Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2687

Search results for: plastic waste

2687 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh


In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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2686 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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2685 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Arjita Biswas, Sandeep Potnis


Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: bituminous roads, experiments, performance, plastic roads

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2684 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender


Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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2683 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle


Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

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2682 A Review on the Use of Plastic Waste with Viable Materials in Composite Construction Block

Authors: Mohan T. Harish, Masson Lauriane, Sreevalsa Kolathayar


Environmental issues raise alarm in the constructional field which implies a need for exploring new construction materials derived from the waste and residual products. This paper presents a detailed review of the alternatives approaches employed in the construction field using plastic waste in mixture with mixed with fillers. A detailed analysis of the plastic waste used in concrete, with soil, sand, clay and natural residues like sawdust, rice husk etc are presented. The different process carried forward was also discussed along with the scrutiny of the change in mechanical properties. The effect of coupling agents in the proposed mixture has been appraised in detail which gives implications for its future application in the field of plastic waste with viable materials in composite construction blocks.

Keywords: plastic waste, composite materials, construction block, concrete, natural residue, coupling agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
2681 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani


Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, silt, soil improvement, triaxial test, waste bottle chips

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2680 Valorisation of Polyethylene and Plastic Bottle Wastes as Pavement Blocks

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Fidelis Patrick Afangide


This research investigated the possibility of using waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles for the production of interlock pavement blocks. In many parts of the world, interlock pavement block is used widely as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications and the blocks have different shapes, sizes and colours suiting the imagination of landscape architects. Using suitable and conventional mould having a 220 x 135 x 50 mm³ shape, the interlock blocks were produced. The material constituents of the produced blocks were waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles mixed in varying, respective percentage-weight proportions of; 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50% and 25%+75%. The blocks were then tested for unconfined compressive strength and water absorption properties. The test results compared well with those of conventional concrete interlock blocks and the research demonstrates the possibility of value recovery from the waste streams which are currently dumped in open-spaces thereby affecting the environment.

Keywords: pavement blocks, polyethylene, plastic bottle, wastes, valorization

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2679 Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Plastic Coated Aggregates

Authors: Malleshappa Japagal, Srinivas Chitragar


The use of waste plastic in pavement is becoming important alternative worldwide for disposal of plastic as well as to improve the stability of pavement and to meet out environmental issues. However, there are still concerns on fatigue and fracture resistance of Hot Mix Asphalt with the addition of plastic waste, (HMA-Plastic mixes) and moisture damage potential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate fracture resistance of HMA-Plastic mixes using semi-circular bending (SCB) test and moisture damage potential by Indirect Tensile strength (ITS) test using retained tensile strength (TSR). In this study, a dense graded asphalt mix with 19 mm nominal maximum aggregate size was designed in the laboratory using Marshall Mix design method. Aggregates were coated with different percentages of waste plastic (0%, 2%, 3% and 4%) by weight of aggregate and performance evaluation of fracture resistance and Moisture damage was carried out. The following parameters were estimated for the mixes: J-Integral or Jc, strain energy at failure, peak load at failure, and deformation at failure. It was found that the strain energy and peak load of all the mixes decrease with an increase in notch depth, indicating that increased percentage of plastic waste gave better fracture resistance. The moisture damage potential was evaluated by Tensile strength ratio (TSR). The experimental results shown increased TRS value up to 3% addition of waste plastic in HMA mix which gives better performance hence the use of waste plastic in road construction is favorable.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, semi circular bending, marshall mix design, tensile strength ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2678 Catalytic Depolymerisation of Waste Plastic Material into Hydrocarbon Liquid

Authors: Y. C. Bhattacharyulu, Amit J. Agrawal, Vikram S. Chatake, Ketan S. Desai


In recent years, the improper disposal of waste polymeric materials like plastics, rubber, liquid containers, daily household materials, etc. is posing a grave problem by polluting the environment. On the other hand fluctuations in the oil market and limited stocks of fossil fuels have diverted the interest of researchers to study the production of fuels and hydrocarbons from alternative sources. Hence, to study the production of fuels from waste plastic is the need of hour at present. Effect of alkali solutions of different concentrations with copper comprising catalyst on depolymerisation reactions was studied here. The present study may become a preliminary method for obtaining valuable hydrocarbons from waste plastics and an effective way for depolymerising or degrading waste plastics for their safe disposal without causing any environmental problems.

Keywords: catalyst, depolymerisation, disposal, hydrocarbon liquids, waste plastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2677 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: mortar, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, RF recycled fibers

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2676 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

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2675 Investigating the Systematic Implications of Plastic Waste Additions to Concrete Taking a Circular Approach

Authors: Christina Cheong, Naomi Keena


In the face of growing urbanization the construction of new buildings is inevitable and with current construction methods leading to environmental degradation much questioning is needed around reducing the environmental impact of buildings. This paper explores the global environmental issue of concrete production in parallel with the problem of plastic waste, and questions if new solutions into plastic waste additions in concrete is a viable sustainable solution with positive systematic implications to living systems, both human and non-human. We investigate how certification programs can be used to access the sustainability of the new concrete composition. With this classification we look to the health impacts as well as reusability of such concrete in a second or third life cycle. We conclude that such an approach has benefits to the environment and that taking a circular approach to its development, in terms of the overall life cycle of the new concrete product, can help understand the nuances in terms of the material’s environmental and human health impacts.

Keywords: Concrete, Plastic waste additions to concrete, sustainability ratings, sustainable materials

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2674 A Prototype for Biological Breakdown of Plastic Bags in Desert Areas

Authors: Yassets Egaña, Patricio Núñez, Juan C. Rios, Ivan Balic, Alex Manquez, Yarela Flores, Maria C. Gatica, Sergio Diez De Medina, Rocio Tijaro-Rojas


Globally, humans produce millions of tons of waste per year. An important percentage of this waste is plastic, which frequently ends up in landfills and oceans. During the last decades, the greatest plastics production in history have been made, a few amount of this plastic is recycled, the rest ending up as plastic pollution in soils and seas. Plastic pollution is disastrous for the environment, affecting essential species, quality of consumption water, and some economic activities such as tourism, in different parts of the world. Due to its durability and decomposition on micro-plastics, animals and humans are accumulating a variety of plastic components without having clear their effects on human health, economy, and wildlife. In dry regions as the Atacama Desert, up to 95% of the water consumption comes from underground reservoirs, therefore preventing the soil pollution is an urgent need. This contribution focused on isolating, genotyping and optimizing microorganisms that use plastic waste as the only source of food to construct a batch-type bioreactor able to degrade in a faster way the plastic waste before it gets the desert soils and groundwater consumed by people living in this areas. Preliminary results, under laboratory conditions, has shown an improved degradation of polyethylene when three species of bacteria and three of fungi act on a selected plastic material. These microorganisms have been inoculated in dry soils, initially lacking organic matter, under environmental conditions in the laboratory. Our team designed and constructed a prototype using the natural conditions of the region and the best experimental results.

Keywords: biological breakdown, plastic bags, prototype, desert regions

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2673 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani


Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate

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2672 Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastic Fractions with PP, PET and PA

Authors: Rudi P. Nielsen, Karina H. Hansen, Morten E. Simonsen


To improve the possibility of the chemical recycling of mixed plastic waste, such as municipal plastic waste, work has been conducted to gain an understanding of the effect of typical polymers from waste (PP, PET, and PA) on the quality of the pyrolysis oil produced. Plastic fractions were pyrolyzed in a lab-scale reactor system, with mixture compositions of up to 15 wt.% PET and five wt.% PA in a PP matrix and processing conditions from 400 to 450°C. The experiments were conducted as a full factorial design and in duplicates to provide reliable results and the possibility to determine any interactions between the parameters. The products were analyzed using FT-IR and GC-MS for compositional information as well as the determination of calorific value, ash content, acid number, density, viscosity, and elemental analysis to provide further data on the fuel quality of the pyrolysis oil. Oil yield was found to be between 61 and 84 wt.%, while char yield was below 2.6 wt.% in all cases. The calorific value of the produced oil was between 32 and 46 MJ/kg, averaging at approx. 41 MJ/kg, thus close to that of heavy fuel oil. The oil product was characterized to contain aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers with chain lengths between 10 and 25 carbon atoms. Overall, it was found that the addition of PET decreased oil yield, while the addition of both PA and PET decreased oil quality in general by increasing acid number (PET), decreasing calorific value (PA), and increasing nitrogen content (PA). Furthermore, it was identified that temperature increased ammonia production from PA during pyrolysis, while ammonia production was decreased by the addition of PET.

Keywords: PET, plastic waste, polyamide, polypropylene, pyrolysis

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2671 Optimization of Waste Plastic to Fuel Oil Plants' Deployment Using Mixed Integer Programming

Authors: David Muyise


Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is an approach that involves the optimization of a range of decision variables in order to minimize or maximize a particular objective function. The main objective of this study was to apply the MIP approach to optimize the deployment of waste plastic to fuel oil processing plants in Uganda. The processing plants are meant to reduce plastic pollution by pyrolyzing the waste plastic into a cleaner fuel that can be used to power diesel/paraffin engines, so as (1) to reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with plastic pollution and also (2) to curb down the energy gap by utilizing the fuel oil. A programming model was established and tested in two case study applications that are, small-scale applications in rural towns and large-scale deployment across major cities in the country. In order to design the supply chain, optimal decisions on the types of waste plastic to be processed, size, location and number of plants, and downstream fuel applications were concurrently made based on the payback period, investor requirements for capital cost and production cost of fuel and electricity. The model comprises qualitative data gathered from waste plastic pickers at landfills and potential investors, and quantitative data obtained from primary research. It was found out from the study that a distributed system is suitable for small rural towns, whereas a decentralized system is only suitable for big cities. Small towns of Kalagi, Mukono, Ishaka, and Jinja were found to be the ideal locations for the deployment of distributed processing systems, whereas Kampala, Mbarara, and Gulu cities were found to be the ideal locations initially utilize the decentralized pyrolysis technology system. We conclude that the model findings will be most important to investors, engineers, plant developers, and municipalities interested in waste plastic to fuel processing in Uganda and elsewhere in developing economy.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, fuel oil plants, optimisation of waste plastics, plastic pollution, pyrolyzing

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2670 Production of Friendly Environmental Material as Building Element from Plastic Waste

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Mohanad Salih Farhan, Awadh E. Ajeel


The basic goal of this study is the production of cheap building elements from plastic waste. environmentally friendly and of good thermal insulation. The study depends on the addition of plastic waste as aggregates to the mixes of concrete at different percentages by weight (12 percentages) to produce lightweight aggregate concrete the density (1095 - 1892) kg/m3.The experimental work includes 120 specimens of concrete 72 cubes (150*150*150)mm, 48 cylinder (150*300) mm. The results obtained for concrete were for local raw materials without any additional materials or treatment. The mechanical and thermal properties determined were (compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity (k), specific heat capacity (Cp), thermal expansion (α) after (7) days of curing at 20 0C. The increase in amount of plastic waste decreases the density of concrete which leads to decrease in the mechanical and to improvement in thermal properties. The average measured static modulus of elasticity are found less than the predicted static modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile strength (ACI 318-2008 and ACI 213R-2003). All cubes specimens when exposed to heat at (200, 400, 600 0C), the compressive strength of all mixes decreases gradually at 600 0C, the strength of lightweight aggregate concrete were disintegrated. Lightweight aggregate concrete is about 25% lighter than normal concrete in dead load, and to the improve the properties of thermal insulation of building blocks.

Keywords: LWAC, plastic waste, thermal property, thermal insulation

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2669 Mechanical, Physical and Durability Properties of Cement Mortars Added with Recycled PP/PE-Based Food Packaging Waste Material

Authors: Livia Guerini, Christian Paglia


In Switzerland, only a fraction of plastic waste from food packaging is collected and recycled for further use in the food industry. Therefore, reusing these waste plastics for building applications can be an attractive alternative to disposal in order to reduce the problem of waste management and to make up for the depletion of raw materials needed for construction. In this study, experiments were conducted on the mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength, elastic modulus), physical properties (density, workability, porosity, and water permeability) and durability (freeze/thaw resistance) of cementitious mortars with additions of recycled low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE)/ polypropylene (PP) regrind (addition of 5% and 10% by weight) and LDPE sheets (addition of 0.5% and 1.5% by weight) coming from food packaging. The results show that as the addition of plastic material increases, the density and mechanical properties of the mortars decrease compared to conventional ones. Porosity is similar in all the mixtures made, while the workability and the permeability are affected not only by the amount added but also by the shape of the plastic aggregate. Freeze/thaw resistance, on the other hand, is significantly higher in mortars with plastic aggregates than in traditional mortar. This feature may be interesting for the realization of outdoor mortars in cold environments.

Keywords: food packaging waste, durability properties, mechanical properties, mortar, recycled PE, recycled PP

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2668 Possible Number of Dwelling Units Using Waste Plastic Bottle for Construction

Authors: Dibya Jivan Pati, Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma


Unlike other metro cities of India, Bhubaneswar–the capital city of Odisha, is expected to reach 1-million-mark population by now. The demands of dwelling unit requirement mostly among urban poor belonging to Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income groups (LIG) is becoming a challenge due to high housing cost and rents. As a matter of fact, it’s also noted that, with increase in population, the solid waste generation also increases subsequently affecting the environment due to inefficiency in collection of waste by local government bodies. Methods of utilizing Solid Waste - especially in form of Plastic bottles, Glass bottles and Metal cans (PGM) are now widely used as an alternative material for construction of low-cost building by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in developing countries like India to help the urban poor afford a shelter. The application of disposed plastic bottle used in construction of single dwelling significantly reduces the overall cost of construction to as much as 14% compared to traditional construction material. Therefore, considering its cost-benefit result, it’s possible to provide housing to EWS and LIGs at an affordable price. In this paper, we estimated the quantity of plastic bottles generated in Bhubaneswar which further helped to estimate the possible number of single dwelling unit that can be constructed on yearly basis so as to refrain from further housing shortage. The estimation results will be practically used for planning and managing low-cost housing business by local government and NGOs.

Keywords: construction, dwelling unit, plastic bottle, solid waste generation, groups

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2667 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang


In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

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2666 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal


The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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2665 The Effect of Treated Waste-Water on Compaction and Compression of Fine Soil

Authors: M. Attom, F. Abed, M. Elemam, M. Nazal, N. ElMessalami


—The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of treated waste-water (TWW) on the compaction and compressibility properties of fine soil. Two types of fine soils (clayey soils) were selected for this study and classified as CH soil and Cl type of soil. Compaction and compressibility properties such as optimum water content, maximum dry unit weight, consolidation index and swell index, maximum past pressure and volume change were evaluated using both tap and treated waste water. It was found that the use of treated waste water affects all of these properties. The maximum dry unit weight increased for both soils and the optimum water content decreased as much as 13.6% for highly plastic soil. The significant effect was observed in swell index and swelling pressure of the soils. The swell indexed decreased by as much as 42% and 33% for highly plastic and low plastic soils, respectively, when TWW is used. Additionally, the swelling pressure decreased by as much as 16% for both soil types. The result of this research pointed out that the use of treated waste water has a positive effect on compaction and compression properties of clay soil and promise for potential use of this water in engineering applications. Keywords—Consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change.

Keywords: consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2664 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev


Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: ABS-plastic, automation, control system, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

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2663 Recovery of Post-Consumer PET Bottles in a Composite Material Preparation

Authors: Rafenomananjara Tsinjo Nirina, Tomoo Sekito, Andrianaivoravelona Jaconnet Oliva


Manufacturing a composite material from post-consumer bottles is an interesting outlet since Madagascar is still facing the challenges of managing plastic waste on the one hand and appropriate waste treatment facilities are not yet developed on the other hand. New waste management options are needed to divert End-Of-Life (EOL) soft plastic wastes from landfills and incineration. Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles might be considered as a valuable resource and recovered into polymer concrete. The methodology is easy to implement and appropriate to the local context in Madagascar. This approach will contribute to the production of ecological building materials that might be profitable for the environment and the construction sector. This work aims to study the feasibility of using the post-consumer PET bottles as an alternative binding agent instead of the conventional Portland cement and water. Then, the mechanical and physical properties of the materials were evaluated.

Keywords: PET recycling, polymer concrete, ecological building materials, pollution mitigation

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2662 Lean Manufacturing Implementation in Fused Plastic Bags Industry

Authors: Tareq Issa


Lean manufacturing is concerned with the implementation of several tools and methodologies that aim for the continuous elimination of wastes throughout manufacturing process flow in the production system. This research addresses the implementation of lean principles and tools in a small-medium industry focusing on 'fused' plastic bags production company in Amman, Jordan. In this production operation, the major type of waste to eliminate include material, waiting-transportation, and setup wastes. The primary goal is to identify and implement selected lean strategies to eliminate waste in the manufacturing process flow. A systematic approach was used for the implementation of lean principles and techniques, through the application of Value Stream Mapping analysis. The current state value stream map was constructed to improve the plastic bags manufacturing process through identifying opportunities to eliminate waste and its sources. Also, the future-state value stream map was developed describing improvements in the overall manufacturing process resulting from eliminating wastes. The implementation of VSM, 5S, Kanban, Kaizen, and Reduced lot size methods have provided significant benefits and results. Productivity has increased to 95.4%, delivery schedule attained at 99-100%, reduction in total inventory to 1.4 days and the setup time for the melting process was reduced to about 30 minutes.

Keywords: lean implementation, plastic bags industry, value stream map, process flow

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2661 Use of Non-woven Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabrics to Improve Certain Properties of Concrete

Authors: Sifatullah Bahij, Safiullah Omary, Francoise Feugeas, Amanullah Faqiri


Plastic packages have been broadly used for a long time. Such widespread usage of plastic has resulted in an increased amount of plastic wastes and many environmental impacts. Plastic wastes are one of the most significant types of waste materials because of their non-degradation and low biodegradability. It is why many researchers tried to find a safe and environmentally friendly solution for plastic wastes. In this goal, in the civil engineering industry, many types of plastic wastes have been incorporated, as a partial substitution of aggregates or as additive materials (fibers) in concrete mixtures because of their lengthier lifetime and lower weight. This work aims to study the mechanical properties (compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths) of concrete with a water-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.45 and with the incorporation of non-woven PET plastic sheets. Five configurations -without PET (reference), 1-layer sheet, 2-side, 3-side, and full sample wrapping- were applied. The 7, 14 and 28-days samples’ compressive strengths, flexural strength and split tensile strength were measured. The outcomes of the study show that the compressive strength was improved for the wrapped samples, particularly for the cylindrical specimens. Also, split tensile and flexural behaviors of the wrapped samples improved significantly compared to the reference ones. Moreover, reference samples were damaged into many parts after mechanical testing, while wrapped specimens were taken by the applied configurations and were not divided into many small fragments. Therefore, non-woven fabrics appeared to improve some properties of the concrete.

Keywords: solid waste plastic, non-woven polyethylene terephthalate sheets, mechanical behaviors, crack pattern

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2660 Yield and Composition of Bio-Oil from Co-Pyrolysis of Corn Cobs and Plastic Waste of HDPE in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Authors: Dijan Supramono, Eny Kusrini, Haisya Yuana


Pyrolysis, a thermal cracking process in inert environment, may be used to produce bio-oil from biomass and plastic waste thus accommodating the use of renewable energy. Abundant amount of biomass waste in Indonesia are not utilised and plastic wastes are not well processed for clean environment. The aim of present work was to evaluate effect of mass ratio of plastic material to biomass in the feed blend of corn cobs and high density polyethylene (HDPE) of co-pyrolysis on bio-oil yield and chemical composition of bio-oil products. The heating rate of the co-pyrolysis was kept low and residence time was in the order of seconds to accommodate high yield of oil originating from plastic pyrolysis. Corn cobs have high cellulose and hemicellulose content (84%) which is potential to produce bio-oil. The pyrolysis was conducted in a laboratory-scale using a fixed bed reactor with final temperature of 500°C, heating rate 5 °C/min, flow rate N2 750 mL/min, total weight of biomass and plastic material of 20 g, and hold time after peak temperature of 30 min. Set up of conditions of co-pyrolysis should lead to accommodating the production of oil originating from HDPE due to constraint of HDPE pyrolysis residence time. Mass ratio of plastics to biomass in the feed blend was varied 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. It was found that by increasing HDPE content up to 100% in the feed blend, the yield of bio-oil at different mass ratios prescribed above were 28.05, 21.55, 14.55, 9.5, and 6.3wt%, respectively. Therefore, in the fixed bed reactor, producing bio-oil is constrained by low contribution of plastic feedstock to the pyrolysis liquid yield. Furthermore, for the same variation of the mass ratio, yields of the mixture of paraffins, olefins and cycloalkanes contained in bio-oil were of 0, 28.35, 40.75, 47.17, and 67.05wt%, respectively. Olefins and cycloalkanes are easily hydrogenised to produce paraffins, suitable to be used as bio-fuel. By increasing composition of HDPE in the feed blend, viscosity and pH of bio-oil change approaching to those of commercial diesel oil.

Keywords: co-pyrolysis, corn cobs, fixed bed reactor, HDPE

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2659 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura


In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: high level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology

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2658 Reducing Greenhouse Gass Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul


This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gases

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