Search results for: Jumoke T. Abimbola
27 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)
Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda
Abstract:African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.
Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant partsProcedia PDF Downloads 132
26 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy
Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola
Abstract:The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.
Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, lowProcedia PDF Downloads 454
25 Preliminary Design Considerations for Achieving Stabilized Orbit, Telemetary, Command, and Ranging for HTS Communication Satellite
Authors: Ibrahim Isa Ali (Pantami), Abdu Jaafaru Bambale, Abimbola Alale, Danjuma Ibrahim Ndihgihdah, Muhammad Alkali, Adamu Idris Umar, Samson Olufunmilayo Abodunrin, Muhammad Dokko Zubairu, Moshood Kareem
Abstract:This paper discusses the consideration and trade-offs used for the implementation of robust systems for orbit stability; Telemetry, Command and Ranging (TC& R) for Nigcomsat-1R and applicability for planned NigComSat-2 satellites. NigComSat-1R satellite was built by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The Satellite designed with quad-band payload (L, C, Ku, and Ka) was launched on the 20th of December 2011. The functionality of all satellite is driven by robust systems including Attitude & Orbit Control System (AOCS) and TC&R. The planned Nigcomsat-2 is a high throughput Satellite expected to function with better AOCS and TC&R.
Keywords: AOCS, CAST, Nigcomsat-1R, TC&RProcedia PDF Downloads 26
24 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency
Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo
Abstract:Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.
Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 171
23 The Tracking and Hedging Performances of Gold ETF Relative to Some Other Instruments in the UK
Authors: Abimbola Adedeji, Ahmad Shauqi Zubir
Abstract:This paper examines the profitability and risk between investing in gold exchange traded funds (ETFs) and gold mutual funds compares to gold prices. The main focus in determining whether there are similarities or differences between those financial products is the tracking error. The importance of understanding the similarities or differences between the gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and gold prices is derived from the fact that gold ETFs and gold mutual funds are used as substitutions for investors who are looking to profit from gold prices although they are short in capital. 10 hypotheses were tested. There are 3 types of tracking error used. Tracking error 1 and 3 gives results that differentiate between types of ETFs and mutual funds, hence yielding the answers in answering the hypotheses that were developed. However, tracking error 2 failed to give the answer that could shed light on the questions raised in this study. All of the results in tracking error 2 technique only telling us that the difference between the ups and downs of the financial instruments are similar, statistically to the physical gold prices movement.
Keywords: gold etf, gold mutual funds, tracking errorProcedia PDF Downloads 342
22 Nigcomsat-1r and Planned HTS Communication Satellite Critical Pillars for Nigeria’s National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy
Authors: Ibrahim Isa Ali (Pantami), Abdu Jaafaru Bambale, Abimbola Alale, Danjuma Ibrahim Ndihgihdah, Muhammad Alkali, Adamu Idris Umar, Moshood Kareem, Samson Olufunmilayo Abodunrin, Muhammad Dokko Zubairu
Abstract:The National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy, NDEPS document developed by Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Communications & Digital Economy (FMoCDE) is anchored on 8 pillars for the acceleration of the National Digital Economy for a Digital Nigeria. NIGCOMSAT-1R and the planned HTS communication Satellite are critical assets for supporting the pillars in the drive for sustainable growth and development. This paper discusses on the gains and contribution of the strategy as a solid infrastructure. The paper also highlights these assets’ contribution as platform for Indigenous Content Development & Adoption, Digital Literacy & Skills, and Digital Services Development & Promotion.
Keywords: FMoCDE, HTS, NDEPS, nigcomsat!R, pillarsProcedia PDF Downloads 23
21 Quantitative Risk Analysis for Major Subsystems and Project Success of a Highthrouput Satellite
Authors: Ibrahim Isa Ali (Pantami), Abdu Jaafaru Bambale, Abimbola Alale, Danjuma Ibrahim Ndihgihdah, Muhammad Alkali, Adamu Idris Umar, Babadoko Dantala Mohammed, Moshood Kareem Olawole
Abstract:This paper dwells on the risk management required for High throughput Satellite (HTS) project, and major subsystems that pertains to the improved performance and reliability of the spacecraft. The paper gives a clear picture of high‐throughput satellites (HTS) and the associated technologies with performances as they align and differ with the traditional geostationary orbit or Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) Communication Satellites. The paper also highlights critical subsystems and processes in project conceptualization and execution. The paper discusses the configuration of the payload. The need for optimization of resources for the HTS project and successful integration of critical subsystems for spacecraft requires implementation of risk analysis and mitigation from the preliminary design stage; Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT); Launch and in-orbit- Management stage.
Keywords: AIT, HTS, in-orbit management, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 22
20 Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metals Analysis of Contaminated Ndawuse River in North Central of Nigeria
Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, John Odiyo
Abstract:The study assessed quality of surface water across Ndawuse River Phase 1, District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria based on physico-chemical variables that are linked to agrochemical and eutrophication, as well as heavy metals concentrations. In total, sixteen surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river. The results were compared with the standard limits set by both World Health Organization and Federal Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. The results obtained indicated that BOD5, turbidity, 0.014-3.511 mg Fe/L and 0.078-0.14 mg Cr/L were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on these receiving water bodies primarily as their source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws considering the physico-chemical analysis.
Keywords: Abuja, heavy metals, human exposure risk, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface waterProcedia PDF Downloads 190
19 Students’ Motivation, Self-Determination, Test Anxiety and Academic Engagement
Authors: Shakirat Abimbola Adesola, Shuaib Akintunde Asifat, Jelili Olalekan Amoo
Abstract:This paper presented the impact of students’ emotions on learning when receiving lectures and when taking tests. It was observed that students experience different types of emotions during the study, and this was found to have a significant effect on their academic performance. A total of one thousand six hundred and seventy-five (1675) students from the department of Computer Science in two Colleges of Education in South-West Nigeria took part in this study. The students were randomly selected for the research. Sample comprises of 968 males representing 58%, and 707 females representing 42%. A structured questionnaire, of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was distributed to the participants to obtain their opinions. Data gathered were analyzed using the IBM SPSS 20 to obtain ANOVA, descriptive analysis, stepwise regression, and reliability tests. The results revealed that emotion moderately shape students’ motivation and engagement in learning; and that self-regulation and self-determination do have significant impact on academic performance. It was further revealed that test anxiety has a significant correlation with academic performance.
Keywords: motivation, self-determination, test anxiety, academic performance, and academic engagementProcedia PDF Downloads 6
18 Phytochemicals from Enantia Chlorantha Stem Bark Inhibits the Activity ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase: Molecular Docking Studies
Authors: Hammed Tanimowo Aiyelabegan, Oluchukwu Franklin Aladi, Mutiu Adewumi Alabi, Raliat Abimbola Aladodo, Emmanuel Oladipupo Ajani, Abdulganiyu Giwa, Esther Owolabi
Abstract:The study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory activities of ligands from Enantia chlorantha stem bark on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In silico pharmacokinetic properties and docking scores were employed to analyse the inhibition using SwissADME and Autodock4.2, respectively. Results revealed that drug-likeness, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability radar of all the ligands except jatrorrhizine and acarbose falls within the radar according to the Lipinski rule of 5. The binding energies of the protein-ligand interactions also show that the ligand fits into the active site. The results obtained from this study show that the chemical constituents from Enantia chlorantha stem bark may bring about positive physiological changes in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus. Further in vitro studies on diabetes cell lines and in vivo studies on the animal may validate these compounds for diabetes treatment. These phytoconstituents could help in the development of novel anti-diabetic molecules.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, in silico, Enantia chlorantha stem barkProcedia PDF Downloads 90
17 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola
Abstract:The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.
Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steelProcedia PDF Downloads 244
16 Identification of Microbial Community in an Anaerobic Reactor Treating Brewery Wastewater
Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, John O. Odiyo, Feroz M. Swalaha
Abstract:The study of microbial ecology and their function in anaerobic digestion processes are essential to control the biological processes. This is to know the symbiotic relationship between the microorganisms that are involved in the conversion of complex organic matter in the industrial wastewater to simple molecules. In this study, diversity and quantity of bacterial community in the granular sludge taken from the different compartments of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed three major eubacteria phyla that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi in the full-scale UASB reactor, with different groups populating different compartment. The result of qPCR assay showed high amount of eubacteria with increase in concentration along the reactor’s compartment. This study extends our understanding on the diverse, topological distribution and shifts in concentration of microbial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. The colonization and the trophic interactions among these microbial populations in reducing and transforming complex organic matter within the UASB reactors were established.
Keywords: bacteria, brewery wastewater, real-time quantitative PCR, UASB reactorProcedia PDF Downloads 141
15 Pragmatic Strategies of Selected Online Articles on the Buhari/Jubril Dilemma
Authors: Oluwaseun Amusa
Abstract:The online space has continued to be a platform for not only private and mundane discussions but also a tribune for voicing critical political and national opinions. Nigerians and the international community have employed the online media, as well as other media platforms to articulate their thoughts on the claims which favour possibilities of the demise of the incumbent president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari, after a prolonged illness in year 2007 and the ploy of a Jubril of Sudan clone in his place. This study thus examines the pragmatic strategies employed in the online articles on the national dilemma caused by the Buhari/Jubril claims and refutals, in response to the lacuna in the literature on such analytical investigations on the subject. Two online articles titled, 'Buhari: The real, the fake and the dead' and 'Taking the Buhari/Jubril story seriously', authored by two Nigerian writers, Tunde Odesola and Abimbola Adelakun, respectively and retrieved online from 360nobs.com and Nairaland blogs, on December 3, 2018, and December 7, 2018, respectively, served as data for the study. The data were analysed using the Stance Theory and the Pragmatic Act Theory. Findings showed that the writers employed stance acts, rhetorical questions, metaphors, histo-political allusions, name-calling, and derogatives, in achieving the pragmeme of disabusing. This results in a pragmatic reconstruction of readers' views on the issue.
Keywords: Buhari/Jubril claims, online articles, pragmatic strategies, stance theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 73
14 Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria
Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Folami, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, Feroz Mohomed Swalaha
Abstract:Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.
Keywords: Abuja, contaminants, heavy metals, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface waterProcedia PDF Downloads 96
13 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater
Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, J. Adeyemo
Abstract:Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (µmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (dˉ¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.
Keywords: brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 191
12 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition
Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux
Abstract:With the competing demand on water resources and water reuse, discharge of industrial effluents into the aquatic environment has become an important issue. Much attention has been placed on the impact of industrial wastewater on water bodies worldwide due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic matter in the receiving water bodies. The scope of the present work is to assess the physic-chemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of the peak period of beer production on the water usage.
Keywords: Brewery wastewater, environmental pollution, industrial effluents, physic-chemical compositionProcedia PDF Downloads 339
11 A Critical Appraisal of Adekunle Ajasin University Policy on Internet Resource Centre in Service Delivery Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State
Authors: Abimbola Olaotan Akinsete
Abstract:Government all over the world has intensified efforts in making internet and resource centres readily available in public institutions and centres for the advancement of humanity and working processes. Information and communication resource centre will not only help in the reduction of task that are presumed to be herculean. This centres influenced the working rate and productivity of both staffs and students and its benefit. The utilization of the internet and information resource centre will not only speed up service delivery, working time and efficiency of the system. Information and Communication Technology plays significant roles in presenting equalization strategy for developing university community and improving educational service delivery. This equalization will not only advance, accelerate and ensure results are accessed electronically, ensuring the transfer and confirmation of students’ academic records and their results in the world without physically available to request for these services. This study seeks to make Critical Appraisal of Adekunle Ajasin University Policy on Internet Resource Centre in Service Delivery Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. The study employ descriptive survey design method in identifying hindrances of the non-utilization of technology in the service delivery in the university. Findings revealed that the adoption of internet and resource centre in the Exams and Records unit of the University shall help in delivering more in students’ records/results processing.
Keywords: internet, resource, centre, policy and service deliveryProcedia PDF Downloads 15
10 An Investigation into the Gaps in Green Building Education and Training Offerings in Nigeria
Authors: Adebayo A. Abimbola, Anifowose O. Joseph, Olanrewaju S. Taiwo
Abstract:Green building (GB) practices have the potential to save energy, save money, and improve the quality of human habitat. They can also contribute to water conservation, more efficient use of raw materials, and ecosystem health around the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) singled out the building sector as having the most cost-effective opportunities for reducing carbon emissions—in fact, many building-related opportunities are cost-neutral, or even cost-positive, to the building owner. These benefits have made green building practices the fastest-growing trend in the building industry, but they still represent only a fraction of new construction, and the enormous stock of existing buildings has barely been touched at all. To effectively deliver the kind of (GB) that can become a force for positive change at global, regional and local scales, all workforce sectors need new skills that are both technical and interpersonal in nature. A prominent bottleneck is seen to be education and training. This paper investigates the major gaps in current GB education and training offerings in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was developed to capture the perception of construction professionals and academics in relevant professions regarding the significance of the identified gaps as it affects GB education and training. Based on Likert scale ranking, research result shows that perception of training in specific technical fields and financial benefits and evaluation are identified as the top gaps in GB training and education offerings. The paper concludes with suggestions and actions that can enhance capabilities of the GB workforce in Nigeria.
Keywords: education and training, gaps, green building, workforceProcedia PDF Downloads 254
9 Nitrification Efficiency and Community Structure of Municipal Activated Sewage Sludge
Authors: Oluyemi O. Awolusi, Abimbola M. Enitan, Sheena Kumari, Faizal Bux
Abstract:Nitrification is essential to biological processes designed to remove ammonia and/or total nitrogen. It removes the excess nitrogenous compound in wastewater which could be very toxic to the aquatic fauna or cause a serious imbalance of such aquatic ecosystem. Efficient nitrification is linked to an in-depth knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the nitrifying community structure within the wastewater treatment systems. In this study, molecular technique was employed for characterizing the microbial structure of activated sludge [ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)] in a municipal wastewater treatment with intention of linking it to the plant efficiency. PCR-based phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for. The average operating and environmental parameters, as well as specific nitrification rate of a plant, was investigated during the study. During the investigation, the average temperature was 23±1.5oC. Other operational parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand inversely correlated with ammonia removal. The dissolved oxygen level in the plant was constantly lower than the optimum (between 0.24 and 1.267 mg/l) during this study. The plant was treating wastewater with the influent ammonia concentration of 31.69 and 24.47 mg/l. The influent flow rates (ML/day) was 96.81 during the period. The dominant nitrifiers include: Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp. The AOB had a correlation with nitrification efficiency and temperature. This study shows that the specific ammonia oxidizing rate and the specific nitrate formation rates can serve as a good indicator of the plant overall nitrification performance.
Keywords: Ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit gene, amoA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB, specific nitrification rateProcedia PDF Downloads 394
8 A Comparative Analysis of the Enforceability of Social and Economic Rights: Nigeria and South Africa as Case Studies
Authors: Foluke Abimbola
Abstract:There are two separate groups of a recognised body of human rights. These are known as Civil and Political Rights, and Economic and Social Rights. There is however an impression that civil and political rights are enforceable in courts while socio-economic rights are not. Nigeria is an example of one of such countries whose constitution has social, economic and cultural rights’ provisions as well as civil and political rights. However, the socio-economic rights provided in the Nigerian constitution are not justiciable or are unenforceable in a court of law. On the other hand, a comparative examination of the socio-economic right provisions in the South African constitution and judgments of the constitutional court of South Africa reveals that socio-economic rights may be enforceable. This position may ensure the protection of the socio-economic rights of the poor and vulnerable groups. These rights include the rights to food, adequate shelter, health, and education. Moreover, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) which incorporates similar socio-economic right provisions, has been recognized as a domestic law in Nigeria and its provisions are enforceable by the domestic courts by virtue of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap A9 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. It is not only a regional treaty signed and adopted by Nigeria but has been passed into law by the National Assembly and can be enforced like any other local law. This paper will propose that in view of the provisions of the African Charter and mechanisms for implementation as well as other international conventions and national constitutional provisions on human rights, domestic courts may be able to assess state responsibilities in the light of socio-economic rights. Cases decided by South African courts and other jurisdictions will be discussed in order to lend weight to the notion that socio-economic rights can be enforced in jurisdictions such as Nigeria even though the constitution provides otherwise.
Keywords: african charter, constitutional court of south africa, nigerian constitution, socio-economic rights, south african constitutionProcedia PDF Downloads 93
7 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production
Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara
Abstract:Evolutionary algorithms are techniques extensively used in the planning and management of water resources and systems. It is useful in finding optimal solutions to water resources problems considering the complexities involved in the analysis. River basin management is an essential area that involves the management of upstream, river inflow and outflow including downstream aspects of a reservoir. Water as a scarce resource is needed by human and the environment for survival and its management involve a lot of complexities. Management of this scarce resource is necessary for proper distribution to competing users in a river basin. This presents a lot of complexities involving many constraints and conflicting objectives. Evolutionary algorithms are very useful in solving this kind of complex problems with ease. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to use, fast and robust with many other advantages. Many applications of evolutionary algorithms, which are population based search algorithm, are discussed. Different methodologies involved in the modeling and simulation of water management problems in river basins are explained. It was found from this work that different evolutionary algorithms are suitable for different problems. Therefore, appropriate algorithms are suggested for different methodologies and applications based on results of previous studies reviewed. It is concluded that evolutionary algorithms, with wide applications in water resources management, are viable and easy algorithms for most of the applications. The results suggested that evolutionary algorithms, applied in the right application areas, can suggest superior solutions for river basin management especially in reservoir operations, irrigation planning and management, stream flow forecasting and real-time applications. The future directions in this work are suggested. This study will assist decision makers and stakeholders on the best evolutionary algorithm to use in varied optimization issues in water resources management.
Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, multi-objective, reservoir operation, river basin managementProcedia PDF Downloads 426
6 The Impact of Acoustic Performance on Neurodiverse Students in K-12 Learning Spaces
Authors: Michael Lekan-Kehinde, Abimbola Asojo, Bonnie Sanborn
Abstract:Good acoustic performance has been identified as one of the critical Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) factors for student learning and development by the National Research Council. Childhood presents the opportunity for children to develop lifelong skills that will support them throughout their adult lives. Acoustic performance of a space has been identified as a factor that can impact language acquisition, concentration, information retention, and general comfort within the environment. Increasingly, students learn by communication between both teachers and fellow students, making speaking and listening crucial. Neurodiversity - while initially coined to describe individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - widely describes anyone with a different brain process. As the understanding from cognitive and neurosciences increases, the number of people identified as neurodiversity is nearly 30% of the population. This research looks at guidelines and standard for spaces with good acoustical quality and relates it with the experiences of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their parents, teachers, and educators through a mixed methods approach, including selected case studies interviews, and mixed surveys. The information obtained from these sources is used to determine if selected materials, especially properties relating to sound absorption and reverberation reduction, are equally useful in small, medium sized, and large learning spaces and methodologically approaching. The results describe the potential impact of acoustics on Neurodiverse students, considering factors that determine the complexity of sound in relation to the auditory processing capabilities of ASD students. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of how materials selection influences the better development of acoustical environments for autism students.
Keywords: acoustics, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), children, education, learning, learning spaces, materials, neurodiversity, soundProcedia PDF Downloads 51
5 Genesis of Talc Bodies in Relation to the Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu Area, Southwestern Nigeria
Authors: Morenike Abimbola Adeleye, Anthony Temidayo Bolarinwa
Abstract:The genesis of talc bodies around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu area, southwestern Nigeria, has been speculative due to inadequate compositional data on the talc and the mafic-ultramafic protoliths. Petrography, morphology, using scanning electron microscope, mineral chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and major, trace and rare-earth element compositions of the talc and the mafic-ultramafic in the area were undertaken with a view to determine the genesis of the talc bodies. Fine-grained amphibolite and lherzolite are the major mafic-ultramafic rocks in the study area. The amphibolite is fine-grained, composed of amphiboles, pyroxenes plagioclase, K-feldspar, ilmenite, magnetite, and garnet. The lherzolite and talc are composed of olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and plagioclase. Alteration minerals include serpentine, amesite, talc, Cr-bearing clinochlore, and ferritchromite. Cr-spinel, pyrite, and magnetite are the accessory minerals present. Alteration of olivines, pyroxenes, and amphiboles to talc and chlinochlore; and spinel to ferritchchromite by hydrothermal (H₂O-CO₂-Cl-HF) fluids, provided by the granitic intrusions in the area, showed retrograde metasomatism of amphibolites to greenschist facies at 500-550ºC. This led to the formation of talc, amesite, anthophyllite, actinolite, and tremolite. The Al₂O₃-Fe₂O₃+TiO₂-MgO discrimination diagram suggests tholeiitic protolith for the amphibolite and komatitic protolith for the lherzolite. The lherzolite has flat rare-earth element patterns typical of komatiites and dunites. The Al₂O₃/TiO₂ ratios, Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb, Cr-TiO₂, TiO₂ vs. Al₂O₃, and Nd vs. Nb discrimination diagrams indicated that the talcs are from two-parent sources: altered metacarbonates and tholeiitic basalts (amphibolites) to komatitic basalts (lherzolites).
Keywords: amphibolites, lherzolites, talc, komatiiteProcedia PDF Downloads 117
4 Child Marriages in Africa: Using a Rights-Based Approach to Protect the Girl-Child in Nigeria
Authors: Foluke Abimbola
Abstract:The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child has been signed and ratified by several countries due to the concern about various abuses and crimes committed against children both locally and internationally. It is a shame that in view of the peculiar hardships being experienced by children today, the natural right to childhood has to be protected by a vast array of laws and international conventions. 194 countries have so far acceded to and ratified the convention on the Rights of a Child while some countries such as Nigeria have enacted the convention as a domestic law, yet child abuse is still rampant not only in Nigeria but all over the world. In Nigeria, the Child Rights Act was passed into law in 2003, with its provisions similar to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Despite the age of marriage provided in the Nigerian Child’s Rights Act 2003, many communities still practice child marriages to the detriment of the girl-child. Cases where these children have to withdraw from school as a result of these unripe marriages abound. Unfortunately, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 appears to indirectly support early marriages for girls in section 29 (4) where it states that a woman who is married is deemed to be of full age whereas ‘full age’ as a general term in the Constitution is from 18 years old and above. Section 29 (4) may thus be interpreted to mean that a girl of 12 years old, if married, is deemed to be of ‘full-age.’ In view of these discrepancies which continue to justify this unwholesome practice, this paper shall proffer solutions to this unlawful act and make recommendations to existing institutions, using a rights-based approach, on how to prevent and/or substantially reduce this practice. A comparative analysis with other African countries will be adopted in order to conduct a research for effective policies that may be implemented for the protection of these girls. Thus, this paper will further examine the issue of child marriage which is still quite rampant in African countries particularly in Nigeria which also affects the girl-child’s right to an education. Such children are in need of special protection and this paper will recommend ways in which state institutions, particularly in Nigeria, may be able to introduce policies to curb incidences of child marriage and child sexual abuse while proffering strategies for the prevention of these crimes.
Keywords: child abuse, child marriages, child rights, constitutions, child rights, the girl-childProcedia PDF Downloads 78
3 Balance Rigor, Relevance and Socio-Emotional Learning in Math
Authors: Abimbola Akintounde
Abstract:Supporting the social and emotional needs of young adolescents has become an emergent concern for schools around the world. Yet educators remain in a dilemma regarding the optimum approach for integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) into their content area instruction. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of secondary students regarding their schoolwide SEL interventions. Twenty-four International Baccalaureate students in a final year mathematics course at an American Public Secondary School near Washington D. C. were randomly selected for participation in this study via an online electronic survey. The participants in this study used Likert-scale items to rate the effectiveness of the socio-emotional and character development programs being implemented at their schools. Respondents also ranked their preferred mode of delivery of social and emotional support programs. About 71% of the teenagers surveyed preferred SEL support rendered via interactive team-building activities and games, 42% of the high school students in the study ranked focus group discussions as their preferred format for SEL interventions, while only 13% of the respondents in the study regarded lectures and presentations as their preferred mode of SEL delivery. About one-fourth of the study participants agreed that explicit instruction was critical to enhancing students’ wellness, 79% agreed that SEL programs should foster less teacher talk, while 88% of the students indicated that student engagement was critical to their mental health. Eighty percent of the teenagers surveyed decried that the focus of their school-wide social and emotional programs was poorly prioritized. About two-thirds of the students agreed that social justice and equity issues should be embedded in their schools’ advisory programs. More than half of the respondents agitated for strategies for managing stress and their school workload. About 54% of the respondents also clamored for SEL programs that reinforce emotion regulation and coping strategies for anxiety. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were proffered for best practices in the design and implementation of effective learner-friendly social and emotional development interventions.
Keywords: SEL, math anxiety, student support, emotion regulation, social awareness, self awareness, self management, relationship buildingProcedia PDF Downloads 7
2 Achieving Design-Stage Elemental Cost Planning Accuracy: Case Study of New Zealand
Authors: Johnson Adafin, James O. B. Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Abimbola O. Windapo
Abstract:An aspect of client expenditure management that requires attention is the level of accuracy achievable in design-stage elemental cost planning. This has been a major concern for construction clients and practitioners in New Zealand (NZ). Pre-tender estimating inaccuracies are significantly influenced by the level of risk information available to estimators. Proper cost planning activities should ensure the production of a project’s likely construction costs (initial and final), and subsequent cost control activities should prevent unpleasant consequences of cost overruns, disputes and project abandonment. If risks were properly identified and priced at the design stage, observed variance between design-stage elemental cost plans (ECPs) and final tender sums (FTS) (initial contract sums) could be reduced. This study investigates the variations between design-stage ECPs and FTS of construction projects, with a view to identifying risk factors that are responsible for the observed variance. Data were sourced through interviews, and risk factors were identified by using thematic analysis. Access was obtained to project files from the records of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors), and document analysis was employed in complementing the responses from the interviews. Study findings revealed the discrepancies between ECPs and FTS in the region of -14% and +16%. It is opined in this study that the identified risk factors were responsible for the variability observed. The values obtained from the analysis would enable greater accuracy in the forecast of FTS by Quantity Surveyors. Further, whilst inherent risks in construction project developments are observed globally, these findings have important ramifications for construction projects by expanding existing knowledge on what is needed for reasonable budgetary performance and successful delivery of construction projects. The findings contribute significantly to the study by providing quantitative confirmation to justify the theoretical conclusions generated in the literature from around the world. This therefore adds to and consolidates existing knowledge.
Keywords: accuracy, design-stage, elemental cost plan, final tender sumProcedia PDF Downloads 206
1 A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Environmental Quality on Health and Well-Being in Office Buildings
Authors: Suyeon Bae, Abimbola Asojo, Denise Guerin, Caren Martin
Abstract:Post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) have been recognized for documenting occupant well-being and responses to indoor environmental quality (IEQ) factors such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic conditions. Sustainable Post-Occupancy evaluation survey (SPOES) developed by an interdisciplinary team at a Midwest University provides an evidence-based quantitative analysis of occupants’ satisfaction in office, classroom, and residential spaces to help direct attention to successful areas and areas that need improvement in buildings. SPOES is a self-administered and Internet-based questionnaire completed by building occupants. In this study, employees in three different office buildings rated their satisfaction on a Likert-type scale about 12 IEQ criteria including thermal condition, indoor air quality, acoustic quality, daylighting, electric lighting, privacy, view conditions, furnishings, appearance, cleaning and maintenance, vibration and movement, and technology. Employees rated their level of satisfaction on a Likert-type scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). They also rate the influence of their physical environment on their perception of their work performance and the impact of their primary workspaces on their health on a scale from 1 (hinders) to 7 (enhances). Building A is a three-story building that includes private and group offices, classrooms, and conference rooms and amounted to 55,000 square-feet for primary workplace (N=75). Building B, a six-story building, consisted of private offices, shared enclosed office, workstations, and open desk areas for employees and amounted to 14,193 square-feet (N=75). Building C is a three-story 56,000 square-feet building that included classrooms, therapy rooms, an outdoor playground, gym, restrooms, and training rooms for clinicians (N=76). The results indicated that 10 IEQs for Building A except acoustic quality and privacy showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. In Building B, 11 IEQs except technology showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. Building C had statistically significant correlations between all 12 IEQ and the employees’ perception of the impact of their primary workspace on their health in two-tailed correlations (P ≤ 0.05). Out of 33 statistically significant correlations, 25 correlations (76%) showed at least moderate relationship (r ≥ 0.35). For the three buildings, daylighting, furnishings, and indoor air quality IEQs ranked highest on the impact on health. IEQs about vibration and movement, view condition, and electric lighting ranked second, followed by IEQs about cleaning and maintenance and appearance. These results imply that 12 IEQs developed in SPOES are highly related to employees’ perception of how their primary workplaces impact their health. The IEQs in this study offer an opportunity for improving occupants’ well-being and the built environment.
Keywords: post-occupancy evaluation, built environment, sustainability, well-being, indoor air qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 225