Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1658

Search results for: feeding and eating disorders

1658 Mathematical Description of Functional Motion and Application as a Feeding Mode for General Purpose Assistive Robots

Authors: Martin Leroux, Sylvain Brisebois

Abstract:

Eating a meal is among the Activities of Daily Living, but it takes a lot of time and effort for people with physical or functional limitations. Dedicated technologies are cumbersome and not portable, while general-purpose assistive robots such as wheelchair-based manipulators are too hard to control for elaborate continuous motion like eating. Eating with such devices has not previously been automated, since there existed no description of a feeding motion for uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we introduce a feeding mode for assistive manipulators, including a mathematical description of trajectories for motions that are difficult to perform manually such as gathering and scooping food at a defined/desired pace. We implement these trajectories in a sequence of movements for a semi-automated feeding mode which can be controlled with a very simple 3-button interface, allowing the user to have control over the feeding pace. Finally, we demonstrate the feeding mode with a JACO robotic arm and compare the eating speed, measured in bites per minute of three eating methods: a healthy person eating unaided, a person with upper limb limitations or disability using JACO with manual control, and a person with limitations using JACO with the feeding mode. We found that the feeding mode allows eating about 5 bites per minute, which should be sufficient to eat a meal under 30min.

Keywords: assistive robotics, automated feeding, elderly care, trajectory design, human-robot interaction

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1657 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio

Abstract:

Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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1656 The Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Treatment of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Recovery Patient with Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Y. Melis, E. Apicella, E. Dozio, L. Mendolicchio

Abstract:

Introduction: Feeding and Eating Disorders (FED) represent the psychiatric pathology with the highest mortality rate and one of the major disorders with the highest psychiatric and clinical comorbidity. The vagus nerve represents one of the main components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and is involved in important neurophysiological functions. In FED, there is a spectrum of symptoms which with TaVNS (Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation) therapy, is possible to have a therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: Sample subjects are composed of 15 female subjects aged > 18 ± 51. Admitted to a psychiatry community having been diagnosed according to DSM-5: anorexia nervosa (AN) (N= 9), bulimia nervosa (BN) (N= 5), binge eating disorder (BED) (N= 1). The protocol included 9 weeks of Ta-VNS stimulation at a frequency of 1.5-3.5 mA for 4 hours per day. The variables detected are the following: Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-HDRS-17), Body Mass Index (BMI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI). Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant differences between recording times (p > 0.05) in HAM-D (t0 = 18.28 ± 5.31; t4 = 9.14 ± 7.15), in BAI (t0 = 24.7 ± 10.99; t4 = 13.8 ± 7.0). The reported values show how during (T0-T4) the treatment there is a decay of the degree in the depressive state, in the state of anxiety, and an improvement in the value of BMI. In particular, the BMI in the AN-BN sub-sample had a minimum gain of 5% and a maximum of 11%. The analysis of HRV did not show a clear change among subjects, thus confirming the discordance of the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in FED. Conclusions: Although the sample does not possess a relevant value to determine long-term efficacy of Ta-VNS or on a larger population, this study reports how the application of neuro-stimulation in FED may become a further approach therapeutic. Indeed, substantial improvements are highlighted in the results and confirmed hypotheses proposed by the study.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, neurostimulation, anxiety disorders, depression

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1655 Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Its Impact on Other Eating Disorders

Authors: I. Caldas, T. Duarte

Abstract:

Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) was included for the first time in DSM-5, replacing the old diagnosis of DSM-4 'Early Childhood Eating Disorder'. An ARFID is characterized by a restrictive/avoidant eating pattern that can lead to severe nutritional deficiency, weight loss, nutritional supplementation dependence, and poor psychosocial functioning. This eating pattern is associated with decreased interest in food, worries about food characteristics or the act of ingestion, and lack of concern with weight or body image. This paper aims to understand the impact of this new diagnosis in other Eating Disorders (ED) prevalence, as well as to compare their therapeutic approaches. Methodology: Literature reviewed by PubMed with the following keywords: 'ARFID', 'Prevalence', and 'Eating Disorders'. We selected articles related to this theme, written since 2016. Results: In a population of children hospitalized with ED, 5% to 14% was diagnosed with ARFID, and, as outpatient treatment, the prevalence was 22%. People diagnosed with ARFID have more prevalence of other comorbidities, especially autism spectrum, are younger, and are more often male. Regarding the treatment of ARFID, it most often required nasogastric feeding, and with less suffering associated with this procedure, compared to AN. Despite these differences, 12% of patients diagnosed with ARFID transited to AN during treatment, suggesting that the first pathology may be a risk factor for the development of AN. Conclusions: The differences identified between ARFID and the other EDs are important when analyzed as differential diagnostic hypotheses and therapeutic approaches. Further study is necessary regarding its prevalence, risk factors, and treatment.

Keywords: avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, differential diagnoses, eating disorders, prevalence

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1654 Association between Eating Behavior in Children Aged 7-10 Years Old and Their Mother’s Feeding Practice: A Study among the Families in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Razieh Sotoudeh, Ali Vahdani, Hamed Abdi

Abstract:

Individual differences in eating behavior can cause underweight or overweight and obesity. Thus influencing factors on children’s eating behavior such as mothers’ feeding practices are needed to be more investigated. The goals of this survey are to evaluate the association of (i) parental pressure and children’s food avoidant tendency, (ii) parental restriction and children’s food approach tendency, (iii) modeling of healthy eating in front of children and their children’s eating behavior. 760 mothers of children aged 7-10 from schools in Isfahan were asked to complete questionnaires including Child Feeding Questionnaire, Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Modeling Questionnaire, and self-administered demographic questionnaire in which mothers reported their children’s height and weight as well. Of those mothers, 745 completed the questionnaires for the children’s index (mean age: 8.513±1.112) during the 2011-2012 school year. The results of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis indicated that “parental restriction” was positively associated with child food responsiveness (P,0.000) and food enjoyment (P,0.000) and surprisingly, it was positively associated with Food Fussiness(0.000) .Parental pressure to eat was positively associated with child satiety responsiveness (P,0.000), slowness (P,0.000), and fussiness (P,0.00) and negatively associated with Food responsiveness(p,0.000)and Enjoyment of food (p,0.002), modeling of healthy eating were positively associated with Enjoyment of food / q (p,0.000) and negatively with food fussiness (P,0.000). The results of this survey will improve interventions and maternal guidance on their feeding practices and their association with children’s eating behavior and weight.

Keywords: feeding practices, eating behavior, pressure to eat, restriction, modeling, satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, food fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food

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1653 Eating Disorders and Eating Behaviors in Morbid Obese Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Zeynab Shakeri

Abstract:

Background: Eating disorders (ED) are group of psychological disorders that significantly impair physical health and psychosocial function. EDconsists wide range of morbidity such as loss of eating control, binge eating disorder(BED), night eating syndrome (NES), and bulimia nervosa. Eating behavior is a wide range term that includes food choices, eating patterns, eating problems. In this study, current knowledge will be discussed aboutcomparison of eating disorders and eating behaviors in morbid obese women with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: 231 womenwith morbid obesity were included in the study.Loss of eating control, Binge eating disorder and Bulimia nervosa, Night eating syndrome, and eating behaviors and psychosocial factorswere assessed. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a significant difference between women with and without diabetes in case of binge eating disorder (76.3% vs. 47.3%, p=0.001). Women with the least Interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) scores had a higher risk of eating disorders, and it is more common among diabetics (29.31% vs. 30.45%, p= 0.050). There was no significant difference between depression level and BDI score among women with or without diabetes. Although 38.5% (n=56) of women with diabetes and 50% (n=71) of women without diabetes had minimal depression. The logistic regression model has shown that women without diabetes had lower odds of exhibiting BED (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.142-0.552).Women with and without diabetes with high school degree (OR=5.54, 95% CI 2.46-9.45, P= 0.0001 & OR=6.52, 95% CI 3.15-10.56, respectively) and moderate depression level (OR=2.03, 95% CI 0.98-3.95 & OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.12-4.56, P= 0.0001) had higher odds of BED. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that the odds of BED was lower in non-diabetic women with morbid obesity. Women with morbid obesity who had high school degree and moderate depression level had more odds for BED.

Keywords: eating disorders binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, bulimia nervosa, morbid obesity

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1652 Association between Bottle-Feeding Habit and Occlusal Disorders in Children 4-6 Years Old

Authors: Roberta S. Ilinsky, Livia Eisler, Gustavo Mota, Kurt Faltin Jr., Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of occlusal disorders associated with bottle feeding habits in children aged 4-6 years old. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 466 preschool children aged 4-6 years, attending state preschools in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents and caregivers answered a questionnaire about children’s oral habits, including bottle-feeding habit, and signed the Informed Consent form. The students underwent an oral examination to evaluate occlusal disorders. Data were analyzed by the SPSS 2.2 program (IBM, USA) and treated with non-parametric chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression with a significance level of p < 0.05. There was association between bottle-feeding and occlusal disorders (OR = 3.058, 95% CI = 1.561-5.991, PI < 0.001), with a higher significance for anterior open bite (OR = 2.855, 95% CI = 1.769-4.606, PI < 0.001) and canine class II (OR = 0.667, 95% CI = 0.449-0.990, PI < 0.045). There was no relationship between bottle-feeding habit and other occlusal disorders examined. It was possible to conclude that children who were bottle fed during childhood are more likely to develop occlusal disorders, especially anterior open bite and canine class II.

Keywords: anterior open-bite, bottle-feeding, habits, malocclusion

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1651 Risk of Disrupted Eating Attitudes in Disabled Athletes

Authors: Zehra Buyuktuncer, Aylin H. Büyükkaragöz, Tuğçe N. Balcı, Nevin Ergun

Abstract:

Background: Undergoing rigid dietary habits for enhancing athletic performance could lead to eating disorders. High prevalence of eating disorders among female athletes has been already reported. However, the risk of disordered eating among disabled athletes is not known. A better knowledge of the different eating behaviors and their prevalence in disabled athletes would be helpful to understand interactions between eating and health. This study aimed to examine the cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors in a disabled athlete population. Method: A total of 70 disabled Turkish national athletes (33 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball) were involved in the study. The cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were assessed using the revised version of Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18). The questionnaires were conducted by dietitian during the preparation camps of athletes. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured; and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Results: The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 13.9±4.2, uncontrolled eating score of 17.7±5.8 and emotional eating score of 4.9±2.5. The mean score of total TFEQ-R18 was 36.5±8.62. Neither total TFEQ-R18 score nor subscale scores differed significantly by gender or sport branches (p>0.05, for each). The scores were also similar in BMI groups (n=63; p>0.05). Total TFEQ, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores were significantly higher among the athletes with congenital disabilities compared to the scores of the athletes with acquired disabilities (p<0.05, for each). Moreover, the cognitive dietary restraint score was significantly high in athletes who would like to lose weight (p=0.009). Conclusion: Disabled athletes might have a risk of disordered eating. The different eating behaviors among disabled athletes should be assessed using validated tools to develop personalized nutritional strategies for those athletes.

Keywords: disabled athletes, eating behaviour, three-factor eating questionnaire-r18, body composition

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1650 Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Sorority Women

Authors: Andrea J. Kirk-Jenkins

Abstract:

Women in late adolescence and young adulthood are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating, and prior research indicates that those within the college and sorority communities may be especially susceptible. Research has primarily involved comparing eating disorder symptoms between sorority women and non-sorority members using formal eating disorder assessments. This phenomenological study examined sorority members’ (N = 10) perceptions of and lived experiences with various disordered eating behaviors within the sorority culture. Data from individual interviews and photographs indicated two structural themes and 11 textural themes related to factors associated with disordered eating behaviors. These findings point to the existence of both positive and negative aspects of sorority culture, normalization of disordered eating behaviors, and pressure to attain or maintain an ideal body image. Implications for university stakeholders, including college counselors, health center staff, and extracurricular program leaders, are discussed. Further research on the identified textural themes as well as a longitudinal study exploring how perceptions change from rush to alumnae status is suggested.

Keywords: eating disorders, disorder eating behaviors, sorority women, sorority culture, college women

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1649 Addressing Oral Sensory Issues and Possible Remediation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Illustrated with a Case Study

Authors: A. K. Aswathy, Asha Manoharan, Arya Manoharan

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The purpose of this study are to define the nature of oral sensory issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of this issues specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within therapeutic settings. Literature review and case example is used to define the predominant nature of the oral sensory issues that are experienced by some children on the autism spectrum. Characteristics of this complex disorder that can have an impact on feeding skill and behavior are also identified. These factors are then integrated to create assessment and intervention techniques that can be used in conjunction with traditional feeding approaches to facilitate improvements in eating as well as reducing oral apraxic component in this unique population. The complex nature of ASD and its many influences on feeding skills and behavior create the need for modification to both assessment and treatment approaches. Additional research is needed to create therapeutic protocols that can be used by speech-language pathologists to effectively assess and treat feeding and oro motor apraxic difficulties that are commonly encountered in children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, assessment, feeding, intervention, oral sensory issues, oral apraxia

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1648 Perfectionism, Self-Compassion, and Emotion Dysregulation: An Exploratory Analysis of Mediation Models in an Eating Disorder Sample

Authors: Sarah Potter, Michele Laliberte

Abstract:

As eating disorders are associated with high levels of chronicity, impairment, and distress, it is paramount to evaluate factors that may improve treatment outcomes in this group. Individuals with eating disorders exhibit elevated levels of perfectionism and emotion dysregulation, as well as reduced self-compassion. These variables are related to eating disorder outcomes, including shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. Thus, these factors may be tenable targets for treatment within eating disorder populations. However, the relative contributions of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion to the severity of shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment remain largely unexplored. In the current study, mediation analyses were conducted to clarify how perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion are linked to shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. The sample was comprised of 85 patients from an outpatient eating disorder clinic. The patients completed self-report measures of perfectionism, self-compassion, emotion dysregulation, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment. Specifically, emotion dysregulation was assessed as a mediator in the relationships between (1) perfectionism and shape/weight concerns, (2) self-compassion and shape/weight concerns, (3) perfectionism and psychosocial impairment, and (4) self-compassion and psychosocial impairment. It was postulated that emotion dysregulation would significantly mediate relationships in the former two models. An a priori hypothesis was not constructed in reference to the latter models, as these analyses were preliminary and exploratory in nature. The PROCESS macro for SPSS was utilized to perform these analyses. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between perfectionism and eating disorder outcomes. In the link between self-compassion and psychosocial impairment, emotion dysregulation partially mediated this relationship. Finally, emotion dysregulation did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-compassion and shape/weight concerns. The results suggest that emotion dysregulation and self-compassion may be suitable targets to decrease the severity of psychosocial impairment and shape/weight concerns in individuals with eating disorders. Further research is required to determine the stability of these models over time, between diagnostic groups, and in nonclinical samples.

Keywords: eating disorders, emotion dysregulation, perfectionism, self-compassion

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1647 Stress and Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Vanshika Chutani, Priya Bhatnagar

Abstract:

The pandemic has brought us to a standpoint where stress as a physical, cognitive, and behavioral construct is inevitable. The current research provides an overview of the relationship between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present paper also aims to highlight the gender-specific differences in perception of stress and its correlation with dysfunctional eating behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and Adult Eating Behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) were used on a heterogeneous sample between 20-40 years. The research was conducted on 50 participants, 25 male, and 25 female. Quantitative analysis was done with SPSS 22.0. The results of the investigation revealed a significant difference in stress level, t(48)=2.01, p<0.01, with women (M=22.24. SD=5.23) having a higher stress level than men (M=19.04, SD=4.89). There was no significant difference in dysfunctional eating behavior between males and females. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior in females, whereas, in males, there was no significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The research extrapolates that the pandemic led to elevated stress levels in both genders and gender differences existed, and males & females responded differently on dysfunctional eating behavior. The research has also outlined intervention to help individuals cope with stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The findings of the research propose the execution of different intervention programs and psychological first aid to help individuals who are predisposed to develop eating disorders.

Keywords: stress, dysfunctional eating behavior, gender-specific differences, COVID-19

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1646 The Effect of Parental Incarceration on Early Adolescent’s Eating and Sleeping Habits

Authors: Lauren Booker

Abstract:

In the United States, over 2.5 million children have incarcerated parents. Recent studies have shown 13% of young adults and one-fourth of African Americans will experience parental incarceration. The increasing numbers of incarcerated citizens have left these children as collateral damage and are often forgotten, their special needs inadequately meet or understood. Parental arrest and incarceration creates a uniquely traumatic experience in childhood and has long-term consequences for these children. Until recently, the eating and sleeping habits following parental incarceration had been nonexistent in the literature. However, even this groundbreaking study on eating habits and sleeping disorders following parental incarceration did not touch on the root causes of unhealthy eating which may be influenced by food and housing insecurity and environmental factors that may impact a child’s healthy eating and sleeping behaviors. This study will examine those factors as it could greatly aid in the policies and programs that affect children’s health and development. This proposed study will examine the impact of traumatic stress reactions to parental incarceration by studying sleep and eating habits as the hypothesis is that parental incarceration will lead to disordered eating and sleep disturbances in early adolescents.

Keywords: parental incarceration, eating disorder, trauma, family instability

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1645 The Effect of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Eating Disorder Symptom and Fear of Negative Evaluation of Lorestan University Female Students

Authors: S. Gholamrezaei, M. Mehrabizade Honarmand, Y. Zargar

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Introduction: This research was designed to assess the effect of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on eating disorder symptom and fear of negative evaluation of Lorestan University female students. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 641 female students were randomly selected from various faculties of Lorestan University. Eating disorders symptoms and fear of negative evaluation were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Leary (FNES-B). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (multivariate analyze tests were used). Results: Interpersonal Psychotherapy can improve the eating disorder symptoms and reduce the fear of negative evaluation in girl students of group control in compare with control group. Conclusion: Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective for eating disorder symptoms, and fear of negative evaluation among female students. Thus, it is suggested that this kind of psychotherapy was used for other psychological disease.

Keywords: interpersonal psychotherapy, eating disorder, fear of negative evaluation, students

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1644 Effect of Feed Supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Alfa- Amylase and Beta-Glucanase) in In-Line Rumination Parameters

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Lina Anskienė, Robertas Stoškus

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This study was conducted during 2021.05.01 – 2021.08.31 at the Lithuanian University of health sciences and one Lithuanian dairy farm with 500 dairy cows (55.911381565736, 21.881321760608195). Average calving – 50 cows per month. Cows (n=20) in the treatment group (TG) were fed with feed supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Enzymes: Alfa- Amylase 57 Units; Beta-Glucanase 107 Units) from 21 days before calving till 30 days after calving with feeding rate 200g/cow/day. Cows in the control group (CG) were fed a feed ration without feed supplement. Measurements started from 6 days before calving and continued till 21 days after calving. The following indicators were registered: with the RumiWatch System: Rumination time; Eating time; Drinking time; Rumination chews; Eating chews; Drinking gulps; Bolus; Chews per minute; Chews per bolus. With SmaXtec system - the temperature, pH of the contents of cows' reticulorumens and cows' activity. According to our results, we found that feeding of cows, from 21 days before calving to 30 days after calving, with a feed supplement with alfa- amylase and beta-glucanase (Optipartum C+ 200) (with dose 200g/cow/day) can produce an increase in: 9% rumination time and eating time, 19% drinking time, 11% rumination chews, 16% eating chews,13% number of boluses per rumination, 5% chews per minute and 16% chews per bolus. We found 1.28 % lower reiticulorumen pH and 0.64% lower reticulorumen temperature in cows fed with the supplement compared with control group cows. Also, cows feeding with enzymes were 8.80% more active.

Keywords: Alfa-Amylase, Beta-Glucanase, cows, in-line, sensors

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1643 Designing a Waitlist Intervention for Adult Patients Awaiting Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Test

Authors: Deanne McArthur, Melinda Wall, Claire Hanlon, Dana Agnolin, Krista Davis, Melanie Dennis, Elizabeth Glidden, Anne Marie Smith, Claudette Thomson

Abstract:

In Canada, as prevalence rates and severity of illness have increased among patients suffering from eating disorders, wait times have grown substantially. Patients in Canada often face wait times in excess of 12 months. It is known that delaying treatment for eating disorders contributes to poor patient outcomes and higher rates of symptom relapse. Improving interim services for adult patients awaiting outpatient treatment is a priority for an outpatient eating disorders clinic in Ontario, Canada. The clinical setting currently provides care for adults diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. At present, the only support provided while patients are on the waitlist consists of communication with primary care providers regarding parameters for medical monitoring. The significance of this study will be to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an intervention to support adult patients awaiting outpatient eating disorder treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Methods: An intervention including psychoeducation, supportive resources, self-monitoring, and auxiliary referral will be pilot-tested with a group of patients in the summer of 2022 and detailed using a prospective cohort case study research design. The team will host patient focus groups in May 2022 to gather input informing the content of the intervention. The intervention will be pilot tested with newly-referred patients in June and July 2022. Patients who participate in the intervention will be asked to complete a survey evaluating the utility of the intervention and for suggestions, they may have for improvement. Preliminary findings describing the existing literature pertaining to waitlist interventions for patients with eating disorders, data gathered from the focus groups and early pilot testing results will be presented. Data analysis will continue throughout 2022 and early 2023 for follow-up publication and presentation in the summer of 2023. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to providing interim support to those patients waiting for treatment for eating disorders and, by extension, to improve outcomes for this population.

Keywords: eating disorders, waitlist management, intervention study, pilot test

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1642 Exploring Salient Shifts and Transdiagnostic Factors in Eating Disordered Women

Authors: Francesca Favero, Despina Learmonth

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Carbohydrate addiction is said to be the sustained dependence on hyperpalatable foods rich in carbohydrates and sugar. This addiction manifests in increased consumption of carbohydrates through binging: a behaviour typically associated with eating disorders. There is a lack of consensus amongst relevant experts as to whether carbohydrates are physiologically or psychologically addictive. With an increased focus on carbohydrate addiction, an outpatient treatment programme, HELP, has been established in Cape Town, South Africa, to specifically address this issue. This research aimed to explore, pre-and post-intervention, the possible presence of, and subsequent shifts in, the maintaining mechanisms identified in the transdiagnostic model for eating disorders. However, the potential for the emergence of other perpetuating factors was not discounted and the nature of the analysis allowed for this possibility. Eight women between the ages of twenty-two and fifty, who had completed the outpatient treatment programme in the last six months, were interviewed. They were asked to speak retrospectively about their personal difficulties, eating and food, and their experience of the treatment. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes arising from the data. Five themes congruent with the transdiagnostic model’s factors emerged: over-evaluation of weight and shape, core low self-esteem, interpersonal difficulties, clinical perfectionism and mood intolerance. A variety of sub-themes, elaborating upon the various ways in which the disordered eating was maintained, also emerged from the data. Shifts in these maintaining mechanisms were identified. Although not necessarily indicative of recovery, the results suggest that the outpatient HELP programme had a positive overall influence on the participants; and that the transdiagnostic model may be useful in understanding and guiding the treatment of clients who engage in this type of treatment programme.

Keywords: eating disorders, binge eating disorder, carbohydrate addiction, transdiagnostic model, maintaining mechanisms, thematic analysis, outpatient treatment

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1641 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

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The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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1640 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

Abstract:

One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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1639 Quality of Life and Willingness to Take Treatment and the Importance of the Disease in the Lives of Patients with Eating Disorders

Authors: Marzena Trojanczyk, Mariusz Jaworski, Ewa Dmoch Gajzlerska

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between the level of quality of life and willingness to take treatment in patients with eating disorders as anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing. Material and methods: The subjects consisted of 99 women with eating disorders: anorexia, n = 33; bulimia, n = 35; compulsive overeating, n = 31 and 35 women in the control group. The study used an original questionnaire to assess the overall quality of life, as well as selected areas of the physical, mental, social and spiritual satisfaction. The subjects were also asked about the level of motivation for treatment, and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS 18.0. Results: Women with eating disorders in particular groups did not differ with respect to each other in the aspect of overall quality of life, satisfaction with the development of the spiritual, social functioning and mental health. The severity level of the disease in the lives of patients showed a negative correlation with social functioning in women with anorexia nervosa. In the case of patients with compulsive bingeing a positive relationship between the level of importance of the disease and the satisfaction of spiritual development is reported. Conclusions: Concerning the inferior quality of life, there is no relationship between a willingness to take treatment and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients with anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing.

Keywords: anorexia, bulimia, compulsive overeating, quality of life

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1638 Loss of Control Eating as a Key Factor of the Psychological Symptomatology Related to Childhood Obesity

Authors: L. Beltran, S. Solano, T. Lacruz, M. Blanco, M. Rojo, M. Graell, A. R. Sepulveda

Abstract:

Introduction and Objective: Given the difficulties of assessing Binge Eating Disorder during childhood, episodes of Loss of Control (LOC) eating can be a key symptom. The objective is to know the prevalence of food psychopathology depending on the type of evaluation and find out which psychological characteristics differentiate overweight or obese children who present LOC from those who do not. Material and Methods: 170 children from 8 to 12 years of age with overweight or obesity (P > 85) were evaluated through the Primary Care Centers of Madrid. Sociodemographic data and psychological measures were collected through the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia, Present & Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) diagnostic interview and self-applied questionnaires: Children's eating attitudes (ChEAT), depressive symptomatology (CDI), anxiety (STAIC), general self-esteem (LAWSEQ), body self-esteem (BES), perceived teasing (POTS) and perfectionism (CAPS). Results: 15.2% of the sample exceeded the ChEAT cut-off point, presenting a risk of pathological eating; 5.88% presented an Eating Disorder through the diagnostic interview (2.35% Binge Eating disorder), and 33.53% had LOC episodes. No relationship was found between the presence of LOC and clinical diagnosis of eating disorders according to DSM-V; however, the group with LOC presented a higher risk of eating psychopathology using the ChEAT (p < .02). Significant differences were found in the group with LOC (p < .02): higher z-BMI, lower body self-esteem, greater anxious symptomatology, greater frequency of teasing towards weight, and greater effect of teasing both towards weight and competitions; compared to their peers without LOC. Conclusion: According to previous studies in samples with overweight children, in this Spanish sample of children with obesity, we found a prevalence of moderate eating disorder and a high presence of LOC episodes, which is related to both eating and general psychopathology. These findings confirm that the exclusion of LOC episodes as a diagnostic criterion can underestimate the presence of eating psychopathology during this developmental stage. According to these results, it is highly recommended to promote school context programs that approach LOC episodes in order to reduce associated symptoms. This study is included in a Project funded by the Ministry of Innovation and Science (PSI2011-23127).

Keywords: childhood obesity, eating psychopathology, loss-of-control eating, psychological symptomatology

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1637 Associations between Sleep Problems and Disordered Eating in Japanese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Takaharu Hirai, Yuta Mitobe, Hiromi Hirai

Abstract:

Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect individuals, especially adolescents. It has been suggested that nonclinical ED-like characteristics are related to sleep problems. However, studies exploring the association between potential ED and sleep disorders have primarily been conducted in Europe and the United States. We conducted a survey of Japanese adolescents to investigate this claim. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 398 school-aged adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, matched for gender ratio, responded to a self-administered questionnaire survey. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to measure potential ED and sleep problems, respectively. In this study, participants with an EAT-26 total score of 0–19 points were classified as non-ED, while those with scores of 20 points or higher were classified as potential ED. Result: Of the 398 participants, 17 (4.3%) had an EAT-26 total score of 20 or higher. Among boys, the rate was 6 of 199 participants (3%), and among girls, the rate was 11 of 182 participants (6%). There were 89 participants (22.4%) with an AIS score of 6 points or higher, of which 36 (17.6%) were boys, and 53 (27.5%) were girls. Adolescents with potential ED had significantly higher rates of daytime sleep problems than those without ED. Further, while examining the types of sleep problems, adolescents with potential ED had greater problems with a sense of well-being and physical and mental functioning during the day. In contrast, no significant associations were found between potential ED and sleep initiation, awakenings during the night, early morning awakening, total sleep duration, or overall quality of sleep. Finally, nocturnal and daytime sleep scores were significantly associated with dieting, bulimia, and oral control EAT-26 sub-scores. Discussion: While Japanese adolescents with possible ED do not experience nighttime sleep problems, they do experience problems related to well-being and mental and physical functioning, which are indicators of daytime sleep problems. This may assist with early detection of disordered eating in adolescents. The study suggested that professionals working towards adolescent mental health issues need an approach that comprehensively integrates both sleep problems and potential ED.

Keywords: adolescents, potential eating disorders, sleep problems, eating attitudes test-26

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1636 Eating Behaviour and the Nature of Food Consumption in a Malaysian Adults Sample

Authors: Madihah Shukri

Abstract:

Research examining whether eating behaviour is related to unhealthy or healthy eating pattern is required to explain the mechanisms underlying obesity, and to inform health intervention aim to prevent and treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviours and nature of food consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 588 adults (males = 231 and females = 357). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to measure restrained, emotional and external eating. Nature of food consumption was assessed by self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables, sweet food, junk food and snacking. Results: Results revealed that emotional eating was found to be the principal predictor of the consumption of less healthy food (sweet food, junk food and snacking), while external eating predicted sweet food intake. Intake of fruit and vegetable was associated with restrained eating. In light of the significant associations between eating behaviour and nature of food consumption, acknowledging individuals eating styles can have implications for tailoring effective nutritional programs in the context of obesity and chronic disease epidemic.

Keywords: eating behaviour, food consumption, adult, Malaysia

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1635 Effectiveness of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Binge Eating Disorder in Females

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Ismail Asadallahi, Fatemeh Rahmatian, Elahe Rahimian

Abstract:

Purpose: Due to an increasing prevalence of over eating disorders, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy on reducing binge eating behavior and depression symptoms among females suffered from binge eating disorder (BED) in Qazvin, Iran. Methodology: This is aquasi-experimental study (pre-post testing plan with control group). Using a convenience sampling technique, binge eating scale (BES) and clinical interviews, 30 persons were selected among all clients who had referred to weight loss centers in Qazvin, these persons were randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a seven-session plan on short-term cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Results: The results showed that the short term group cognitive-behavioral therapy results in a significant reduction in binge eating signs and depressive symptoms within the experimental group, compared to the control. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is known that short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing overeating symptoms. Hence, it can be used as an economical and effective treatment method for individuals suffering from BED.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral group therapy, binge eating disorder, depression

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1634 Dancing with Perfectionism and Emotional Inhibition on the Ground of Disordered Eating Behaviors: Investigating Emotion Regulation Difficulties as Mediating Factor

Authors: Merve Denizci Nazligul

Abstract:

Dancers seem to have much higher risk levels for the development of eating disorders, compared to non-dancing counterparts. In a remarkably competitive nature of dance environment, perfectionism and emotion regulation difficulties become inevitable risk factors. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas are associated with various eating disorders. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the mediating role of difficulties with emotion regulation on the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eating behaviors, as well as on the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disordered eating behaviors. A total of 70 volunteer dancers (n = 47 women, n = 23 men) were recruited in the study (M age = 25.91, SD = 8.9, range 19–63) from the university teams or private clubs in Turkey. The sample included various types of dancers (n = 26 ballets or ballerinas, n =32 Latin, n = 10 tango, n = 2 hiphop). The mean dancing hour per week was 11.09 (SD = 7.09) within a range of 1-30 hours. The participants filled a questionnaire set including demographic information form, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, three subscales (Emotional Inhibition, Unrelenting Standards-Hypercriticalness, Approval Seeking-Recognition Seeking) from Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The mediation hypotheses were tested using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. The findings revealed that emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between three distinct subtypes of perfectionism and emotional eating. The results of the Sobel test suggested that there were significant indirect effects of self-oriented perfectionism (b = .06, 95% CI = .0084, .1739), other-oriented perfectionism (b = .15, 95% CI = .0136, .4185), and socially prescribed perfectionism (b = .09, 95% CI = .0104, .2344) on emotional eating through difficulties with emotion regulation. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between emotional inhibition and emotional eating (F(1,68) = 4.67, R2 = .06, p < .05). These results seem to provide some evidence that perfectionism might become a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors when dancers are not able to regulate their emotions. Further, gaining an understanding of how inhibition of emotions leads to inverse effects on eating behavior may be important to develop intervention strategies to manage their disordered eating patterns in risk groups. The present study may also support the importance of using unified protocols for transdiagnostic approaches which focus on identifying, accepting, prompting to express maladaptive emotions and appraisals.

Keywords: dancers, disordered eating, emotion regulation difficulties, perfectionism

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1633 The Relationship between Body Image, Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status for Female Athletes

Authors: Selen Muftuoglu, Dilara Kefeli

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The present study was conducted by using the cross-sectional study design and to determine the relationship between body image, eating behavior and nutritional status in 80 female athletes who were basketball, volleyball, flag football, indoor soccer, and ice hockey players. This study demonstrated that 70.0% of the female athletes had skipped meal. Also, female athletes had a normal body mass index (BMI), but 65.0% of them indicated that want to be thinner. On the other hand, we analyzed that their daily nutrients intake, so we observed that 43.4% of the energy was from the fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, and they had lower fiber, calcium and iron intake. Also, we found that BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio were negatively correlated with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire score and they were lower in who had meal skipped or not received diet therapy. As a conclusion, nutrition education is frequently neglected in sports programs. There is a paucity of nutrition education interventions among different sports.

Keywords: body image, eating behavior, eating disorders, female athletes, nutritional status

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1632 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

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A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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1631 Effects of Feeding Time on Survival Rates, Growth Performance and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Catfish

Authors: Abdullahi Ibrahim

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The culture of Clarias gariepinus for fish production is becoming increasingly essential as the fish is contributing to the food abundance and nutritional benefit to family health, income generation, and employment opportunities. The effect of feeding frequency was investigated over a period of ten (10) weeks; the experiment was conducted to monitor survival rates, growth performance, and feeding behavior of juvenile catfish. The experimental fish were randomly assigned to five treatment groups; (i.e., with different feeding frequency intervals) of 100 fish each. Each treatment was replicated twice with 50 fish per replicate. All the groups were fed with floating fish feed (blue crown®). The five treatments (feeding frequency) were T1- once a day feeding of night hours only, T2- twice a day feeding time of morning and night hours, T3- trice a day feeding time of morning, evening and night hours, T-4 four times a day feeding of morning, afternoon, evening, and night hours, T-5 five times a day feeding at four hours interval. There were significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments. Feed intake and weight gain improved significantly (p < 0.05) in T-4 and T-3. The best of the feeding time on weight gain, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained at three times a day feeding (T-3) compared to other treatments, especially those fed once and five times feeding a regiment. This might be attributed to the high level of dissolve oxygen and less stress. Feeding fish three times a day is therefore recommended for efficient catfish production to maximize profits as the feed represents more than 50% of aquaculture inputs, particularly in intensive farming systems.

Keywords: catfish, floating fish feed, dissolve oxygen, juvenile

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1630 Innovative Food Related Modification of the Day-Night Task Demonstrates Impaired Inhibitory Control among Patients with Binge-Purge Eating Disorder

Authors: Sigal Gat-Lazer, Ronny Geva, Dan Ramon, Eitan Gur, Daniel Stein

Abstract:

Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are common psychopathologies which involve distorted body image and eating disturbances. Binge-purge eating disorders (B/P ED) are characterized by repetitive events of binge eating followed by purges. Patients with B/P ED behavior may be seen as impulsive especially when relate to food stimulation and affective conditions. The current study included innovative modification of the day-night task targeted to assess inhibitory control among patients with B/P ED. Methods: This prospective study included 50 patients with B/P ED during acute phase of illness (T1) upon their admission to specialized ED department in tertiary center. 34 patients repeated the study towards discharge to ambulatory care (T2). Treatment effect was evaluated by BMI and emotional questionnaires regarding depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Control group included 36 healthy controls with matched demographic parameters who performed both T1 and T2 assessments. The current modification is based on the emotional day-night task (EDNT) which involves five emotional stimulation added to the sun and moon pictures presented to participants. In the current study, we designed the food-emotional modification day night task (F-EDNT) food stimulations of egg and banana which resemble the sun and moon, respectively, in five emotional states (angry, sad, happy, scrambled and neutral). During this computerized task, participants were instructed to push on “day” bottom in response to moon and banana stimulations and on “night” bottom when sun and egg were presented. Accuracy (A) and reaction time (RT) were evaluated and compared between EDNT and F-EDNT as a reflection of participants’ inhibitory control. Results: Patients with B/P ED had significantly improved BMI, depression and anxiety scores on T2 compared to T1 (all p<0.001). Task performance was similar among patients and controls in the EDNT without significant A or RT differences in both T1 and T2. On F-EDNT during T1, B/P ED patients had significantly reduced accuracy in 4/5 emotional stimulation compared to controls: angry (73±25% vs. 84±15%, respectively), sad (69±25% vs. 80±18%, respectively), happy (73±24% vs. 82±18%, respectively) and scrambled (74±24% vs. 84±13%, respectively, all p<0.05). Additionally, patients’ RT to food stimuli was significantly faster compared to neutral ones, in both cry and neutral emotional stimulations (356±146 vs. 400±141 and 378±124 vs. 412±116 msec, respectively, p<0.05). These significant differences between groups as a function of stimulus type were diminished on T2. Conclusion: Having to process food related content, in particular in emotional context seems to be impaired in patients with B/P ED during the acute phase of their illness and elicits greater impulsivity. Innovative modification using such procedures seem to be sensitive to patients’ illness phase and thus may be implemented during screening and follow up through the clinical management of these patients.

Keywords: binge purge eating disorders, day night task modification, eating disorders, food related stimulations

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1629 The Dietary Behavior of Eating Alone in Middle-Aged Populations by Body Mass Index (BMI)

Authors: Pil Kyoo Jo, Youngmee Lee, Jee Young Kim, Yu Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Young Ha Joo, Hye Suk Kim, Semi Kang

Abstract:

A growing number of people are living alone and eating alone. People might have different dietary behaviors between eating alone and eating with others, it can influence their weight and health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary behavior of eating alone in middle-aged populations in South Korea. We used the nationally representative data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-2012 and a cross-sectional survey on the eating behaviors among adults (N=1318, 530 men, 788 women) aged from 20 to 54 years. Results showed that ‘underweight’ group ate more amount of food when eating with others compared to eating alone and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups had opposite respondent (p<0.05). When having a meal alone, ‘underweight’ group ate food until didn’t feel hungry and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups ate leftover food even they felt full (p<0.01). The ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups usually ate alone than ‘underweight’ group did (p<0.05). All groups had faster meal time when eating alone than eating with others and usually ate processed foods for convenience when eating alone. Younger people, aged 10-30, ate more processed food than older people did. South Koreans spend nearly 45% of their total food consumption from processed foods. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea for 2011 Korea-Japan Basic Scientific Cooperation Program (NRF-2011B00003). This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015S1A5B6037369).

Keywords: BMI, dietary behavior, eating alone, middle-aged populations

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