Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Olajumoke Tolulope Esan

15 Turbulent Election History: An Appraisal of Triggering Issues in Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke Tolulope Esan, Odunayo Stephen Faluse

Abstract:

Nigeria’s electoral politics from independence has been tumultuous. Violence has continued to damage the conduct of almost all general elections in Nigeria, Thereby making free and fair elections an event that seems to be unachievable in the history of the nation’s politics. Apparently, electoral violence has subjected the Nation into stereotyped electoral procedures that are always dictated through powerful political Godfathers. However, the shameful act of riotous and tumultuous election processes has led to a political, national instability festering irregularities that manifest at different stages of the election, thus subjecting almost all elections carried out in Nigeria below the minimum democracy standard. Hence the fact that an average Nigerian is being deprived of his or her individual electoral rights should be enough to attract Global political interventions from the western world as Nigeria is part of the commonwealth countries and every Nigerians have the right to demand for posterity to be ensured by protecting individual rightful votes. Basically for elections to be termed democratic, it must be free and fair. In view of this, A deep understanding of this paper is a reflection on the tides of electoral violence and the alarming precipitating factors that make free and fair election almost unreachable in Nigeria.

Keywords: democracy, election, electoral violence, political violence

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14 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle

Abstract:

Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

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13 Critical and Strategic Issues in Compensation, Staffing and Personnel Management in Nigeria

Authors: Shonuga Olajumoke Adedoyinsola

Abstract:

Staffing and Compensation are at the core of any employment exchange, and they serve as the defining characteristics of any employment relationship. Most organizations understand the benefits that a longer term approach to staff planning can bring and the answer to this problem lies not in trying to implement the traditional approach more effectively, but in implementing a completely different kind of process for strategic staffing. The study focuses on critical points of compensation, staffing and personnel management. The fundamentals of these programs include the elements of vision, potential, communication and motivation. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important attributes of compensation and incentives, staffing and personnel management. Research method is the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, logical, comparative and graphic representation. On the basis of analysis, the author presents the models of these systems for positive employee attitudes and behaviors.

Keywords: compensation, employees, incentives, staffing, personnel management

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12 Tourism Challenges and Prospects: The Nigerian Experience: A Case Study of Benin City

Authors: Olawale-Olakunle Olajumoke Elizabeth

Abstract:

There are many challenges which are been encountered in the area of tourism in Nigeria. This research work on Tourism Challenges and Prospects: The Nigerian Experience with a case study of Benin City, was carried out so as to identify the various challenges. Questionnaires were designed and administered in the various locations of Benin City, using the designed objectives and hypothesis. Use is made of both primary and secondary data collections, to gather information. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis where results were obtained for discussion. The results obtained showed that Tourism in the area is grossly affected by factors such as lack of preferred destination, lack of consistency in policy, erratic power-supply, bad road networks, insecurity in the city and perennial conflicts, no enabling environment for investors or tourists among others. It was revealed that touristic activities in the area are at low level due to economic hardship and this is rubbing the city of its contribution to the national economy. It is however recommended that the government should create an enabling environment for both investors and tourists, as this will fasten the development of tourism in the city.

Keywords: destination, network, tourists and investors, Nigeria, industry

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11 Urinary Schistosomiasis among Pre-School and School Aged Children in Two Peri-Urban Communities in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Isiaka Akinwale, Tolulope Babatunde, Oladepo Sowemimo

Abstract:

A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April, 2016 among pre-school and school-aged children in two peri-urban communities in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Urine samples were collected from the pre-school and school-aged children, tested for microhaematuria using reagent strips, processed and examined for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Out of 274 pupils examined, 132 (48.2%) had infection, with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in infection between male (48.6%) and female pupils (47.6%). The prevalence of infection increases significantly with age (P < 0.05), with the peak (93.3%) of infection recorded in pupils aged 15 to 16 years and the lowest infection (10.0%) in pupils aged 3 to 4 years. There was no statistically significant association (P > 0.05) between intensity in male pupils (156.0 ± 34.5/10 ml) and female pupils (141.7 ± 29.5/10 ml). The prevalence of pupils with microhaematuria was 65.0% and it increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The conclusion drawn from the study is that to reduce the transmission of S. haematobium in endemic communities, health education and provision of potable water are advocated.

Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium, microhaeamturia, prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, school aged children, Nigeria

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10 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola

Abstract:

The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steel

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9 A Study of Effective Event Development and the Sustainability of Tourism Industry in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke Elizabeth Olawale-Olakunle

Abstract:

This research examined effective event development on the sustainability of tourism in Lagos State. The objectives were to ascertain the implication of effective event development on cost, environmental innovations, opportunity for participants, job creation and working conditions. Also, there was a focus on employee participation and the sustainability of the tourism industry. However, the primary data were obtained via the use of structured questionnaire administered to the selected respondents. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents, using the Yaro Yame formula. The formulated hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Non-parametric chi-square. From the tests conducted, the results showed that effective event development has helped to reduce costs, bring about environmental innovations, offer unique opportunity among event participants, create jobs and promote better working conditions, and the influence it has on employee participation affects the sustainability of the tourism industry. Based on these results, it was concluded that effective event development helps to achieve sustainability in the tourism industry by reducing costs, ensuring efficient use of tourism resources and offers a unique opportunity among event participants. It was, therefore, recommended that events should be developed in such a way that it can help to reduce cost and help leverage the financial burdens of participants and stakeholders, thereby, achieving sustainability in the tourism industry.

Keywords: tourism, hospitality, industry, development

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8 Patterns and Extent of Self-Medication Practice among Adolescents in Selected Public Secondary Schools in IFE Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke A. Ojeleye

Abstract:

The study assessed the patterns and extent of self-medication practice among adolescents in selected public senior secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. The objectives of the study were to find out the patterns of self-medication among adolescents, to elucidate whether age or gender has any effect on the self-medication patterns of adolescent, to ascertain to what extent adolescents indulge in self-medication, to examine the sources of drug information of these adolescents and also to examine the sources of these drugs. A cross-sectional design was employed for the study. A self-administered questionnaire tested for validity was used to collect data. Multistage sampling technique was used and 238 adolescents participated in the study. Data collection took two weeks and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results were presented using descriptive (e.g. frequency counts) and inferential statistics (e.g. chi-square). Results showed that more females (55.9%) than males (44.1%) practiced self-medication. Although the results showed that there is a low prevalence rate (33.6%) of self-medication among adolescents, chemists served as both the source of information on how to use the drug as well as the source of the drugs. Also, adolescents under study will only self-medicate in medical conditions such as malaria or wound/injuries but will prefer to see a doctor for conditions such as abdominal pain, infections or allergic reactions. It was recommended that government officials responsible for regulating and controlling of drugs should be more active in ensuring that safe drugs are made available over the counter and the consumer be given adequate information about the use of drugs and when to consult the doctor.

Keywords: adolescents, drugs, patterns, self-medication

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7 The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer on Women in Nigeria: Implication for Socio-Economic Development

Authors: Tolulope Allo, Mofoluwake P. Ajayi, Adenike E. Idowu, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

Abstract:

Breast cancer which was more prevalent in Europe and America in the past is gradually being mirrored across the world today with greater economic burden on low and middle income countries (LMCs). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally and current studies have shown that a woman dies with the diagnosis of breast cancer every thirteen minutes. The economic cost of breast cancer is overwhelming particularly for developing economies. While it causes billion of dollar in losses of national income, it pushes millions of people below poverty line. This study examined the economic burden of breast cancer on Nigerian women, its impacts on their standard of living and its effects on Nigeria’s socio economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research approach using the in-depth interview technique to elicit valuable information from respondents with cancer experience from the Southern part of Nigeria. Respondents constituted women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) that have experienced and survived cancer and also those that are currently receiving treatment. Excerpts from the interviews revealed that the cost of treatment is one of the major factors contributing to the late presentation of breast cancer incidences among women as many of them could not afford to pay for their own treatment. The study also revealed that many women prefer to explore other options such as herbal treatments and spiritual consultations which is less expensive and affordable. The study therefore concludes that breast cancer diagnosis and treatment should be subsidized by the government in order to facilitate easy access and affordability thereby promoting early detection and reducing the economic burden of treatment on women.

Keywords: breast cancer, development, economic burden, women

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6 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili

Abstract:

This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.

Keywords: antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele River

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5 Safety Culture, Mindfulness and Safe Behaviours of Students Residing in the Halls of Residence of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke Adetoun Ojeleye

Abstract:

The study assessed the safety culture, mindfulness and safe behaviors of students residing in the halls of residence of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile Ife, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to assess the level of safety mindfulness of students residing in the halls of residence of OAU, examine their safety culture and establish whether these students are involved in unsafe practices. The study employed a cross-sectional research design and instrument used for data collection was a self-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability with its reliability coefficient at 0.71 before being used for data collection. Respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling technique and the sample size was 530. Data collection took 2 weeks and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Results showed that about half of the respondents’ population (49.8%) was between the ages of 20-24 years. There were more males (56.2%) than females (43.8%). Although data demonstrated that majority (91.7%) of the respondents are highly safety minded and the safety culture of an equally high proportion (83.4%) was adjudged fair, a lot of improvement is needed in the area of alerting or informing management of impending dangers and studying the hall handbook to internalize its contents. The study further showed that only 43.6% of respondents had good safety practices and behaviors and majority (56.4%) had fair safety practices and behaviors. One accidental discovery of the study is the finding that not a few of the students squat their counterparts. The study recommended the establishment of clearly written out complaint procedure that is accessible and available to all hall residents, building more hostels with adequate facilities to address the issue of overcrowding and also putting systems in place in order to encourage residents to report incidences/accidents.

Keywords: safe behaviours, safety culture, safety mindfulness, student

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4 Geospatial Assessment of Waste Disposal System in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babawale Akin Adeyemi, Esan Temitayo, Adeyemi Olabisi Omowumi

Abstract:

The paper analyzed waste disposal system in Akure, Ondo State using GIS techniques. Specifically, the study identified the spatial distribution of collection points and existing dumpsite; evaluated the accessibility of waste collection points and their proximity to each other with the view of enhancing better performance of the waste disposal system. Data for the study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire. From field survey, 35 collection points were identified in the study area. 10 questionnaires were administered around each collection point making a total of 350 questionnaires for the study. Also, co-ordinates of each collection point were captured using a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver which was used to analyze the spatial distribution of collection points. Secondary data used include administrative map collected from Akure South Local Government Secretariat. Data collected was analyzed using the GIS analytical tools which is neighborhood function. The result revealed that collection points were found in all parts of Akure with the highest concentration around the central business district. The study also showed that 80% of the collection points enjoyed efficient waste service while the remaining 20% does not. The study further revealed that most collection points in the core of the city were in close proximity to each other. In conclusion, the paper revealed the capability of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a technique in management of waste collection and disposal technique. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the evaluation of the solid waste management in Akure is highly invaluable for the state waste management board which could also be beneficial to other states in developing a modern day solid waste management system. Further study on solid waste management is also recommended especially for updating of information on both spatial and non-spatial data.

Keywords: assessment, geospatial, system, waste disposal

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3 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

Abstract:

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

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2 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda

Abstract:

African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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1 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola

Abstract:

The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stress

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