverters based PVS is the best choice.

Keywords: photovoltaic module, photovoltaic systems, operational efficiency improvement, comparative analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
5923 An Evaluation of the Impact of E-Banking on Operational Efficiency of Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Rabiu Darazo

Abstract:

The research has been conducted on the impact of E-banking on the operational efficiency of Banks in Nigeria, A case of some selected banks (Diamond Bank Plc, GTBankPlc, and Fidelity Bank Plc) in Nigeria. The research is a quantitative research which uses both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Questionnaire were used to obtained accurate data, where 150 Questionnaire were distributed among staff and customers of the three Banks , and the data collected where analysed using chi-square, whereas the secondary data where obtained from relevant text books, journals and relevant web sites. It is clear from the findings that, the use of e-banking by the banks has improved the efficiency of these banks, in terms of providing efficient services to customers electronically, using Internet Banking, Telephone Banking ATMs, reducing time taking to serve customers, e-banking allow new customers to open an account online, customers have access to their account at all the time 24/7.E-banking provide access to customers information from the data base and cost of check and postage were eliminated using e-banking. The recommendation at the end of the research include; the Banks should try to update their electronic gadgets, e-fraud(internal & external) should also be controlled, Banks shall employ qualified man power, Biometric ATMs shall be introduce to reduce fraud using ATM Cards, as it is use in other countries like USA.

Keywords: banks, electronic banking, operational efficiency of banks, biometric ATMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5922 Operational Measures for Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Ships

Authors: Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

Abstract:

In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, technical and operational measures can be used. Operational measures are easier and cheaper compared to technical measures, so are well recommended. One of the most cost-effective operational measure is fuel consumption. Fuel consumption can be reduced by various options but it sometimes needs investments in new equipment, new procedures and crew education. In order to implement operational measures in everyday procedures and routines on board, good understanding of the mechanisms by which these measures work is essential for the seamen.

Keywords: green shipping, gas emission reduction, operational measures, seamen

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
5921 Research on Measuring Operational Risk in Commercial Banks Based on Internal Control

Authors: Baobao Li

Abstract:

Operational risk covers all operations of commercial banks and has a close relationship with the bank’s internal control. But in the commercial banks' management practice, internal control is always separated from the operational risk measurement. With the increasing of operational risk events in recent years, operational risk is paid more and more attention by regulators and banks’ managements. The paper first discussed the relationship between internal control and operational risk management and used CVaR-POT model to measure operational risk, and then put forward a modified measurement method (to use operational risk assessment results to modify the measurement results of the CVaR-POT model). The paper also analyzed the necessity and rationality of this method. The method takes into consideration the influence of internal control, improves the accuracy and effectiveness of operational risk measurement and save the economic capital for commercial banks, avoiding the drawbacks of using some mainstream models one-sidedly.

Keywords: commercial banks, internal control, operational risk, risk measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
5920 Phosphorus Recovery Optimization in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Abdullah Almatouq

Abstract:

Understanding the impact of key operational variables on concurrent energy generation and phosphorus recovery in microbial fuel cell is required to improve the process and reduce the operational cost. In this study, full factorial design (FFD) and central composite designs (CCD) were employed to identify the effect of influent COD concentration and cathode aeration flow rate on energy generation and phosphorus (P) recovery and to optimise MFC power density and P recovery. Results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and cathode aeration flow rate had a significant effect on power density, coulombic efficiency, phosphorus precipitation efficiency and phosphorus precipitation rate at the cathode. P precipitation was negatively affected by the generated current during the batch duration. The generated energy was reduced due to struvite being precipitated on the cathode surface, which might obstruct the mass transfer of ions and oxygen. Response surface mathematical model was used to predict the optimum operating conditions that resulted in a maximum power density and phosphorus precipitation efficiency of 184 mW/m² and 84%, and this corresponds to COD= 1700 mg/L and aeration flow rate=210 mL/min. The findings highlight the importance of the operational conditions of energy generation and phosphorus recovery.

Keywords: energy, microbial fuel cell, phosphorus, struvite

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5919 Velocity Logs Error Reduction for In-Service Calibration of Vessel Performance Indicators

Authors: Maria Tsompanoglou, Dimitris Armenis

Abstract:

Vessel behavior in different operational and weather conditions constitutes the main area of interest for the ship operator. Ship speed and fuel consumption are the most decisive parameters in this respect, as their correlation provides information about the economic and environmental efficiency of the vessel, becoming the basis of decision making in terms of maintenance and trading. In the analysis of vessel operational profile for the evaluation of fuel consumption and the equivalent CO2 emissions footprint, the indications of Speed Through Water are widely used. The seasonal and regional variations in seawater characteristics, which are available nowadays, can provide the basis for accurate estimation of the errors in Speed Through Water indications at any time. Accuracy in the speed value on a route basis can enable operator identify the ship fuel and propulsion efficiency and proceed with improvements. This paper discusses case studies, where the actual vessel speed was corrected by a post-processing algorithm. The effects of the vessel correction to standard Key Performance Indicators, as well as operational findings not identified earlier, are also discussed.

Keywords: data analytics, MATLAB, vessel performance monitoring, speed through water

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
5918 Effects of Ergonomics on Labor Productivity in Office Design

Authors: Abdullah Erden, Filiz Erden

Abstract:

In the present information society era, a change is seen in every field together with changing technology. Along with this change, importance given to information and human who is the producer of information increased. Work life and working conditions included in these changes have also been affected. The most important factors that disturb employees in offices are lighting, ventilation, noise and office furniture. Upon arrangement of these according to ergonomic principles, performance and efficiency of employees will increase. Fatigue and stress resulting from office environment are harmful for employees. Attention and efficiency of employee who feels bad will decrease. It should be noted that office employees are human and affected from environment. It should be allowed them to work in comfortable, healthy and peaceful environment. As a result, efficiency will increase and target will be reached. In this study, it has been focused on basic concepts such as office management and efficiency, effects of ergonomics on office efficiency has been examined. Also, a place is given to the factors affecting operational efficiency and effects of physical environment on employees.

Keywords: ergonomics, efficiency, office design, office

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
5917 Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Baber Saeed Olakh, M. Bilal Awan

Abstract:

Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.

Keywords: millisecond laser, defocusing beam, operational current, keyhole profile, recast layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
5916 Measurement of Operational and Environmental Performance of the Coal-Fired Power Plants in India by Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Vijay Kumar Bajpai, Sudhir Kumar Singh

Abstract:

In this study, the performance analyses of the twenty five coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) used for electricity generation are carried out through various data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Three efficiency indices are defined and pursued. During the calculation of the operational performance, energy and non-energy variables are used as input, and net electricity produced is used as desired output. CO2 emitted to the environment is used as the undesired output in the computation of the pure environmental performance while in Model-3 CO2 emissions is considered as detrimental input in the calculation of operational and environmental performance. Empirical results show that most of the plants are operating in increasing returns to scale region and Mettur plant is efficient one with regards to energy use and environment. The result also indicates that the undesirable output effect is insignificant in the research sample. The present study will provide clues to plant operators towards raising the operational and environmental performance of CFPPs.

Keywords: coal fired power plants, environmental performance, data envelopment analysis, operational performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
5915 Improving Operational Excellence Adopting TPM Practices in an Indian Automobile Industry: A Case Study

Authors: Pardeep Gupta

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on TPM implementation methodology and to highlight the benefits achieved after TPM in an engineering industry XYZ Ltd. (name changed) situated in Mohali, Punjab. The improvements in key performance indicators (PQCDSM) after implementing the TPM proved that its implementation helped the company significantly to achieve higher productivity, customer satisfaction, morale, and profits. The manufacturing cost reduced by 30%, overall equipment efficiency increased from 63% in 2010 to 84% after three years and productivity improved by 67%. The Company has won the TPM Excellence Award, Category-A in 2013 and after that continued implementing second phase of TPM. The findings of the study govern that the strategic TPM implementation can significantly contribute for the realization of operational excellence in almost all types of industry.

Keywords: total productive maintenance, overall equipment efficiency, continuous improvement, manufacturing excellence, availability, TPM initiatives, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5914 Short-Term Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Yooncheol Lee, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the establishment of a short-term operational plan for an air conditioner for efficient energy management of exhibition hall. The short-term operational plan is composed of a time series of operational schedules, which we have searched using genetic algorithms. Establishing operational schedule should be considered the future trends of the variables affecting the exhibition hall environment. To reflect continuously changing factors such as external temperature and occupant, short-term operational plans should be updated in real time. But it takes too much time to evaluate a short-term operational plan using EnergyPlus, a building emulation tool. For that reason, it is difficult to update the operational plan in real time. To evaluate the short-term operational plan, we designed prediction models based on machine learning with fast evaluation speed. This model, which was created by learning the past operational data, is accurate and fast. The collection of operational data and the verification of operational plans were made using EnergyPlus. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save energy compared to the reactive control method.

Keywords: exhibition hall, energy management, predictive model, simulation-based optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
5913 Financial Analysis of Selected Private Healthcare Organizations with Special Referance to Guwahati City, Assam

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

Abstract:

The private sector investments and quantum of money required in this sector critically hinges on the financial risk and returns the sector offers to providers of capital. Therefore, it becomes important to understand financial performance of hospitals. Financial Analysis is useful for decision makers in a variety of settings. Consider the small proprietary hospitals, say, Physicians Clinic. The managers of such clinic need the information that financial statements provide. Attention to Financial Statements of healthcare Organizations can provide answers to questions like: How are they doing? What is their rate of profit? What is their solvency and liquidity position? What are their sources and application of funds? What is their Operational Efficiency? The researcher has studied Financial Statements of 5 Private Healthcare Organizations in Guwahati City.

Keywords: not-for-profit organizations, financial analysis, ratio analysis, profitability analysis, liquidity analysis, operational efficiency, capital structure analysis

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5912 Modelling Operational Risk Using Extreme Value Theory and Skew t-Copulas via Bayesian Inference

Authors: Betty Johanna Garzon Rozo, Jonathan Crook, Fernando Moreira

Abstract:

Operational risk losses are heavy tailed and are likely to be asymmetric and extremely dependent among business lines/event types. We propose a new methodology to assess, in a multivariate way, the asymmetry and extreme dependence between severity distributions, and to calculate the capital for Operational Risk. This methodology simultaneously uses (i) several parametric distributions and an alternative mix distribution (the Lognormal for the body of losses and the Generalized Pareto Distribution for the tail) via extreme value theory using SAS®, (ii) the multivariate skew t-copula applied for the first time for operational losses and (iii) Bayesian theory to estimate new n-dimensional skew t-copula models via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. This paper analyses a newly operational loss data set, SAS Global Operational Risk Data [SAS OpRisk], to model operational risk at international financial institutions. All the severity models are constructed in SAS® 9.2. We implement the procedure PROC SEVERITY and PROC NLMIXED. This paper focuses in describing this implementation.

Keywords: operational risk, loss distribution approach, extreme value theory, copulas

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
5911 Thermal Performance of Reheat, Regenerative, Inter-Cooled Gas Turbine Cycle

Authors: Milind S. Patil, Purushottam S. Desale, Eknath R. Deore

Abstract:

Thermal analysis of reheat, regenerative, inter-cooled gas turbine cycle is presented. Specific work output, thermal efficiency and SFC is simulated with respect to operating conditions. Analytical formulas were developed taking into account the effect of operational parameters like ambient temperature, compression ratio, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, regenerator effectiveness, pressure loss in inter cooling, reheating and regenerator. Calculations were made for wide range of parameters using engineering equation solver and the results were presented here. For pressure ratio of 12, regenerator effectiveness 0.95, and maximum turbine inlet temperature 1200 K, thermal efficiency decreases by 27% with increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K). With decrease in regenerator effectiveness thermal efficiency decreases linearly. With increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K) for the same maximum temperature and regenerator effectiveness SFC decreases up to a pressure ratio of 10 and then increases. Sharp rise in SFC is noted for higher ambient temperature. With increase in isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine, thermal efficiency increases by about 40% for low ambient temperature (278 K to 298 K) however, for higher ambient temperature (308 K to 328 K) thermal efficiency increases by about 70%.

Keywords: gas turbine, reheating, regeneration, inter-cooled, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
5910 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Bernasconi Matteo, Grothkopp Mark, Friedli Thomas

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and human resource management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices

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5909 A Mixed Approach to Assess Information System Risk, Operational Risk, and Congolese Microfinance Institutions Performance

Authors: Alfred Kamate Siviri, Angelus Mafikiri Tsongo, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

Abstract:

Digitalization and information systems well organized have been selected as relevant measures to mitigate operational risks within organizations. Unfortunately, information system comes with new threats that can cause severe damage and quick organization lockout. This study aims to measure perceived information system risks and their effects on operational risks within the microfinance institution in D.R. Congo. Also, the factors influencing the operational risk are identified, and the link between operational risk with other risks and performance is to be assessed. The study proposes a research model drawn on the combination of Resources-Based-View, dynamic capabilities, the agency theory, the Information System Security Model, and social theories of risk. Therefore, we suggest adopting a mixed methods research with the sole aim of increasing the literature that already exists on perceived operational risk assessment and its link with other risk and performance, a focus on IT risk.

Keywords: Democratic Republic Congo, information system risk, microfinance performance, operational risk

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5908 Evaluating the Energy Efficiency Measures for an Educational Building in a Hot-Humid Region

Authors: Rafia Akbar

Abstract:

This paper assesses different Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and their impact on energy consumption and carbon footprint of an educational building located in Islamabad. A base case was first developed in accordance with typical construction practices in Pakistan. Several EEMs were separately applied to the baseline design to quantify their impact on operational energy reduction of the building and the resultant carbon emissions. Results indicate that by applying these measures, there is a potential to reduce energy consumption up to 49% as compared to the base case. It was observed that energy efficient ceiling fans and lights, insulation of the walls and roof and an efficient air conditioning system for the building can provide significant energy savings. The results further indicate that the initial investment cost of these energy efficiency measures can be recovered within 6 to 7 years of building’s service life.

Keywords: CO2 savings, educational building, energy efficiency measures, payback period

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5907 Time Driven Activity Based Costing Capability to Improve Logistics Performance: Application in Manufacturing Context

Authors: Siham Rahoui, Amr Mahfouz, Amr Arisha

Abstract:

In a highly competitive environment characterised by uncertainty and disruptions, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, supply chains (SC) face the challenge of maintaining their cost at minimum levels while continuing to provide customers with high-quality products and services. More importantly, businesses in such an economic context strive to maintain survival by keeping the cost of undertaken activities (such as logistics) low and in-house. To do so, managers need to understand the costs associated with different products and services in order to have a clear vision of the SC performance, maintain profitability levels, and make strategic decisions. In this context, SC literature explored different costing models that sought to determine the costs of undertaking supply chain-related activities. While some cost accounting techniques have been extensively explored in the SC context, more contributions are needed to explore the potential of time driven activity-based costing (TDABC). More specifically, more applications are needed in the manufacturing context of the SC, where the debate is ongoing. The aim of the study is to assess the capability of the technique to assess the operational performance of the logistics function. Through a case study methodology applied to a manufacturing company operating in the automotive industry, TDABC evaluates the efficiency of the current configuration and its logistics processes. The study shows that monitoring the process efficiency and cost efficiency leads to strategic decisions that contributed to improve the overall efficiency of the logistics processes.

Keywords: efficiency, operational performance, supply chain costing, time driven activity based costing

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5906 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 590
5905 Theoretical Evaluation of Minimum Superheat, Energy and Exergy in a High-Temperature Heat Pump System Operating with Low GWP Refrigerants

Authors: Adam Y. Sulaiman, Donal F. Cotter, Ming J. Huang, Neil J. Hewitt

Abstract:

Suitable low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants that conform to F-gas regulations are required to extend the operational envelope of high-temperature heat pumps (HTHPs) used for industrial waste heat recovery processes. The thermophysical properties and characteristics of these working fluids need to be assessed to provide a comprehensive understanding of operational effectiveness in HTHP applications. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation to investigate a range of low-GWP refrigerants and their suitability to supersede refrigerants HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc. A steady-state thermodynamic model of a single-stage HTHP with an internal heat exchanger (IHX) was developed to assess system cycle characteristics at temperature ranges between 50 to 80 °C heat source and 90 to 150 °C heat sink. A practical approach to maximize the operational efficiency was examined to determine the effects of regulating minimum superheat within the process and subsequent influence on energetic and exergetic efficiencies. A comprehensive map of minimum superheat across the HTHP operating variables were used to assess specific tipping points in performance at 30 and 70 K temperature lifts. Based on initial results, the refrigerants HCFO-1233zd(E) and HFO-1336mzz(Z) were found to be closely aligned matches for refrigerants HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc. The overall results show effective performance for HCFO-1233zd(E) occurs between 5-7 K minimum superheat, and HFO-1336mzz(Z) between 18-21 K dependant on temperature lift. This work provides a method to optimize refrigerant selection based on operational indicators to maximize overall HTHPs system performance.

Keywords: high-temperature heat pump, minimum superheat, energy & exergy efficiency, low GWP refrigerants

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5904 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim

Abstract:

Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

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5903 Leadership in Future Operational Environment

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Rapidly changing factors that affect daily life also affect operational environment and the way military leaders fulfill their missions. With the help of technological developments, traditional linearity of conflict and war has started to fade away. Furthermore, mission domain has broadened to include traditional threats, hybrid threats and new challenges of cyber and space. Considering the future operational environment, future military leaders need to adapt themselves to the new challenges of the future battlefield. But how to decide what kind of features of leadership are required to operate and accomplish mission in the new complex battlefield? In this article, the main aim is to provide answers to this question. To be able to find right answers, first leadership and leadership components are defined, and then characteristics of future operational environment are analyzed. Finally, leadership features that are required to be successful in redefined battlefield are explained.

Keywords: future operational environment, leadership, leadership components

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5902 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Legendre Wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

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5901 Data Analytics in Energy Management

Authors: Sanjivrao Katakam, Thanumoorthi I., Antony Gerald, Ratan Kulkarni, Shaju Nair

Abstract:

With increasing energy costs and its impact on the business, sustainability today has evolved from a social expectation to an economic imperative. Therefore, finding methods to reduce cost has become a critical directive for Industry leaders. Effective energy management is the only way to cut costs. However, Energy Management has been a challenge because it requires a change in old habits and legacy systems followed for decades. Today exorbitant levels of energy and operational data is being captured and stored by Industries, but they are unable to convert these structured and unstructured data sets into meaningful business intelligence. It must be noted that for quick decisions, organizations must learn to cope with large volumes of operational data in different formats. Energy analytics not only helps in extracting inferences from these data sets, but also is instrumental in transformation from old approaches of energy management to new. This in turn assists in effective decision making for implementation. It is the requirement of organizations to have an established corporate strategy for reducing operational costs through visibility and optimization of energy usage. Energy analytics play a key role in optimization of operations. The paper describes how today energy data analytics is extensively used in different scenarios like reducing operational costs, predicting energy demands, optimizing network efficiency, asset maintenance, improving customer insights and device data insights. The paper also highlights how analytics helps transform insights obtained from energy data into sustainable solutions. The paper utilizes data from an array of segments such as retail, transportation, and water sectors.

Keywords: energy analytics, energy management, operational data, business intelligence, optimization

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5900 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

Procedia PDF Downloads 502