Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

45 The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer on Women in Nigeria: Implication for Socio-Economic Development

Authors: Tolulope Allo, Mofoluwake P. Ajayi, Adenike E. Idowu, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

Abstract:

Breast cancer which was more prevalent in Europe and America in the past is gradually being mirrored across the world today with greater economic burden on low and middle income countries (LMCs). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally and current studies have shown that a woman dies with the diagnosis of breast cancer every thirteen minutes. The economic cost of breast cancer is overwhelming particularly for developing economies. While it causes billion of dollar in losses of national income, it pushes millions of people below poverty line. This study examined the economic burden of breast cancer on Nigerian women, its impacts on their standard of living and its effects on Nigeria’s socio economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research approach using the in-depth interview technique to elicit valuable information from respondents with cancer experience from the Southern part of Nigeria. Respondents constituted women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) that have experienced and survived cancer and also those that are currently receiving treatment. Excerpts from the interviews revealed that the cost of treatment is one of the major factors contributing to the late presentation of breast cancer incidences among women as many of them could not afford to pay for their own treatment. The study also revealed that many women prefer to explore other options such as herbal treatments and spiritual consultations which is less expensive and affordable. The study therefore concludes that breast cancer diagnosis and treatment should be subsidized by the government in order to facilitate easy access and affordability thereby promoting early detection and reducing the economic burden of treatment on women.

Keywords: Development, Women, Breast Cancer, economic burden

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
44 Sensory Evaluation of Meat from Broilers Bird Fed Detoxified Jatropher Curcas and that Fed Conventional Feed

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. A. Akande

Abstract:

Four (4) different methods were employed to detoxified jatropha caucas, they are physical method (if include soaking and drying) chemical method (use of methylated spirit, hexane and methene) biological method,(use of Aspergillus niger and Sunday for 7 days and then baccillus lichifarming) and finally combined method (combination of all these methods). Phobol esther andysis was carried out after the detoxification and was found that combined method is better off (P>0.05). 100 broiler birds was used to further test the effect of detoxified Jatropha by combined method, 50 birds for Jatropha made feed at 10 birds per treatment and was replicated five times, this was also repeated for another 50 birds fed conventional feed, Jatropha made feed was compranded at 8% inclusion level. At the end of the 8th weeks, 8 birds were sacrificed each from each treatment and one bird each was fry, roast, boil and grilled from both conventional and Jatropha fed birds and panelist were served for evaluation. It was found that feeding Jatropha to poultry birds has no effect on the taste of the meat.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
43 Effect of Graded Levels of Detoxified Jatropha cursas on the Performance Characteristics of Cockerel Birds

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. Akande

Abstract:

Abstract— Four (4) difference methods were employed to detoxify Jatropha carcas, they were physical method (it include soaking and sun drying) Chemical (the use of methylated sprit, hexane and methane). Biological (the use of Aspergillus niger and then sundry for 7days and then Bacillus lichiformis) and Combined method (the combination of chemical and biological methods). Phobol esther analysis was carried out after the detoxification methods and it was found that the combined method is better off (P<0.05). Detoxified Jatropha from each of this methods was sundry and grinded for easy inclusion into poultry feed, detoxified jatropha was included at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% but the combined method was increased up to 7% because the birds were able to tolerate it, the 0% was the control experiment. 405 day old broiler chicks was used to test the effect of detoxified Jatropha carcas on their performance, there are 5birds per treatment and there are 3 replicates, the experiment lasted for 8weeks,highest number of mortality was obtained in physical method, birds in chemical method tolerated up to 3% Jatropha carcas, biological method is better, as birds there were comfortable at 5% but the best of them is combined method the birds did very well at 7% as there were less mortality and highest weight gain was achieved here (P<0.05) and it was recommended.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcas

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
42 The Principles of Democracy and Development: The Political and Philosophical Foundations of Development-Democracy in Africa

Authors: Fadeke Olu-Owolabi, Fayomi Oluyemi

Abstract:

The political and societal orders face the awesome task of overcoming the difficulties which lead to growing tensions and conflicts in Africa. At the core of analysis is the question, how stable and adaptable are established democracies, new democracies, and political and societal actors? The idea of development-democracy as implying the strong linkage between economic development and political democracy appropriately describes the distinguishing characteristic of this new demand for democracy in Africa. The theoretical study examines the political and philosophical foundation of the idea of development-democracy and the arguments presented to support the need for its adoption in Africa today. This paper critically examines the polemic between the advocates of developmental dictatorship and developmental-democracy and argues for the adoption of the latter in Africa. The paper sets out to expose for the political and philosophical foundation of developmental democracy maintaining that only democracy can facilitate development. This argument is supported further by the claim that both democracy and development are two sides of the same coin in the sense that the two are both ethical concepts. The paper also maintained that the only way by which democracy is worthwhile is when it is developmental. Finally, the paper affirms that since the two concepts of democracy and development are like the Siamese twins then the way out of Africa’s present crisis of development is to wholeheartedly embrace democracy. It posits that when genuine democracy is adopted, genuine and sustainable development can then be attained.

Keywords: Development, Democracy, Principles, polemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
41 The Principles of Democracy and Development: The Political and Philosophical Foundations of Development-Development in Africa

Authors: Fayomi Oluyemi, Fadeke E. Olu-Owolabi

Abstract:

The political and societal orders face the awesome task of overcoming the difficulties which lead to growing tensions and conflicts in Africa. At the core of analysis is the question, how stable and adaptable are established democracies, new democracies, and political and societal actors? The idea of development-democracy as implying the strong linkage between economic development and political democracy appropriately describes the distinguishing characteristic of this new demand for democracy in Africa. The theoretical study examines the political and philosophical foundation of the idea of development-democracy and the arguments presented to support the need for its adoption in Africa today. This paper critically examines the polemic between the advocates of developmental dictatorship and developmental-democracy and argues for the adoption of the latter in Africa. The paper sets out to expose for the political and philosophical foundation of developmental democracy maintaining that only democracy can facilitate development. This argument is supported further by the claim that both democracy and development are two sides of the same coin in the sense that the two are both ethical concepts. The paper also maintained that the only way by which democracy is worthwhile is when it is developmental. Finally the paper affirms that since the two concepts of democracy and development are like the Siamese twins then the way out of Africa’s present crisis of development is to wholeheartedly embrace democracy. It posits that when genuine democracy is adopted, genuine and sustainable development can then be attained.

Keywords: Development, Democracy, Principles, polemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
40 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Mechanical Design, Ergonomics, Laparoscopic Surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
39 Overcoming the Problems Affecting Drip Irrigation System through the Design of an Efficient Filtration and Flushing System

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The drip irrigation system is one of the important areas that affect the livelihood of farmers directly. The use of drip irrigation system has been the most efficient system compared to the other types of irrigations systems because the drip irrigation helps to save water and increase the productivity of crops. But like any other system, it can be considered inefficient when the filters and the emitters get clogged while in operation. The efficiency of the entire system is reduced when the emitters are clogged and blocked. This consequently impact and affect the farm operations which may result in scarcity of farm products and increase the demand. This design work focuses on how to overcome some of the challenges affecting drip irrigation system through the design of an efficient filtration and flushing system.

Keywords: Analysis, Mechanical Engineering Design, Filters, drip irrigation system, soil texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
38 Operational Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas over Metal Inert Gas Welding Process

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

In this research, studies were done on the material characterization of type 304 austenitic stainless steel weld produced by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding processes. This research is aimed to establish optimized process parameters that will result in a defect-free weld joint, homogenous distribution of the iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) was observed at the welded joint of all the six samples. The welded sample produced at the current of 170 A by TIG welding process had the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value of 621 MPa at the welds zone, and the welded sample produced by MIG process at the welding current of 150 A had the lowest UTS value of 568 MPa. However, it was established that TIG welding process is more appropriate for the welding of type 304 austenitic stainless steel compared to the MIG welding process.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
37 Who Killed Kalief? Examining the Effects of Solitary Confinement on Juvenile Detainees in the United States

Authors: Esther Baldwin

Abstract:

It is well settled that the use of solitary confinement can cause psychological and physical harm to detainees. For juveniles, who are more susceptible to irreparable harm due to their underdeveloped psyches, the risks are exacerbated. Despite these risks, across the United States juvenile detainees are regularly held in isolation for prolonged periods of time. This essay will examine the broad impact of solitary confinement on juvenile detainees while giving particular focus to the story of Kalief Browder, a juvenile awaiting trial on Rikers Island in New York for a period of three years, nearly two years of which were spent in solitary confinement. Although sadly, his story is not uncommon, Kalief’s story offers a unique perspective in that it provides first-hand insight on the effects of solitary confinement on juveniles. It is our hope that by sharing his story, we will demand better detention practices and policies for juveniles under correctional control in the United States.

Keywords: Criminal Justice System, Solitary Confinement, juveniles, Kalief browder

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
36 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: Hardness, austenite, ferrite, grain size, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
35 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
34 Investigation of Polymer Composite for High Dose Dosimetry

Authors: Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Luiz O. Faria, Adriana S. M. Batista, Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira

Abstract:

In this work we have prepared nanocomposites made by mixing Poli (vinilidene fluoride) (PVDF), zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) and multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aiming to find dosimetric properties for applications in high dose dosimetry. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (16.7 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry have been used to monitor the appearing of C=C conjugated bonds and radio-oxidation of carbon (C=O). FTIR spectrometry has that the absorbance intensities at 1715 cm⁻¹ and 1730 cm⁻¹ can be used for high dosimetry purposes for gamma doses ranging from 500 to 2750 kGy. In this range, it is possible to observe a linear relationship between Abs & Dose. Fading of signal was evaluated for one month and reproducibility in 2000 kGy dose. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used for evaluated the dispersion ZrO₂ and MWCNT in the matrix of the PVDF.

Keywords: Polymer, Composite, high dose dosimetry, PVDF/ZrO₂/MWCNT

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
33 Nutritional Benefits of Soy: An Implication for Health Education

Authors: Mbadugha Esther Ifeoma

Abstract:

Soybeans, like other legumes are rich in nutrients. However, the nutrient profile of soybeans differs in some important ways from most other legumes. Among other nutrients, soy is high in protein, carbohydrates, and fibers, is rich in vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids and is low in saturated fatty acids. Because of its high nutritional value, it has been rated to be equivalent to meats, eggs and milk. Soy has many health benefits including prevention of coronary heart disease, prevention of cancer growth, improvement of cognitive function, promotion of bone health, prevention of obesity, prevention of type II diabetes and promotion of growth of normal floras in the colon. Soybean consumption is also associated with some side effects which include allergy, flatulence and abdominal discomfort. Nurses/health care providers should therefore, educate clients on the precautionary measures to be taken in preparing soy food products in order to reduce to the barest minimum the side effects, while encouraging them to include soy as part of their daily meals for optimal health and vitality.

Keywords: Health Education, health benefit, nutritional benefit, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
32 Main Cause of Children's Deaths in Indigenous Wayuu Community from Department of La Guajira: A Research Developed through Data Mining Use

Authors: Isaura Esther Solano Núñez, David Suarez

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to discover what causes death in children of the Wayuu community, and deeply analyze those results in order to take corrective measures to properly control infant mortality. We consider important to determine the reasons that are producing early death in this specific type of population, since they are the most vulnerable to high risk environmental conditions. In this way, the government, through competent authorities, may develop prevention policies and the right measures to avoid an increase of this tragic fact. The methodology used to develop this investigation is data mining, which consists in gaining and examining large amounts of data to produce new and valuable information. Through this technique it has been possible to determine that the child population is dying mostly from malnutrition. In short, this technique has been very useful to develop this study; it has allowed us to transform large amounts of information into a conclusive and important statement, which has made it easier to take appropriate steps to resolve a particular situation.

Keywords: Data Mining, Malnutrition, Analytical, Population, Indigenous, descriptive, Wayuu

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
31 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Efficiency of TIG-MIG Hybrid Welding of Type-304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

Welding is described as the process of joining metals so that bonding can be created as a result of inter-atomic penetration. This study investigated the influence of heat input on the efficiency of the welded joints of 304 stainless steel. Three welds joint were made from two similar 304 stainless steel plates of thickness 6 mm. The tensile results obtained showed that the maximum average tensile strength of 672 MPa is possessed by the sample A1 with low heat input. It was discovered that the tensile strength, % elongation and weld joint efficiency decreased with the increase in heat input into the weld. The average % elongation for the entire samples ranged from 28.4% to 36.5%. Sample A1 had the highest joint efficiency of 94.5%. However, the optimum welding current of 190 for TIG- MIG hybrid welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for advanced technological applications such as aircraft manufacturing, nuclear industry, automobile industry, and processing industry.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
30 Delineation of the Geoelectric and Geovelocity Parameters in the Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai, G. C. Afuwai

Abstract:

The geology of Northern Nigeria is under intense investigation particularly that of the northwest believed to be of the basement complex. The variability of the lithology is consistently inconsistent. Hence, the need for a close range study, it is, in view of the above that, two geophysical techniques, the vertical electrical sounding employing the Schlumberger array and seismic refraction methods, were used to delineate the geoelectric and geovelocity parameters of the basement complex of northwestern Nigeria. A total area of 400,000 m² was covered with sixty geoelectric stations established and sixty sets of seismic refraction data collected using the forward and reverse method. From the interpretation of the resistivity data, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by not more than five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities when a maximum half electrode spread of 100m was used. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. The results of the two techniques, suggests that the area of study has an undulating bedrock topography with geoeletric and geovelocity layers composed of weathered rock materials.

Keywords: Nigeria, basement complex, delineation, geoelectric, geovelocity

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29 Recurrent Patterns of Netspeak among Selected Nigerians on WhatsApp Platform: A Quest for Standardisation

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Lily Chimuanya, Esther Ajiboye

Abstract:

One of the consequences of online communication is the birth of new orthography genres characterised by novel conventions of abbreviation and acronyms usually referred to as Netspeak. Netspeak, also known as internet slang, is a style of writing mainly used in online communication to limit the length of text characters and to save time. The aim of this study is to evaluate how second language users of the English language have internalised this new convention of writing; identify the recurrent patterns of Netspeak; and assess the consistency of the use of the identified patterns in relation to their meanings. The study is corpus-based, and data drawn from WhatsApp chart pages of selected groups of Nigerian English speakers show a large occurrence of inconsistencies in the patterns of Netspeak and their meanings. The study argues that rather than emphasise the negative impact of Netspeak on the communicative competence of second language users, studies should focus on suggesting models as yardsticks for standardising the usage of Netspeak and indeed all other emerging language conventions resulting from online communication. This stance stems from the inevitable global language transformation that is eminent with the coming of age of information technology.

Keywords: Online Communication, Standardisation, abbreviation, acronyms, Netspeak

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
28 Classifying Facial Expressions Based on a Motion Local Appearance Approach

Authors: Fabiola M. Villalobos-Castaldi, Nicolás C. Kemper, Esther Rojas-Krugger, Laura G. Ramírez-Sánchez

Abstract:

This paper presents the classification results about exploring the combination of a motion based approach with a local appearance method to describe the facial motion caused by the muscle contractions and expansions that are presented in facial expressions. The proposed feature extraction method take advantage of the knowledge related to which parts of the face reflects the highest deformations, so we selected 4 specific facial regions at which the appearance descriptor were applied. The most common used approaches for feature extraction are the holistic and the local strategies. In this work we present the results of using a local appearance approach estimating the correlation coefficient to the 4 corresponding landmark-localized facial templates of the expression face related to the neutral face. The results let us to probe how the proposed motion estimation scheme based on the local appearance correlation computation can simply and intuitively measure the motion parameters for some of the most relevant facial regions and how these parameters can be used to recognize facial expressions automatically.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, facial expression recognition system, local-appearance method, motion-based approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
27 Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana Souza M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.

Keywords: Composites materials, FTIR, PVDF, MWNTs, UV-vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
26 Efficacy of Isometric Neck Exercises and Stretching with Ergonomics for Neck Pain in Computer Professionals

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, Masih Khan

Abstract:

Neck pain has become a common epidemiological problem. One of the reasons for this is a sedentary way of life, connected with using a personal computer during all daily activities. Work place and work duration has not been properly adapted to the personal physical conditions of these employees. During 1990’s the importance of workstation design and work methods, or ergonomics on health was brought to the forefront of public attention. Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects. Ergonomic intervention results in improvement of working posture and a decrease in prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stretching and resistance exercises to the neck are easy to do, when performed 1-2 times daily reduce discomfort and ease neck stiffness. This study is aimed at finding if ergonomics with exercises to the neck prove beneficial to reduce neck pain in Computer Professionals. The outcomes measures used were: Oswestry neck disability index and VAS score for pain. 100 subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: Ergonomic intervention along with isometric neck exercises and stretching proved to reduce neck pain and disability among computer professionals.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Neck pain, neck exercises, physiotherapy for neck pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
25 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu

Abstract:

Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: Bioengineering, citric acid, cloves, smoked meat

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
24 A Socio-Pragmatic Investigation of Gender Enactment in New Month Text Messages

Authors: Esther Robert, Romanus Aboh

Abstract:

This paper undertakes a socio-pragmatic investigation of gender enactment in new month text messages. This study employs Gumperz’s Interactional Sociolinguistics as its theoretical point of reference to investigate how people create meaning through social interaction. This theory attempts to analyse any social interaction based on contextualization cues and presuppositions. This study explores the appropriateness of language used in texting. The text messages are collected from different mobile phones from different genders, which form the data for this paper. The study observes remarkable differences between genders in the use of informal language. The study reveals that men and women differ remarkably in conversational interaction as well as in writing. While it is observed that women are emotional, orderly, and meticulous, detailed and observed certain grammatical rules, men are casual, brief and appear to show evidence that less attention is paid to grammatical rules. Also, the study shows women as relaxing, showing love, care, concern with their emotive, spirit-raising and touching language, while mean are direct, short, and straight to the point. It is discovered through the study that women behave this way because of their brain-wiring. That is why language and communication matter more to women than to men and this reflects in their new month text messages.

Keywords: Gender, difference, emotionalised expressions, texting

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
23 Modeling and Benchmarking the Thermal Energy Performance of Palm Oil Production Plant

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mathias B. Michael, Tien-Chien Jen

Abstract:

Thermal energy consumption in palm oil production plant comprises mainly of steam, hot water and hot air. In most efficient plants, hot water and air are generated from the steam supply system. Research has shown that thermal energy utilize in palm oil production plants is about 70 percent of the total energy consumption of the plant. In order to manage the plants’ energy efficiently, the energy systems are modelled and optimized. This paper aimed to present the model of steam supply systems of a typical palm oil production plant in Ghana. The models include exergy and energy models of steam boiler, steam turbine and the palm oil mill. The paper further simulates the virtual plant model to obtain the thermal energy performance of the plant under study. The simulation results show that, under normal operating condition, the boiler energy performance is considerably below the expected level as a result of several factors including intermittent biomass fuel supply, significant moisture content of the biomass fuel and significant heat losses. The total thermal energy performance of the virtual plant is set as a baseline. The study finally recommends number of energy efficiency measures to improve the plant’s energy performance.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, exergy and energy models, energy performance benchmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
22 Vertical Electrical Sounding and Seismic Refraction Techniques in Resolving Groundwater Problems at Kujama Prison Farm, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, C. G, Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai

Abstract:

For two decades, the inhabitants of Kujama Prison Farm faced problems of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, even after the drilling of three deep boreholes. The scarcity of this groundwater resource led to the geophysical investigation of the basement complex of the prison farm. Two geophysical techniques, vertical electrical sounding and seismic refraction methods were deployed to unravel the cause(s) of the non-productivity of the three boreholes. The area of investigation covered was 400,000 m2 of ten profiles with six investigative points. In all, 60 vertical electrical points were sounded, and sixty sets of seismic refraction data were collected using the forward and reverse approach. From the geoelectric sections, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by three to five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. From the combined results of the two techniques, it was suggestive that all the three unproductive boreholes were drilled at points that were neither weathered nor fractured. It was, therefore, suggested that new boreholes should be drilled at areas identified with depressed bedrock topography having geophysical evidence of intense weathering and fracturing within the fresh basement.

Keywords: Groundwater, Nigeria, seismic refraction, vertical electrical sounding, Kujama prison farm, kaduna

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21 Benchmarking Energy Challenges in Palm Oil Production Industry in Ghana

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mathias B. Michael, Tien-Chien Jen

Abstract:

The current energy crisis in Ghana has affected significant number of industries which have direct impact on the country’s economy. Amongst the affected industries are palm oil production industries even though the impact is less as compared to fully relied national grid industries. Most of the large and medium palm oil production industries are partially grid reliance, however, the unavailability and the high cost palm biomass poses huge challenge. This paper aimed to identify and analyse the energy challenges associated with the palm oil production industries in Ghana. The study is conducted on the nine largest palm oil production plants in Ghana. Data is obtained by the use of questionnaire and observation. Since the study aimed to compare the respective energy challenges associated with nine industrial plants under study and establish a benchmark that represents a common problem of all the nine plants under study, the study uses percentile analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as the statistical tools to validate the benchmark. The results indicate that lack of sustainability of palm biomass supply chain is the key energy challenge in the palm oil production industries in Ghana. Other problems include intermittent power supply from the grid and the low boiler efficiency due to outmoded conversion technology of the boilers. The result also demonstrates that there are statistically significant differences between the technologies in different age groups in relation to technology conversion efficiency.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, energy challenges, energy benchmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
20 Assessment of Hamstring, Lower Back and Upper Body Flexibility in War Disabled Individuals in Sri Lanka North and East Region

Authors: A. A. J. Rajaratne, Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage

Abstract:

During the 30 year civil war in Sri Lanka, a large number of individuals were injured and disabled. These disabilities have reduced their daily physical activities which may cause reduction in flexibility of upper limb, shoulder girdle, lower back and lower limb. Muscle flexibility is important for a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the study was to assess the upper limb, shoulder girdle and lower back, hamstring flexibility of the intact lower limb in disabled individuals in the North and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. Back saver sits and reach test and shoulder scratch test described in FITNESS GRAM was used in the study. A total of 125 disabled soldiers with lower limb disabilities were recruited for the study. Flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles of uninjured lower limb was measured using back saver sit and reach test described by Wells and Dillon (1952). Upper limb and shoulder girdle flexibility was assessed using shoulder stretch test. Score 0-3 was given according to the ability to reach Superior medial angle of the opposite scapula, top of the head or the mouth. The results indicate that 31 (24.8%) disabled soldiers have lower limb flexibility less than 8, 2 (1.6 % ) have flexibility of 8, 2 (1.6 %) have flexibility of 8.5, 11 ( 8.8% ) have flexibility of 9, 14 (11.2 %) have flexibility of 9.5, 23 (18.4 %) have flexibility of 10, 17 (13.6 %) have 10.5 flexibility, 13 (10.4%) have 11 flexibility, 2 (1.6%) have 11.5 flexibility, 10 (8 %) have flexibility of 12 and 3 (2.34 %) have flexibility of 12.5. Six disabled soldiers (4.8%) have upper limb flexibility of 2 and remaining 95.2% have normal upper limb flexibility (score 3). A reduction in the flexibility of muscles in lower body and lower limbs was seen in 25% disabled soldiers which could be due to reduction in their daily physical activities.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Disability, Quality of Life, Flexibility

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19 Perceived and Performed E-Health Literacy: Survey and Simulated Performance Test

Authors: Efrat Neter, Esther Brainin, Orna Baron-Epel

Abstract:

Background: Connecting end-users to newly developed ICT technologies and channeling patients to new products requires an assessment of compatibility. End user’s assessment is conveyed in the concept of eHealth literacy. The study examined the association between perceived and performed eHealth literacy (EHL) in a heterogeneous age sample in Israel. Methods: Participants included 100 Israeli adults (mean age 43,SD 13.9) who were first phone interviewed and then tested on a computer simulation of health-related Internet tasks. Performed, perceived and evaluated EHL were assessed. Levels of successful completion of tasks represented EHL performance and evaluated EHL included observed motivation, confidence, and amount of help provided. Results: The skills of accessing, understanding, appraising, applying, and generating new information had a decreasing successful completion rate with increase in complexity of the task. Generating new information, though highly correlated with all other skills, was least correlated with the other skills. Perceived and performed EHL were correlated (r=.40, P=.001), while facets of performance (i.e, digital literacy and EHL) were highly correlated (r=.89, P<.001). Participants low and high in performed EHL were significantly different: low performers were older, had attained less education, used the Internet for less time and perceived themselves as less healthy. They also encountered more difficulties, required more assistance, were less confident in their conduct and exhibited less motivation than high performers. Conclusions: The association in this age-hetrogenous ample was larger than in previous age-homogenous samples. The moderate association between perceived and performed EHL indicates that the two are associated yet distinct, the latter requiring separate assessment. Features of future rapid performed EHL tools are discussed.

Keywords: Simulation, Performance, eHealth, health literacy

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18 Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation

Authors: Esther O. Adebitan, Florence Oyelade

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was initiated by the UN member nations’ aspiration for the betterment of human life. It is expressed in a set of numerical ‎and time-bound targets. In more recent time, the aspiration is shifting away from just the achievement to the sustainability of achieved MDGs beyond the 2015 target. The main objective of this study was assessing how much the hotel industry within the Nigerian Federal Capital Territory (FCT) as a member of the global community is involved in the achievement of sustainable MDGs within the FCT. The study had two population groups consisting of 160 hotels and the communities where these are located. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 hotels based on large, medium ‎and small hotels categorisation, while simple random sampling technique was used to elicit information from 30 residents of three of the hotels host communities. The study was guided by tree research questions and two hypotheses aimed to ascertain if hotels see the need to be involved in, and have policies in pursuit of achieving sustained MDGs, and to determine public opinion regarding hotels contribution towards the achievement of the MDGs in their communities. A 22 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotel managers while 11 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotels’ host communities. Frequency distribution and percentage as well as Chi-square were used to analyse data. Results showed no significant involvement of the hotel industry in achieving sustained MDGs in the FCT and that there was disconnect between the hotels and their immediate communities. The study recommended that hotels should, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility pick at least one of the goals to work on in order to be involved in the attainment of enduring Millennium Development Goals.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Hotels, host communities, MDGs, FCT

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17 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: Oil, Seed, Rice, extract, soybeans, malted, okra

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16 Epstein, Barr Virus Alters ATM-Dependent DNA Damage Responses in Germinal Centre B-Cells during Early Infection

Authors: Esther N. Maina, Anna Skowronska, Sridhar Chaganti, Malcolm A. Taylor, Paul G. Murray, Tatjana Stankovic

Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human tumours of B-cell origin. The demonstration that a proportion of Hodgkin lymphomas and all Burkitt’s lymphomas harbour EBV suggests that the virus contributes to the development of these malignancies. However, the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. To determine whether EBV causes DNA damage and alters DNA damage response in cells of EBV-driven lymphoma origin, Germinal Centre (GC) B cells were infected with EBV and DNA damage responses to gamma ionising radiation (IR) assessed at early time points (12hr – 72hr) after infection and prior to establishment of lymphoblastoid (LCL) cell lines. In the presence of EBV, we observed induction of spontaneous DNA DSBs and downregulation of ATM-dependent phosphorylation in response to IR. This downregulation coincided with reduced ability of infected cells to repair IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks, as measured by the kinetics of gamma H2AX, a marker of double-strand breaks, and by the tail moment of the comet assay. Furthermore, we found that alteration of DNA damage responses coincided with the expression of LMP-1 protein. The presence of the EBV virus did not affect the localization of the ATM-dependent DNA repair proteins to sites of damage but instead lead to an increased expression of PP5, a phosphatase that regulates ATM function. The impact of the virus on DNA repair was most prominent 24h after infection, suggesting that this time point is crucial for the viral establishment in B cells. Our results suggest that during an early infection EBV virus dampens crucial cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks which facilitate successful viral infection, but at the same time might provide the mechanism for tumor development.

Keywords: DNA damage, ATM, EBV, germinal center cells

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