Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: pearl millet

55 Comparison of White Sauce Prepared from Native and Chemically Modified Corn and Pearl Millet Starches

Authors: Marium Shaikh, Tahira M. Ali, Abid Hasnain

Abstract:

Physical and sensory properties of white sauces prepared from native and chemically modified corn and pearl millet starches were compared. Interestingly, no syneresis was observed in hydroxypropylated corn and pearl millet starch containing white sauce even after nine days of cold storage (4 °C), while other modifications also reduced the syneresis significantly in comparison to their native counterparts. White sauce containing succinylated corn starch showed least oil separation due to its greater emulsion stability. Light microscopy was used to visualize the size and shape of fat globules, and it was found that they were most homogenously distributed in succinylated and hydroxypropylated samples. Sensory results revealed that chemical modification of corn and pearl millet starch improved the consistency, thickness and overall acceptability of white sauces. Viscosity profiles showed that pasting parameters of native pearl millet starch are almost similar to native corn starch suggesting pearl millet starch as an alternative of corn starch. Also, white sauce prepared from modified pearl millet starch showed better cold storage stability in terms of various textural attributes like hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness.

Keywords: corn starch, pearl millet, hydroxypropylation, succinylation, white sauce

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
54 Biotechnological Interventions for Crop Improvement in Nutricereal Pearl Millet

Authors: Supriya Ambawat, Subaran Singh, C. Tara Satyavathi, B. S. Rajpurohit, Ummed Singh, Balraj Singh

Abstract:

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is an important staple food of the arid and semiarid tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is rightly termed as nutricereal as it has high nutrition value and a good source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, etc. Pearl millet has low prolamine fraction and is gluten free which is useful for people having a gluten allergy. It has several health benefits like reduction in blood pressure, thyroid, diabe¬tes, cardiovascular and celiac diseases but its direct consumption as food has significantly declined due to several reasons. Keeping this in view, it is important to reorient the ef¬forts to generate demand through value-addition and quality improvement and create awareness on the nutritional merits of pearl millet. In India, through Indian Council of Agricultural Research-All India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl millet, multilocational coordinated trials for developed hybrids were conducted at various centers. The gene banks of pearl millet contain varieties with high levels of iron and zinc which were used to produce new pearl millet varieties with elevated iron levels bred with the high‐yielding varieties. Thus, using breeding approaches and biochemical analysis, a total of 167 hybrids and 61 varieties were identified and released for cultivation in different agro-ecological zones of the country which also includes some biofortified hybrids rich in Fe and Zn. Further, using several biotechnological interventions such as molecular markers, next-generation sequencing (NGS), association mapping, nested association mapping (NAM), MAGIC populations, genome editing, genotyping by sequencing (GBS), genome wide association studies (GWAS) advancement in millet improvement has become possible by identifying and tagging of genes underlying a trait in the genome. Using DArT markers very high density linkage maps were constructed for pearl millet. Improved HHB67 has been released using marker assisted selection (MAS) strategies, and genomic tools were used to identify Fe-Zn Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The draft genome sequence of millet has also opened various ways to explore pearl millet. Further, genomic positions of significantly associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with iron and zinc content in the consensus map is being identified and research is in progress towards mapping QTLs for flour rancidity. The sequence information is being used to explore genes and enzymatic pathways responsible for rancidity of flour. Thus, development and application of several biotechnological approaches along with biofortification can accelerate the genetic gain targets for pearl millet improvement and help improve its quality.

Keywords: Biotechnological approaches, genomic tools, malnutrition, MAS, nutricereal, pearl millet, sequencing.

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
53 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam

Abstract:

Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
52 Nacre Deposition Rate in Japanese and Hybrid Mother Oysters, Pinctada Fucata, and Its Relationship with Their Respective Pearls

Authors: Gunawan Muhammad, Takashi Atsumi, Akira Komaru

Abstract:

Pinctada fucata has been the most important pearl culture species in Japan and known as Japanese Akoya Pearl Oyster. However, during summer 1994, mass mortality devastated pearl culture in most parts of Japan. Therefore, pearl farmers started to import Chinese Pearl Oysters from Hainan Island that came from the same species because they are believed to be more resistant towards high water temperature, despite their lack of ability in producing high-quality pearls. The local farmers were then hybridized Japanese and Chinese pearl oysters and currently known as Hybrid pearl oysters, as an attempt to produce a new oyster's strain which is more resistant towards high temperature but also able to produce higher quality pearls. However, despite both strains were implanted by mantle tissues from the same group of donors, the thickness of pearl nacre produced by both strains was different, even though tablet thickness shows a rather similar pattern. Hence, this leads to a question of whether mother oysters play a major role in both nacre deposition rate and tablet thickness of pearls or not. This study first describes the nacre deposition rate of the shells of Japanese and Hybrid mother oysters towards the water temperature condition in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Later, a comparative study was conducted among 4 shell positions that had been chosen according to the mantle tissue location and shell growth directions. A correlative study was then taken between shells and pearls nacre deposition rate to know whether mother oyster ability in depositing nacre on their shells is related to that of pearls. All the four shell positions were significantly different in shell nacre growth rate (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.05), and the third position have faster nacre growth among the other three both in Japanese and Hybrid strains, especially in warm temperature. The ability to deposit nacre between Japanese and Hybrid during warm water conditions (August and September) is also significantly different in almost all positions (Mann Whitney U, p-value < 0.01), Japanese oyster growth faster than Hybrid in all four positions. This leads to a different total growth among the two strains and a higher possibility of thicker nacre thickness in Japanese shell nacre. Tablet thickness is significantly different among all positions of shells (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.01), the 2nd position deposited rather thinner tablet thickness than the other three, including on the 6th month of culture which is more desirable in producing pearls with good luster. This result gives us new information that pearl growth rate is highly affected by the mother oysters; however, nacre tablet thickness might be the result of the shell matrix expressed by different mantle position from donor oysters.

Keywords: nacre, deposition, biomineralization, pearl aquaculture, pearl oyster, Akoya pearl, pearl

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
51 Effects of Nitroxin Fertilizer on Physiological Characters Forage Millet under Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Darbani, Jafar Masoud Sinaki, Armaghan Abedzadeh Neyshaburi

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An experiment was conducted as split plot factorial design using randomized complete block design in Damghan in 2012-2013 in order to investigate the effects of irrigation cut off (based on the Phenological stages of plants) on physiological properties of forage millet cultivars. The treatments included three irrigation levels (control with full irrigation, irrigation cut off when flowering started, and irrigation cut off when flowering ended) in the main plots, and applying nitroxin biofertilizer (+), not applying nitroxin biofertilizer (control), and Iranian forage millet cultivars (Bastan, Pishahang, and Isfahan) in the subplots. The highest rate of ashes and water-soluble carbohydrates content were observed in the cultivar Bastan (8.22 and 8.91%, respectively), the highest content of fiber and water (74.17 and 48.83%, respectively) in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started, and the largest proline concentration (μmol/gfw-1) was seen in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started. very rapid growth of millet, its short growing season, drought tolerance, its unique feature regarding harvest time, and its response to nitroxin biofertilizer can help expanding its cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

Keywords: irrigation cut off, forage millet, Nitroxin fertilizer, physiological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
50 Study of the Chemical Composition of Rye, Millet and Sorghum from Algeria

Authors: Soualem Mami Zoubida, Brixi Nassima, Beghdad Choukri, Belarbi Meriem

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Cereals are the most important source of dietary fiber in the Nordic diet. The fiber in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel; particularly in the bran. Improved diet can help unlock the door to good health. Whole grains are an important source of nutrients that are in short supply in our diet, including digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, trace minerals, and other compounds of interest in disease prevention, including phytoestrogens and antioxidants (1). The objective of this study is to know the composition of whole grain cereals (rye, millet, white, and red sorghum) which a majority pushes in the south of Algeria. This shows that the millet has a high rate of the sugar estimated at 67.6%. The high proportion of proteins has been found in the two varieties of sorghum and rye. The millet presents the great percentage in lipids compared with the others cereals. And at the last, a red sorghum has the highest rate of fiber(2). These nutrients, as well as other components of whole grain cereals, have, in terms of health, an increased effect if they are consumed together.

Keywords: chemical composition, miller, Secale cereal, Sorghum bicolor

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
49 Genomics Approach for Excavation of NAS Genes from Nutri Rich Minor Millet Crops: Transforming Perspective from Orphan Plants to Future Food Crops

Authors: Mahima Dubey, Girish Chandel

Abstract:

Minor millets are highly nutritious and climate resilient cereal crops. These features make them ideal candidates to excavate the physiology of the underlying mechanism. In an attempt to understand the basis of mineral nutrition in minor millets, a set of five Barnyard millet genotypes were analyzed for grain Fe and Zn content under contrasting Fe-Zn supply to identify genotypes proficient in tolerating mineral deficiency. This resulted in the identification of Melghat-1 genotype to be nutritionally superior with better ability to withstand deficiency. Expression analysis of several Nicotianamine synthase (NAS) genes showed that HvNAS1 and OsNAS2 genes were prominent in positively mediating mineral deficiency response in Barnyard millet. Further, strategic efforts were employed for fast-track identification of more effective orthologous NAS genes from Barnyard millet. This resulted in the identification of two genes namely EfNAS1 (orthologous to HvNAS1 of barley) and EfNAS2 (orthologous to OsNAS2 gene of rice). Sequencing and thorough characterization of these sequences revealed the presence of intact NAS domain and signature tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in their predicted proteins and thus established their candidature as functional NAS genes in Barnyard millet. Moreover, EfNAS1 showed structural superiority over previously known NAS genes and is anticipated to have role in more efficient metal transport. Findings of the study provide insight into Fe-Zn deficiency response and mineral nutrition in millets. This provides millets with a physiological edge over micronutrient deficient staple cereals such as rice in withstanding Fe-Zn deficiency and subsequently accumulating higher levels of Fe and Zn in millet grains.

Keywords: gene expression, micronutrient, millet, ortholog

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
48 Development of Low Glycemic Gluten Free Bread from Barnyard Millet and Lentil Flour

Authors: Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy, Thirukkumar Subramani

Abstract:

Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to dietary wheat gluten. Gluten is the main structure forming protein in bread and hence developing gluten-free bread is a technological challenge. The study aims at using nonwheat flours like barnyard millet and lentil flour to replace wheat in bread formulations. Other characteristics of these grains, such as high protein, soluble fiber, mineral content and bioactive components make them attractive alternatives to traditional gluten-free ingredients in the production of high protein, gluten-free bread. The composite flour formulations for the development of gluten-free bread were optimized using lentil flour (50 to 70 g), barnyard millet flour (0 to 30 g) and corn flour (0 to 30 g) by means of response surface methodology with various independent variables for physical, sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The optimized composite flour which had a desirability value of 0.517, included lentil flour –62.94 g, barnyard millet flour– 24.34 g and corn flour– 12.72 g with overall acceptability score 8.00/9.00. The optimized gluten-free bread formulation had high protein (14.99g/100g) and fiber (1.95g/100g) content. The glycemic index of the gluten-free bread was 54.58 rendering it as low glycemic which enhances the functional benefit of the gluten-free bread. Since the standardised gluten-free bread from barnyard millet and lentil flour are high protein, and gluten-free with low glycemic index, the product would serve as an ideal therapeutic food in the management of both celiac disease and diabetes mellitus with better nutritional value.

Keywords: gluten free bread, lentil, low glycemic index, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
47 Adsorption of Lead and Zinc Ions Onto Chemical Activated Millet Husk: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Linda Sibali

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In this study, the adsorption of lead and zinc ions from aqueous solutions by modified millet husk has been investigated. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration, temperature, and contact time, have been investigated. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption of both metal ions increased by increasing pH values up to 11. Adsorption process was initially fast. The adsorption rate decreased then until it reached to equilibrium time of 120 min for both lead and zinc ions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and thermodynamic models (Gibbs free energy) were used to determine the isotherm parameters associated with the adsorption process. The positive values of Gibbs free energy change indicated that reaction is not spontaneous. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption, and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed pseudo-first order for zinc and pseudo-second-order for lead.

Keywords: zinc, lead, adsorption, millet husks

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
46 Effect of Distillery Spentwash Application on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)

Authors: N. N. Lingaraju, A. Sathish, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar

Abstract:

Studies on spent wash utilization as a nutrient source through 'Effect of distillery spentwash application on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea may L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)' was carried out in Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study was conducted in fourteen different locations of Malavalli (12) and Maddur taluk (2) involving maize and finger millet as a test crop. The spentwash was characterized for various parameters like pH, EC, total NPK, Na, Ca, Mg, SO₄, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cl content. It was observed from the results that the pH was slightly alkaline (7.45), EC was excess (23.3 dS m⁻¹), total NPK was 0.12, 0.02, and 1.31 percent respectively, Na, Ca, Mg and SO₄ concentration was 664, 1305, 745 and 618 (mg L⁻¹) respectively, total solid content was quite high (6.7%), Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, values were 23.5, 5.70, 3.64, 4.0 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The crops were grown by adopting different crop management practices after application of spentwash at 100 m³ ha⁻¹ to the identified farmer fields. Soil samples were drawn at three stages i.e., before sowing of crop, during crop growth stage and after harvest of the crop at 2 depths (0-30 and 30-60 cm) and analyzed for pH, EC, available K and Na parameters by adopting standard procedures. The soil analysis showed slightly acidic reaction (5.93), normal EC (0.43 dS m⁻¹), medium available potassium (267 kg ha⁻¹) before application of spentwash. Application of spentwash has enhanced pH level of soil towards neutral (6.97), EC 0.25 dS m⁻¹, available K2O to 376 kg ha⁻¹ and sodium content of 0.73 C mol (P+) kg⁻¹ during the crop growth stage. After harvest of the crops soil analysis data indicated a decrease in pH to 6.28, EC of 0.22 dS m⁻¹, available K₂O to 316 kg ha⁻¹ and Na 0.52 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ compared with crop growth stage. The study showed that, there will be enhancement of potassium levels if the spentwash is applied once to dryland. The yields of both the crops were quantified and found to be in the range of 35.65 to 65.55 q ha⁻¹ and increased yield to the extent of 13.36-22.36 percent as compared to control field (11.36-22.33 q ha⁻¹) in maize crop. Also, finger millet yield was increased with the spentwash application to the extent of 14.21-20.49 percent (9.5-17.73 q ha⁻¹) higher over farmers practice (8.15-14.15 q ha⁻¹).

Keywords: distillery spentwash, finger millet, maize, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
45 A Perceptive Study on Oviposition Behavior and Selection of Host Plant for Egg Laying in Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Riffat Sultana, Ahmed Ali Samejo

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Desert Locust is a critical pest of crop and non-crop plants throughout the old world including Pakistan. Geographically, this pest invades 31 million km2 in about 60 countries during the gregarious phase which may bring calamity. The present study is carried out in order to conduct field observations on oviposition behavior from Thar Desert, Pakistan. Females preferred loose soil for oviposition rather than packed or hard soil. The depth of egg pods inside the soil was measured up to 8.996±1.40 cm, and duration of egg laying was measured up to 105.9±26.4 min. Besides this, an insightful recognition has been made that the solitary females oviposited predominantly in the vicinity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) crops in cultivated fields while in uncultivated land preferred the surroundings of bekar grass (Indigofera caerulea) and snow bush (Aerva javanica). It was also observed that nymphs preferred to feed on these host plants. Furthermore, experimental outcomes indicated that gravid females oviposited on the bottom of perforated plastic cages while, they did not find suitable soil for oviposition.

Keywords: calamity, cultivated fields, desert locust, host plants, oviposition behavior

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44 Research on Reducing Food Losses by Extending the Date of Minimum Durability on the Example of Cereal Products

Authors: Monika Trzaskowska, Dorota Zielinska, Anna Lepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocinska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska

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Microbiological quality and food safety are important food characteristics. Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers introduces the obligation to provide information on the 'use-by' date or the date of minimum durability (DMD). The second term is the date until which the properly stored or transported foodstuff retains its physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The date should be preceded by 'best before'. It is used for durable products, e.g., pasta. In relation to reducing food losses, the question may be asked whether products with the date of minimum durability currently declared retain quality and safety beyond this. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected cereal products, i.e., pasta and millet after DMD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and the number of yeast and mold (TYMC) on the last day of DMD and after 1 and 3 months of storage. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of DMD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of 14 differentiators and overall quality were defined and determined. In the tested samples of millet and pasta, no pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were found. The value of the distinguishing features of selected quality and microbiological safety indicators on the last DMD day was in the range of about 3-1 log cfu/g. This demonstrates the good microbiological quality of the tested food. Comparing the products, a higher number of microorganisms was found in the samples of millet. After 3 months of storage, TVC decreased in millet, while in pasta, it was found to increase in value. In both products, the number of bacteria from the Enterobacretiaceae family decreased. In contrast, the number of TYMCs increased in samples of millet, and in pasta decreased. The intensity of sensory characteristic in the studied period varied. It remained at a similar level or increased. Millet was found to increase the intensity and flavor of 'cooked porridge' 3 months after DMD. Similarly, in the pasta, the smell and taste of 'cooked pasta' was more intense. To sum up, the researched products on the last day of the minimum durability date were characterized by very good microbiological and sensory quality, which was maintained for 3 months after this date. Based on these results, the date of minimum durability of tested products could be extended. The publication was financed on the basis of an agreement with the National Center for Research and Development No. Gospostrateg 1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for the implementation and financing of the project under the strategic research and development program 'social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets – GOSPOSTRATEG - acronym PROM'.

Keywords: date of minimum durability, food losses, food quality and safety, millet, pasta

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
43 Influence of Cryo-Grinding on Particle Size Distribution of Proso Millet Bran Fraction

Authors: Maja Benkovic, Dubravka Novotni, Bojana Voucko, Duska Curic, Damir Jezek, Nikolina Cukelj

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Cryo-grinding is an ultra-fine grinding method used in the pharmaceutical industry, production of herbs and spices and in the production and handling of cereals, due to its ability to produce powders with small particle sizes which maintain their favorable bioactive profile. The aim of this study was to determine the particle size distributions of the proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) bran fraction grinded at cryogenic temperature (using liquid nitrogen (LN₂) cooling, T = - 196 °C), in comparison to non-cooled grinding. Proso millet bran is primarily used as an animal feed, but has a potential in food applications, either as a substrate for extraction of bioactive compounds or raw material in the bakery industry. For both applications finer particle sizes of the bran could be beneficial. Thus, millet bran was ground for 2, 4, 8 and 12 minutes using the ball mill (CryoMill, Retsch GmbH, Haan, Germany) at three grinding modes: (I) without cooling, (II) at cryo-temperature, and (III) at cryo-temperature with included 1 minute of intermediate cryo-cooling step after every 2 minutes of grinding, which is usually applied when samples require longer grinding times. The sample was placed in a 50 mL stainless steel jar containing one grinding ball (Ø 25 mm). The oscillation frequency in all three modes was 30 Hz. Particle size distributions of the bran were determined by a laser diffraction particle sizing method (Mastersizer 2000) using the Scirocco 2000 dry dispersion unit (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK). Three main effects of the grinding set-up were visible from the results. Firstly, grinding time at all three modes had a significant effect on all particle size parameters: d(0.1), d(0.5), d(0.9), D[3,2], D[4,3], span and specific surface area. Longer grinding times resulted in lower values of the above-listed parameters, e.g. the averaged d(0.5) of the sample (229.57±1.46 µm) dropped to 51.29±1.28 µm after 2 minutes grinding without LN₂, and additionally to 43.00±1.33 µm after 4 minutes of grinding without LN₂. The only exception was the sample ground for 12 minutes without cooling, where an increase in particle diameters occurred (d(0.5)=62.85±2.20 µm), probably due to particles adhering to one another and forming larger particle clusters. Secondly, samples with LN₂ cooling exhibited lower diameters in comparison to non-cooled. For example, after 8 minutes of non-cooled grinding d(0.5)=46.97±1.05 µm was achieved, while the LN₂ cooling enabled collection of particles with average sizes of d(0.5)=18.57±0.18 µm. Thirdly, the application of intermediate cryo-cooling step resulted in similar particle diameters (d(0.5)=15.83±0.36 µm, 12 min of grinding) as cryo-milling without this step (d(0.5)=16.33±2.09 µm, 12 min of grinding). This indicates that intermediate cooling is not necessary for the current application, which consequently reduces the consumption of LN₂. These results point out the potential beneficial effects of millet bran grinding at cryo-temperatures. Further research will show if the lower particle size achieved in comparison to non-cooled grinding could result in increased bioavailability of bioactive compounds, as well as protein digestibility and solubility of dietary fibers of the proso millet bran fraction.

Keywords: ball mill, cryo-milling, particle size distribution, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
42 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini

Abstract:

The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126 %, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90 %, rehydration ratio 544 % and moisture retention 11.90 % with 75 % desirability.

Keywords: black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics

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41 Performance of Growing Rahaji Bulls Fed Diets Containing Similar Concentrates and Different Crop Residues in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Husaini Sama

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The study was conducted, in a 120 - day’s trial, to monitor the performance of growing Rahaji bulls fed different crop residues. There were four experimental treatments, each containing three (3) bull-calves. The first three (experimental) diets were prepared with rice straw, millet stalks and a combination of the two in equal proportions. These 3 diets were supplemented with concentrates. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 consisted of rice straw, millet stalk and combination of rice straw and millet stalk in equal ratio, respectively as basal feeds, while, Treatment 4 (containing standard diet of cow pea haulms, rice straw and wheat offal) served as control to compare with the other treatments. Data on feed intake and livability was collected on daily basis and that of live weight gain and feed conversion ratio were collected fortnightly, but data on apparent nutrient retention trial was collected towards the end of the experiment. Water was offered ad libitum. Records obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (1988) software package in accordance with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results obtained indicated that feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) for calves on treatments 3 and 4 compared to those on treatments 1and 2. The study observed that it was cheaper to formulate diets 2 and 3 than the other 2 diets. The control diet (T4) was observed to be relatively more expensive than the other 3 formulated diets. It was concluded from the findings that, concentrate containing combination of rice straw and cereal stalks was economical and satisfactory for feeding growing Rahaji bulls in this ecological zone (Semi-arid environment).

Keywords: rahaji bulls, crop residues, concentrates, semi-arid environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
40 Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie

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Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: functional properties, high intensity ultrasound, millet protein concentrate, structural properties

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39 Value-Added Tax Exemptions and Farm-Level Productivity: The Case of Rice, Millet, and Maize in Senegal

Authors: Awa Diouf

Abstract:

Since 2004, inputs specific to the agricultural sector have been exempt from VAT in Senegal. This paper measures, using the Naatal Mbay survey, the impact of this reform on agricultural productivity. The survey covers a sample of 3,122 rice, millet and maize farms for the 2016 crop year. The regressions show that tax incentives are ineffective in improving partial productivity of the land factor: the higher the share of the value of exemptions in the higher the production costs, the less productive the operation. The negative effect of the exemptions on productivity is accentuated for the most intensive agricultural area: the Senegal River Delta, and the most intensive crop: irrigated rice. This relationship could stem from a decrease in allocative efficiency: farmers have overinvested in the most accessible inputs. The loose budget constraint syndrome, therefore, explains this result: farmers who benefit more from exemptions reduce their managerial effort. The results suggest a removal of the VAT exemptions applied to finished products and agricultural inputs for a better efficiency of this tax, which typically taxes final consumption and should be neutral for the producer.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agricultural taxation, Senegal, tax incentives

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38 Multifunctionality of Cover Crops in South Texas: Looking at Multiple Benefits of Cover Cropping on Small Farms in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Savannah Rugg, Carlo Moreno, Pushpa Soti, Alexis Racelis

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Situated in deep South Texas, the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) is considered one the most productive agricultural regions in the southern US. With the highest concentration of organic farms in the state (Hidalgo county), the LRGV has a strong potential to be leaders in sustainable agriculture. Finding management practices that comply with organic certification and increase the health of the agroecosytem and the farmers working the land is increasingly pertinent. Cover cropping, or the intentional planting of non-cash crop vegetation, can serve multiple functions in an agroecosystem by decreasing environmental pollutants that originate from the agroecosystem, reducing inputs needed for crop production, and potentially decreasing on-farm costs for farmers—overall increasing the sustainability of the farm. Use of cover crops on otherwise fallow lands have shown to enhance ecosystem services such as: attracting native beneficial insects (pollinators), increase nutrient availability in topsoil, prevent nutrient leaching, increase soil organic matter, and reduces soil erosion. In this study, four cover crops (Lablab, Sudan Grass, Sunn Hemp, and Pearl Millet) were analyzed in the subtropical region of south Texas to see how their multiple functions enhance ecosystem services. The four cover crops were assessed to see their potential to harbor native insects, their potential to increase soil nitrogen, to increase soil organic matter, and to suppress weeds. The preliminary results suggest that these subtropical varieties of cover crops have potential to enhance ecosystem services on agricultural land in the RGV by increasing soil organic matter (in all varieties), increasing nitrogen in topsoil (Lablab, Sunn Hemp), and reducing weeds (Sudan Grass).

Keywords: cover crops, ecosystem services, subtropical agriculture, sustainable agriculture

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37 Solid State Fermentation: A Technological Alternative for Enriching Bioavailability of Underutilized Crops

Authors: Vipin Bhandari, Anupama Singh, Kopal Gupta

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Solid state fermentation, an eminent bioconversion technique for converting many biological substrates into a value-added product, has proven its role in the biotransformation of crops by nutritionally enriching them. Hence, an effort was made for nutritional enhancement of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horse gram based composite flour using SSF. The grains were given pre-treatments before fermentation and these pre-treatments proved quite effective in diminishing the level of antinutrients in grains and in improving their nutritional characteristics. The present study deals with the enhancement of nutritional characteristics of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram based composite flour using solid state fermentation (SSF) as the principle bioconversion technique to convert the composite flour substrate into a nutritionally enriched value added product. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. The variables selected for the fermentation experiments were substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content having three levels of each. Seventeen designed experiments were conducted randomly to find the effect of these variables on microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index. The data from all experiments were analyzed using Design Expert 8.0.6 and the response functions were developed using multiple regression analysis and second order models were fitted for each response. Results revealed that pretreatments proved quite handful in diminishing the level of antinutrients and thus enhancing the nutritional value of the grains appreciably, for instance, there was about 23% reduction in phytic acid levels after decortication of barnyard millet. The carbohydrate content of the decorticated barnyard millet increased to 81.5% from initial value of 65.2%. Similarly popping and puffing of horsegram and amaranthus respectively greatly reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity. Puffing of amaranthus also reduced the tannin content appreciably. Bacillus subtilis was used as the inoculating specie since it is known to produce phytases in solid state fermentation systems. These phytases remarkably reduce the phytic acid content which acts as a major antinutritional factor in food grains. Results of solid state fermentation experiments revealed that phytic acid levels reduced appreciably when fermentation was allowed to continue for 72 hours at a temperature of 35°C. Particle size and substrate blend ratio also affected the responses positively. All the parameters viz. substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content affected the responses namely microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index but the effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant on all the responses. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions (particle size 355µ, substrate blend ratio 50:20:30 of barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram respectively, fermentation time 68 hrs, fermentation temperature 35°C and moisture content 47%) for maximum reduction in phytic acid. The model F- value was found to be highly significant at 1% level of significance in case of all the responses. Hence, second order model could be fitted to predict all the dependent parameters. The effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant as compared to other variables.

Keywords: composite flour, solid state fermentation, underutilized crops, cereals, fermentation technology, food processing

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36 Management of Distillery Spentwash to Enhance Productivity of Dryland Crops and Reduce Environmental Pollution: A Case Study in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: A. Sathish, N. N. Lingaraju, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar

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Under dryland conditions, it is observed that the soil organic matter is low due to low organic carbon content due to poor management with less use of inputs. On the other hand, disposal of sugar industry waste, i.e., spentwash is a major concern with limited space for land based treatment and disposal which causes environmental pollution. Spentwash is also a resource that can be applied for productive uses since it contains nutrients that have the potential for use in agriculture. The disposal of spent wash may lead to environmental pollution. Hence as an alternative mechanism, it was applied once to dry lands, and the experiments were conducted from 2012-13 to 2016-17 in kharif season in Maddur Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study conducted was in 93 different farmers field (maize-11, finger millet-80 & horsegram-14). Spentwash was applied at the rate of 100 m³ ha⁻¹ before sowing of the crops. The results showed that yield of dryland crops like finger millet, horse gram and maize was recorded 14.75 q ha⁻¹, 6 q ha⁻¹ and 31.00 q ha⁻¹, respectively and the yield increase to an extent of 10-25 per cent with one time application of spentwash to dry lands compared to farmers practice, i.e., chemical fertilizer application. The higher yield may be attributed to slow and steady release of nutrients by spentwash throughout the crop growth period. In addition, the growth promoting and other beneficial substances present in spentwash might have also helped in better plant growth and yield. The soil sample analysis after harvest of the crops indicate acidic to neutral pH, EC of 0.11 dSm⁻¹ and Na of 0.20 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ in the normal range which are not harmful. Hence, it can be applied to drylands at least once in 3 years which enhances yield as well as reduces environmental pollution.

Keywords: dryland crops, pollution, sugar industry waste, spentwash

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35 Evaluation of Different Food Baits by Using Kill Traps for the Control of Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis) in Field Crops of Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain, Tariq Mahmood

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The lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) is widely distributed and a serious agricultural pest in Pakistan. It has wide adaptation with rice-wheat-sugarcane cropping systems of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and wheat-groundnut cropping system of Pothwar area, thus inflicting heavy losses to these crops. Comparative efficacies of four food baits (onion, guava, potato and peanut butter smeared bread/Chapatti) were tested in multiple feeding tests for kill trapping of this rat species in the Pothwar Plateau between October 2013 to July 2014 at the sowing, tilling, flowering and maturity stages of wheat, groundnut and millet crops. The results revealed that guava was the most preferred bait as compared to the rest of three, presumably due to particular taste and smell of the guava. The relative efficacies of all four tested baits guava also scoring the highest trapping success of 16.94 ± 1.42 percent, followed by peanut butter, potato, and onion with trapping successes of 10.52 ± 1.30, 7.82 ± 1.21 and 4.5 ± 1.10 percent, respectively. In various crop stages and season-wise the highest trapping success was achieved at maturity stages of the crops, presumably due to higher surface activity of the rat because of favorable climatic conditions, good shelter, and food abundance. Moreover, the maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season and maturity stages of millet and groundnut match with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the lesser bandicoot rat in Pothwar area. The preferred order among four baits tested was guava > peanut butter > potato > onion. The study recommends that the farmers should periodically carry out rodent trapping at the beginning of each crop season and during non-breeding seasons of this rodent pest when the populations are low in numbers and restricted under crop boundary vegetation, particularly during very hot and cold months.

Keywords: Bandicota bengalensis, efficacy, food baits, Pothwar

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34 Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Pearl C. Akanwa, Oyemike Victor Benson

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This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.

Keywords: library, indigenous knowledge, information centres, information professionals

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33 Detection and Identification of Chlamydophila psittaci in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Parrots in Isfahan

Authors: Mehdi Moradi Sarmeidani, Peyman Keyhani, Hasan Momtaz

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Chlamydophila psittaci is a avian pathogen that may cause respiratory disorders in humans. Conjunctival and cloacal swabs from 54 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in domestic birds in Isfahan. Samples were collected during 2014 from a total of 10 different species of parrots, with African gray(33), Cockatiel lutino(3), Cockatiel gray(2), Cockatiel cinnamon(1), Pearl cockatiel(6), Timneh African grey(1), Ringneck parakeet(2), Melopsittacus undulatus(1), Alexander parakeet(2), Green Parakeet(3) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in 27 (50%) birds using molecular detection (PCR) method. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for human whom has a direct contact and there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

Keywords: chlamydophila psittaci, psittacine birds, PCR, Isfahan

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32 Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Limei Li, Yanming Pearl Zhang

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This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: natural intelligence, artificial intelligence, creativity, information theory, restriction of creativity

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31 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

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The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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30 Marine Natural Products: A Rich Source of Medicine in Ayurveda, the Ancient Indian Medical Science

Authors: Ashok D. Satpute

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Ayurveda, the ancient Indian Medical system is practiced all over India and abroad, is rich in natural source of medicines, including marine products. The marine drugs which prominently used are pravala (coral), mukta (pearl), kapardika (cowry).Shukti (oyster shell), shankha (conch), agnijara (amber) etc. Except agnijara (amber) all are rich in calcium. Interestingly they are not used as supplements in calcium deficiency as done in conventional medical practice. They are used as medicines in the disease like fever, tuberculosis, bleeding disorders, eye problems, digestive complaints etc. Many scientific studies have shown their potent medicinal value. Each has its own properties and used therapeutically after subjecting them to various purificatory processes which are called shodhana in which several medicinal plants are used which also help in enhancing therapeutical activity. Then these purified marine products are subjected to marana (incineration) process and obtained in the form of Bhasma (a finest form of medicine). Agnijara, a derivative of whale is useful as aphrodisiac and prescribed in neuromuscular disorders and tetanus. The ancient scriptures written in Sanskrit language thousands of years back have rich information about all these natural marine products and their medicinal usage.

Keywords: Ayurveda, bhasma, marana, shodhana

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29 Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration

Authors: Wei Wang, Yilun Xu

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With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.

Keywords: innovative collaboration, urban network space, the connectivity of innovative network, the linkages of external innovation

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28 Mediating Effect of Hopefulness on the Effect of Underdog Narratives to Subjective Well-Being among Local State University of Cavite

Authors: Quiza Pearl Senilla, Hannah Mercado, Francis Angelo Erosa

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Underdog narratives not only provides viewers with models of determination and hard work but that inducing hope may increase the likelihood that viewers will pursue their own goals in life. Although it has been proven that underdog narratives not only create a positive motivational state to the viewers but can also induce hope, little attention has been given to know if this underdog narrative affect the health outcomes or the subjective well-being of the viewers and if their hopefulness mediates on it. To address this gap, using underdog narratives as a predictor and hope as mediator, this study determined the effect of underdog narratives to the subjective well-being of the respondents, the relationship of hope and subjective well-being and last is the mediating effect of hopefulness. This study is an experimental research that uses a between subject design. Purposeful random sampling was used wherein the respondents must meet the following criteria to be part of the study. One hundred and twenty (N=120) Local State University students were assigned to different treatment conditions— underdog narrative, comedy, nature scenes—and a no exposure control group. Results show that there is a minimal difference on the subjective well-being of the respondents when exposed to different treatment condition although it is not significant. A moderate positive correlation between hope and subjective well-being also reveals in this study. And last the result also shows that there is no mediating effect of hopefulness to the subjective well-being of the subjects through exposure to underdog narrative.

Keywords: hope, hope theory, subjective well-being, underdog narratives

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27 Voices and Pictures from an Online Course and a Face to Face Course

Authors: Eti Gilad, Shosh Millet

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In light of the technological development and its introduction into the field of education, an online course was designed in parallel to the 'conventional' course for teaching the ''Qualitative Research Methods''. This course aimed to characterize learning-teaching processes in a 'Qualitative Research Methods' course studied in two different frameworks. Moreover its objective was to explore the difference between the culture of a physical learning environment and that of online learning. The research monitored four learner groups, a total of 72 students, for two years, two groups from the two course frameworks each year. The courses were obligatory for M.Ed. students at an academic college of education and were given by one female-lecturer. The research was conducted in the qualitative method as a case study in order to attain insights about occurrences in the actual contexts and sites in which they transpire. The research tools were open-ended questionnaire and reflections in the form of vignettes (meaningful short pictures) to all students as well as an interview with the lecturer. The tools facilitated not only triangulation but also collecting data consisting of voices and pictures of teaching and learning. The most prominent findings are: differences between the two courses in the change features of the learning environment culture for the acquisition of contents and qualitative research tools. They were manifested by teaching methods, illustration aids, lecturer's profile and students' profile.

Keywords: face to face course, online course, qualitative research, vignettes

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26 Potential of Intercropping Corn and Cowpea to Ratooned Sugarcane for Food and Forage

Authors: Maricon E. Gepolani, Edna A. Aguilar, Pearl B. Sanchez, Enrico P. Supangco

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Intercropping farming system and biofertilizer application are sustainable agricultural practices that increase farm productivity by improving the yield performance of the components involved in the production system. Thus, this on-farm trial determined the yield and forage quality of corn and cowpea with and without biofertilizer application when intercropped with ratooned sugarcane. Intercropping corn and cowpea without biofertilizer application had no negative effect on the vegetative growth of sugarcane. However, application of biofertilizer on intercrops decreased tiller production at 117 days after stubble shaving (DASS), consequently reducing the estimated tonnage yield of sugarcane. The yield of intercrops and forage production of Cp3 cowpea variety increased when intercropped to ratooned sugarcane. In contrast, intercropping PSB 97-92 corn variety to ratooned sugarcane reduced its forage production, but when biofertilizer was applied to intercropped Cp5 cowpea variety, the forage production increased. Profitability (income equivalent ratio) of intercropping for both corn and cowpea are higher than monocropping and are thus suitable intercrops to ratooned sugarcane. Unaffected tiller count (a determinant of sugarcane tonnage yield) when biofertilizer was not applied to intercrops and a reduced tiller count with biofertilizer application to intercrops implies the need to develop a nutrient management practices specific for intercropping systems.

Keywords: biofertilizer, corn, cowpea, intercropping system, ratooned sugarcane

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