Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Nizar Messai

31 Selecting Skyline Mash-Ups under Uncertainty

Authors: Aymen Gammoudi, Hamza Labbaci, Nizar Messai, Yacine Sam

Abstract:

Web Service Composition (Mash-up) has been considered as a new approach used to offer the user a set of Web Services responding to his request. These approaches can return a set of similar Mash-ups in a given context that makes users unable to select the perfect one. Recent approaches focus on computing the skyline over a set of Quality of Service (QoS) attributes. However, these approaches are not sufficient in a dynamic web service environment where the delivered QoS by a Web service is inherently uncertain. In this paper, we treat the problem of computing the skyline over a set of similar Mash-ups under certain dimension values. We generate dimensions for each Mash-up using aggregation operations applied to the QoS attributes. We then tackle the problem of computing the skyline under uncertain dimensions. We present each dimension value of mash-up using a frame of discernment and introduce the d-dominance using the Evidence Theory. Finally, we propose our experimental results that show both the effectiveness of the introduced skyline extensions and the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: web services, uncertain QoS, mash-ups, uncertain dimensions, skyline, evidence theory, d-dominance

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30 Kemmer Oscillator in Cosmic String Background

Authors: N. Messai, A. Boumali

Abstract:

In this work, we aim to solve the two dimensional Kemmer equation including Dirac oscillator interaction term, in the background space-time generated by a cosmic string which is submitted to an uniform magnetic field. Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of our problem have been found and the influence of the cosmic string space-time on the energy spectrum has been analyzed.

Keywords: Kemmer oscillator, cosmic string, Dirac oscillator, eigenfunctions

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29 Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties Study of New Magnetic Materials

Authors: Messai Amel, Badis Zakaria, Benali-Cherif Nourredine, Dominique Luneaub

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We are interested in molecular polymetallic species having high spin and nuclearities in relation to the field of so call single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The goal is to find a way to synthesis metal clusters which may have application in magnetism and nano sciences. With this purpose, we decided to investigate the coordination chemistry of the Schiff base. Along this way we were able to create cubane-like complexes and elaborate new Single Molecule-Magnets. The idea was to use Schiff base ligands and different metals to generate high nuclear complexes. Complexation of Shiff base with copper (II) has been investigated. Tetra nuclear complex with a cubane like core have been synthesized with (Sciff base), with the same base and cobalt (II) we obtain an other single magnetic complex completely different. In this presentation, we report the synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the tetranuclear compound (Cu4 L4), and the tetranuclear compound. (Co4L4)

Keywords: cluster-assembled materials, magnetic compounds, Sciff base, cupper, cobalt

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28 The Effects of the Uniaxial Anisotropy and the Loss Tangent on the Resonant Frequencies in Stacked Rectangular Patches Configuration

Authors: Boualem Mekimah, Abderraouf Messai, Abdelkrim Belhedri

Abstract:

Dielectric substrates have an important attention in the fabrication of microstrip patch antennas. The effects of the uniaxial anisotropy and the loss tangent on resonant frequencies of microstrip patches consist of two perfectly conducting rectangular patches in stacked and offset configuration, embedded in a bilayer medium containing isotropic or uniaxial anisotropic materials. The Green’s functions are discussed in detail and numerical results are validated by comparing the computed results with previously published data. The numerical results show, that the uniaxial anisotropy has more effects on resonant frequencies according to the optical axis. However, the loss tangent of dielectric substrates has almost no effect on resonant frequencies, but it strongly affects the imaginary parts of the resonant frequencies of the antenna. The dielectric constant has no effect on the separation in terms of frequencies.

Keywords: resonant frequencies, loss tangent, microstrip patches, stacked, anisotropic materials, optical axis

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27 Connected Objects with Optical Rectenna for Wireless Information Systems

Authors: Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli

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Harvesting and transport of optical and radiofrequency signals are a topical subject with multiple challenges. In this paper, we present a Optical RECTENNA system. We propose here a hybrid system solar cell antenna for 5G mobile communications networks. Thus, we propose rectifying circuit. A parametric study is done to follow the influence of load resistance and input power on Optical RECTENNA system performance. Thus, we propose a solar cell antenna structure in the frequency band of future 5G standard in 2.45 GHz bands.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, optical rectenna, solar cell

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26 Antenna for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Connected Objects

Authors: Nizar Sakli, Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli

Abstract:

If connected objects multiply, they are becoming a challenge in more than one way. In particular by their consumption and their supply of electricity. A large part of the new generations of connected objects will only be able to develop if it is possible to make them entirely autonomous in terms of energy. Some manufacturers are therefore developing products capable of recovering energy from their environment. Vital solutions in certain contexts, such as the medical industry. Energy recovery from the environment is a reliable solution to solve the problem of powering wireless connected objects. This paper presents and study a optically transparent solar patch antenna in frequency band of 2.4 GHz for connected objects in the future standard 5G for energy harvesting and RF transmission.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, solar cell, wireless communications

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25 People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables

Authors: Nizar Mansour, Chiha Gaha, Emna Gara

Abstract:

The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.

Keywords: human capital, knowledge intensive firms, knowledge sharing, organizational climate, Tunisia

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24 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

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This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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23 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Sébastien Poncet, Saïd Elkoun

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The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: nanofluid, thermal conductivity, pH, transient hot wire, surfactant, Al2O3, stability, dispersion, preparation

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22 Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor in the Local Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria

Authors: Noureddine Adjlane, Nizar Haddad

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Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is considered as the most prevalent virus that dangerous the honeybee health worldwide today. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the virus on honeybees (Apis mellifera intermissa) mortality in Algeria and we conducted the study on samples collected from the central area in the country. We used PCR for the diagnoses of the (DWV) in the diagnosis. The results had shown a high infestation in the sampled colonies and it represented 42% of the total sample. In this study, we found a clear role of both Varroa destructor mite and DWV on hive mortality in the experimented apiary. Further studies need to be conducted in order to give soled recommendations to the beekeepers, decision makers and stockholders of the Algerian beekeeping sector.

Keywords: honey bee, DWV, Varroa destructor, mortality, prevalence, infestation

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21 Identification of Associated-Virulence Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Alouache Souhila, Messai Yamina, Torres Carmen, Bakour Rabah

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Objective: It has often been reported an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence. However, resistance to quinolones seems to be an exception, it tends instead to be associated with an attenuation of virulence, particularly in clinical strains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential virulence of 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli strains recovered from water at the inflow (n=16) and outflow (n=12) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Methods: E. coli isolates were selected on Tergitol-7 agar supplemented with 2µg/ml of ciprofloxacin, they were screened by PCR for 11 virulence genes related to Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC): papC, papG, afa/draBC, sfa/foc, kpsMTII, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss and traT. The phylogenetic groups were determined by PCR and clonal relationship was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotyping by ERIC-PCR showed 7 and 12 DNA profiles among strains of wastewater (inflow) and treated water (outflow), respectively. Strains were assigned to the following phylogenetic groups: B2 (n = 1, 3.5%), D (n = 3, 10.7%), B1 (n = 10, 35.7%.) and A (n = 14, 50%). A total of 8 virulence-associated genes were detected, traT (n=19, 67.8%), iroN (n= 16, 57 .1%), hlyF (n=15, 53 .5%), ompT (n=15, 53 .5%), iss (n=14, 50%), iutA (n=9, 32.1%) , sfa/foc (n=7, 25%) and kpsMTII (n=2, 7.1%). Combination of virulence factors allowed to define 16 virulence profiles. The pathotype APEC was observed in 17.8% (D=1, B1=4) and human ExPEC in 7% (B2=1, D=1) of strains. Conclusion: The study showed that quinolone-resistant E. coli strains isolated from wastewater and treated water in WWTP harbored virulence genes with the presence of APEC and human ExPEC strains.

Keywords: E. coli, quinolone-resistance, virulence, WWTP

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20 Consumers’ Attitude towards Marketing Recreational Marijuana

Authors: Nizar Souiden, Riadh Ladhari

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Like tobacco and alcohol, recreational marijuana falls under the umbrella of ‘sin’ industries’. Notwithstanding this general negative image surrounding marijuana use, some scholars argue that most of the widely believed claims made about recreational marijuana users are irrelevant and that marijuana use can even improve individuals’ decision-making. This study intends to shed light on this particular product category (i.e., marijuana) often overlooked or portrayed as taboo from a business view. More specifically, it investigates whether legalizing the consumption of recreational marijuana would be perceived as ethical and whether companies/organizations involved in the commercialization of this particular product would be held socially responsible. Based on primary data collected in Canada, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1) What moral thoughts do individuals hold with regard to the consumption of recreational marijuana? 2) How do these moral thoughts determine consumers’ attitude toward the consumption of recreational marijuana? Regardless of the legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries such as Canada, probing people’s opinions, and investigating their attitudes toward the consumption of recreational marijuana is of important interest to different stakeholders such as consumers, public organizations, private businesses, and trade associations.

Keywords: recreational marijuana, moral thoughts, ethics, attitude

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19 The Effect of The Speaker's Speaking Style as A Factor of Understanding and Comfort of The Listener

Authors: Made Rahayu Putri Saron, Mochamad Nizar Palefi Ma’ady

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Communication skills are important in everyday life, communication can be done verbally in the form of oral or written and nonverbal in the form of expressions or body movements. Good communication should be able to provide information clearly, and there is feedback from the speaker and listener. However, it is often found that the information conveyed is not clear, and there is no feedback from the listeners, so it cannot be ensured that the communication is effective and understandable. The speaker's understanding of the topic is one of the supporting factors for the listener to be able to accept the meaning of the conversation. However, based on the results of the literature review, it found that the influence factors of person speaking style are as follows: (i) environmental conditions; (ii) voice, articulation, and accent; (iii) gender; (iv) personality; (v) speech disorders (Dysarthria); when speaking also have an important influence on speaker’s speaking style. It can be concluded the factors that support understanding and comfort of the listener are dependent on the nature of the speaker (environmental conditions, voice, gender, personality) or also it the speaker have speech disorders.

Keywords: listener, public speaking, speaking style, understanding, and comfortable factor

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18 Jirga: A Traditional Approach to Peacebuidling in Conflict Affected Fragile Communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Nizar Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon, Farhat Ullah

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This study investigates the peace efforts made by Pakhtun’s traditional institution Jirga in conflict-affected communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data were collected through a structured interview schedule from a sample of 278 household members in four selected villages of Dir Upper and Dir Lower Districts. A Chi square test was applied to ascertain relationships between Jirga related factors with the state of peace in the study area. It was found that factors such as Jirga regularly conducted meetings (P=. 000), it inflicted punishment upon local militants (P=. 001), ex-combatants were re-integrated through Jirga (P= .000) and Jirga ordered the local the defiant to leave the community had a significant association with state of peace in the area. It is concluded that Jirga system had played a vital role in the peacebuilding process of the area through provision of support to government in peace operation and mobilizing local people for peace in the area. It is suggested that Jirga shall to be the part of peace process and government needs to provide its possible support to members of the Jirga in order to enhance their capacity of peace work.

Keywords: Jirga, peacebuilding, terrorism, traditional mechanism, conflict affect areas

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17 The Representation of Anies Baswedan about the Issue of the Word 'Pribumi' in His DKI Jakarta Governor Inauguration Speech in Indonesian Media

Authors: Nizar Ibnus

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The term 'pribumi' or indigenous people was originally coined in the colonisation era to differentiate between Dutch colonials and native Indonesian people. The term was also used to trigger nationalism among Indonesian people to liberate their country from any kind of colonialism which had seized their freedom for ages. However, after the war was over and the colonials had fled from the country, the usage began to be altered. It changed from nationalist propaganda term to somewhat racist term. Immigrants and half-blooded people were massively victimized. Then, in 1998 the government forbade the use of this term for public use. Apparently, this racial issue happens again. On 16th October 2017, Anies Baswedan as the new government of DKI Jakarta province mentioned this term in his inauguration speech. This indeed raises controversy among Indonesian people. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper examines how Indonesian media portray the figure of Anies Baswedan regarding the issue. The findings reveal that Indonesian media depict Anies Baswedan differently. Some view him guilty as he mentioned the controversial and forbidden term in public. While, the other media consider him as innocent as he used the term in different contexts. This various media point of view and framing is presumably emerged from their different ideologies.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, media framing, racism, pribumi

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16 Geographical Data Visualization Using Video Games Technologies

Authors: Nizar Karim Uribe-Orihuela, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

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In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the implementation of a strategy to visualize geographical data using a Software Development Kit (SDK) for video games. We use multispectral images from Landsat 7 platform and Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from The National Institute of Geography and Statistics of Mexican (INEGI). We select a place of interest to visualize from Landsat platform and make some processing to the image (rotations, atmospheric correction and enhancement). The resulting image will be our gray scale color-map to fusion with the LIDAR data, which was selected using the same coordinates than in Landsat. The LIDAR data is translated to 8-bit raw data. Both images are fused in a software developed using Unity (an SDK employed for video games). The resulting image is then displayed and can be explored moving around. The idea is the software could be used for students of geology and geophysics at the Engineering School of the National University of Mexico. They will download the software and images corresponding to a geological place of interest to a smartphone and could virtually visit and explore the site with a virtual reality visor such as Google cardboard.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, geographical data visualization, video games technologies, educational material

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15 Carbonate Crusts in Jordan: Records of Groundwater Flow, Carbon Fluxes, Tectonic Movement and Climate Change

Authors: Nizar Abu-Jaber

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Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate crusts in the south of Jordan were studied using a combination of field documentation, petrography, geochemical and isotopic techniques. These surficial crusts and vein deposits appear to have formed as a result of interaction between near-surface groundwater, surficial soil and sediments and rising carbon dioxide. Rising mantle CO2 dissolves in the water to create carbonic acid, which in turn dissolves the calcite in the soil in the sediments. When the pH rises later due to degassing, the carbonate crusts are left in the places where the water was flowing in veins, channels and interfaces between high and low permeability materials. The crusts have the potential for being important records of natural and human agencies on the landscape of the area. They reflect the isotopic composition of the waters in which they precipitated in, and also contain isotopic information about the aeolian calcium fluxes affecting the area (using strontium isotopes). Moreover, changing stream valley base levels can be identified and measured, which can help quantify the rates of tectonic movement. Finally, human activities such and channel construction and terrace building can be identified and traced temporally and spatially using these deposits.

Keywords: anthropogenic change, carbonate crusts, environmental change, Jordan

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14 Community Base Peacebuilding in Fragile Context

Authors: Nizar Ahmad

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Peace without community participation will remain a vision, so, this study presents the contribution and efforts made by community base organization in views of local conflict affect population in Pakhtun society. A four conflict affected villages of Malakad Division were selected and a sample size of 278 household respondents were determined through online survey system software out of total 982 households. A Chi-square test was applied to ascertain association between various communication base organizations factors with state of peace in the area. It was found that provision of humanitarian aid, rehabilitation of displaced population, rebuilding of trust in government and peace festivals by communication organization had significant association with state of peace in the area. In contrast provision of training, peace education monitoring and reporting of human rights violation in war zone by local organization was non-significantly related to the state of peace in the area. Community base organization play an active role in building peace in the area but lack capacity, linkages with external actors and outside support. National and international organization actors working in the area of peace and conflict resolution need to focus on the capacity, networking and peace initiatives of local organizations working in fragile context.

Keywords: community base peacebuilding, conflict resolution, terrorism, violence

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13 Analysis on Yogyakarta Istimewa Citygates on Urban Area Arterial Roads

Authors: Nizar Caraka Trihanasia, Suparwoko

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the design model of city gates on arterial roads as Yogyakarta’s “Istimewa” (special) identity. City marketing has become a trend among cities in the past few years. It began to compete with each other in promoting their identity to the world. One of the easiest ways to recognize the identity is by knowing the image of the city which can be seen through architectural buildings or urban elements. The idea is to recognize how the image of the city can represent Yogyakarta’s identity, which is limited to the contribution of the city gates distinctiveness on Yogyakarta urban area. This study has concentrated on the aspect of city gates as built environment that provides a diversity, configuration and scale of development that promotes a sense of place and community. The visual analysis will be conducted to interpreted the existing Yogyakarta city gates (as built environment) focussing on some variables of 1) character and pattern, 2) circulation system establishment, and 3) open space utilisation. Literature review and site survey are also conducted to understand the relationship between the built environment and the sense of place in the community. This study suggests that visually the Yogyakarta city gate model has strong visual characters and pattern by using the concept of a sense of place of Yogyakarta community value.

Keywords: visual analysis, model, Yogyakarta “Istimewa”, citygates

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12 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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11 Landscape Classification in North of Jordan by Integrated Approach of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Taleb Odeh, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Nour Khries

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The southern part of Wadi Al Yarmouk catchment area covers north of Jordan. It locates within latitudes 32° 20’ to 32° 45’N and longitudes 35° 42’ to 36° 23’ E and has an area of about 1426 km2. However, it has high relief topography where the elevation varies between 50 to 1100 meter above sea level. The variations in the topography causes different units of landforms, climatic zones, land covers and plant species. As a results of these different landscapes units exists in that region. Spatial planning is a major challenge in such a vital area for Jordan which could not be achieved without determining landscape units. However, an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information Systems (GIS) is an optimized tool to investigate and map landscape units of such a complicated area. Remote sensing has the capability to collect different land surface data, of large landscape areas, accurately and in different time periods. GIS has the ability of storage these land surface data, analyzing them spatially and present them in form of professional maps. We generated a geo-land surface data that include land cover, rock units, soil units, plant species and digital elevation model using ASTER image and Google Earth while analyzing geo-data spatially were done by ArcGIS 10.2 software. We found that there are twenty two different landscape units in the study area which they have to be considered for any spatial planning in order to avoid and environmental problems.

Keywords: landscape, spatial planning, GIS, spatial analysis, remote sensing

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10 Effect of Leptin Gene Methylation on Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumors all over the world. Obesity, considered a risk factor of CRC, is characterized by a high level of secreted cytokines from adipose tissue. Among these inflammatory molecules, leptin is considered the key mediator for CRC cancer development and progression by activation of mitogenic and anti apoptotic signaling pathways. Gene expression can be significantly modulated by alterations in DNA methylation patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leptin gene methylation on CRC prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The study involved 70 CRC tissue samples collected from King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from which only 53 was analyzed because of bisulfate fragmentation and low yield of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. A total of 22 blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and enrolled as a control group. Leptin promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation specific PCR after bisulfate conversion. Results revealed that the incidence of leptin gene methylation was significantly higher in CRC patients in comparison to that of controls (P < 0.05). The correlation between patient’s demographics and leptin gene methylation was not significant (P < 0.05). However, a significant correlation between leptin gene methylation status and early cancer stages (I, II and III) was found in male but not in female (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between leptin promoter methylation and early tumor localization T1-2 (p < 0.05). The correlation between epigenetic regulation of leptin and chemosensitivity was not significant. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility to use leptin gene methylation as a biomarker for the evaluation of CRC prognosis and metastasis.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, obesity, leptin, DNA methylation, disease prognosis, bisulfate conversion, chemoresistance

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9 Efficiency of PCR-RFLP for the Identification of Adulteries in Meat Formulation

Authors: Hela Gargouri, Nizar Moalla, Hassen Hadj Kacem

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Meat adulteration affecting the safety and quality of food is becoming one of the main concerns of public interest across the world. The drastic consequences on the meat industry highlighted the urgent necessity to control the products' quality and to point out the complexity of both supply and processing circuits. Due to the expansion of this problem, the authentic testing of foods, particularly meat and its products, is deemed crucial to avoid unfair market competition and to protect consumers from fraudulent practices of meat adulteration. The adoption of authentication methods by the food quality-control laboratories is becoming a priority issue. However, in some developing countries, the number of food tests is still insignificant, although a variety of processed and traditional meat products are widely consumed. Little attention has been paid to provide an easy, fast, reproducible, and low-cost molecular test, which could be conducted in a basic laboratory. In the current study, the 359 bp fragment of the cytochrome-b gene was mapped by PCR-RFLP using firstly fresh biological supports (DNA and meat) and then turkey salami as an example of commercial processed meat. This technique has been established through several optimizations, namely: the selection of restriction enzymes. The digestion with BsmAI, SspI, and TaaI succeed to identify the seven included animal species when meat is formed by individual species and when the meat is a mixture of different origin. In this study, the PCR-RFLP technique using universal primer succeed to meet our needs by providing an indirect sequencing method identifying by restriction enzymes the specificities characterizing different species on the same amplicon reducing the number of potential tests.

Keywords: adulteration, animal species, authentication, meat, mtDNA, PCR-RFLP

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8 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan

Abstract:

The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Arab contemporary poetry, identity, memory, argumentation

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7 Does Clinical Guidelines Affect Healthcare Quality and Populational Health: Quebec Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

Authors: Nizar Ghali, Bernard Fortin, Guy Lacroix

Abstract:

In Quebec, colonoscopies volumes have continued to rise in recent years in the absence of effective monitoring mechanism for the appropriateness and the quality of these exams. In 2010, November, Quebec Government introduced the colorectal cancer-screening program in the objective to control for volume and cost imperfection. This program is based on clinical standards and was initiated for first group of institutions. One year later, Government adds financial incentives for participants institutions. In this analysis, we want to assess for the causal effect of the two components of this program: clinical pathways and financial incentives. Especially we assess for the reform effect on healthcare quality and population health in the context that medical remuneration is not directly dependent on this additional funding offered by the program. We have data on admissions episodes and deaths for 8 years. We use multistate model analog to difference in difference approach to estimate reform effect on the transition probability between different states for each patient. Our results show that the reform reduced length of stay without deterioration in hospital mortality or readmission rate. In the other hand, the program contributed to decrease the hospitalization rate and a less invasive treatment approach for colorectal surgeries. This is a sign of healthcare quality and population health improvement. We demonstrate in this analysis that physicians’ behavior can be affected by both clinical standards and financial incentives even if offered to facilities.

Keywords: multi-state and multi-episode transition model, healthcare quality, length of stay, transition probability, difference in difference

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6 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

Abstract:

Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: medicinal plants extract, fractionation, oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine, SCEs, Jordan

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5 Promises versus Realities: A Critical Assessment of the Integrated Design Process

Authors: Firdous Nizar, Carmela Cucuzzella

Abstract:

This paper explores how the integrated design process (IDP) was adopted for an architectural project. The IDP is a relatively new approach to collaborative design in architectural design projects in Canada. It has gained much traction recently as the closest possible approach to the successful management of low energy building projects and has been advocated as a productive method for multi-disciplinary collaboration within complex projects. This study is based on the premise that there are explicit and implicit dimensions of power within the integrated design process (IDP) in the green building industry that may or may not lead to irreconcilable differences in a process that demands consensus. To gain insight on the potential gap between the theoretical promises and practical realities of the IDP, a review of existing IDP literature is compared with a case study analysis of a competition-based architectural project in Canada, a first to incorporate the IDP in its overall design format. This paper aims to address the undertheorized power relations of the IDP in a real project. It presents a critical assessment through the lens of the combined theories of deliberative democracy by Jürgen Habermas, with that of agonistic pluralism by political theorist Chantal Mouffe. These two theories are intended to more appropriately embrace the conflictual situations in collaborative environments, and shed light on the relationships of power, between engineers, city officials, architects, and designers in this conventional consensus-based model. In addition, propositions for a shift in approach that embraces conflictual differences among its participants are put forth based on concepts of critical spatial practice by Markus Meissen. As IDP is a relatively new design process, it requires much deliberation on its structure from the theoretical framework built in this paper in order to unlock its true potential.

Keywords: agonistic pluralism, critical spatial practice, deliberative democracy, integrated design process

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4 Soluble CD36 and Cardiovascular Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects

Authors: Mohammad Alkhatatbeh, Nehad Ayoub, Nizar Mhaidat, Nesreen Saadeh, Lisa Lincz

Abstract:

CD36 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized-low density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and was supposed to act as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. This study was conducted to further investigate the relationship between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. SCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patients' medical records. SCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to most other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P-value=0.17). SCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. SCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease and those without these abnormalities (P-value > 0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in this study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, CD36, cardiovascular risk, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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3 Comparative Growth Kinetic Studies of Two Strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Dates and a Commercial Strain

Authors: Nizar Chaira

Abstract:

Dates, main products of the oases, due to their therapeutic interests, are considered highly nutritious fruit. Several studies on the valuation biotechnology and technology of dates are made, and several products are already prepared. Isolation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, naturally presents in a scrap of date, optimization of growth in the medium based on date syrup and production biomass can potentially expand the range of secondary products of dates. To this end, this paper tries to study the suitability for processing dates technology and biotechnology to use the date pulp as a carbon source for biological transformation. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from date syrup (S1, S2) and a commercial strain have used for this study. After optimization of culture conditions, production in a fermenter on two different media (date syrup and beet molasses) was performed. This is followed by studying the kinetics of growth, protein production and consumption of sugars in crops strain 1, 2 and the commercial strain and on both media. The results obtained showed that a concentration of 2% sugar, 2.5 g/l yeast extract, pH 4.5 and a temperature between 25 and 35°C are the optimal conditions for cultivation in a bioreactor. The exponential phase of the specific growth rate of a strain on both media showed that it is about 0.3625 h-1 for the production of a medium based on date syrup and 0.3521 h-1 on beet molasses with a generation time equal to 1.912 h and on the medium based on date syrup, yeast consumes preferentially the reducing sugars. For the production of protein, we showed that this latter presents an exponential phase when the medium starts to run out of reducing sugars. For strain 2, the specific growth rate is about 0.261h-1 for the production on a medium based on date syrup and 0207 h-1 on beet molasses and the base medium syrup date of the yeast consumes preferentially reducing sugars. For the invertase and other metabolits, these increases rapidly after exhaustion of reducing sugars. The comparison of productivity between the three strains on the medium based on date syrup showed that the maximum value is obtained with the second strain: p = 1072 g/l/h as it is about of 0923 g/l/h for strain 1 and 0644 g/l/h for the commercial strain. Thus, isolates of date syrup are more competitive than the commercial strain and can give the same performance in a shorter time with energy gain.

Keywords: date palm, fermentation, molasses, Saccharomyces, syrup

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2 Neuroprotection against N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Optic Nerve and Retinal Degeneration Changes by Philanthotoxin-343 to Alleviate Visual Impairments Involve Reduced Nitrosative Stress

Authors: Izuddin Fahmy Abu, Mohamad Haiqal Nizar Mohamad, Muhammad Fattah Fazel, Renu Agarwal, Igor Iezhitsa, Nor Salmah Bakar, Henrik Franzyk, Ian Mellor

Abstract:

Glaucoma is the global leading cause of irreversible blindness. Currently, the available treatment strategy only involves lowering intraocular pressure (IOP); however, the condition often progresses despite lowered or normal IOP in some patients. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) excitotoxicity often occurs in neurodegeneration-related glaucoma; thus it is a relevant target to develop a therapy based on neuroprotection approach. This study investigated the effects of Philanthotoxin-343 (PhTX-343), an NMDAR antagonist, on the neuroprotection of NMDA-induced glaucoma to alleviate visual impairments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided: Groups 1 (control) and 2 (glaucoma) were intravitreally injected with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and NMDA (160nM), respectively, while group 3 was pre-treated with PhTX-343 (160nM) 24 hours prior to NMDA injection. Seven days post-treatments, rats were subjected to visual behavior assessments and subsequently euthanized to harvest their retina and optic nerve tissues for histological analysis and determination of nitrosative stress level using 3-nitrotyrosine ELISA. Visual behavior assessments via open field, object, and color recognition tests demonstrated poor visual performance in glaucoma rats indicated by high exploratory behavior. PhTX-343 pre-treatment appeared to preserve visual abilities as all test results were significantly improved (p < 0.05). H&E staining of the retina showed a marked reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness in the glaucoma group; in contrast, PhTX-343 significantly increased the number by 1.28-folds (p < 0.05). PhTX-343 also increased the number of cell nuclei/100μm2 within inner retina by 1.82-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). Toluidine blue staining of optic nerve tissues showed that PhTX-343 reduced the degeneration changes compared to the glaucoma group which exhibited vacuolation overall sections. PhTX-343 also decreased retinal 3- nitrotyrosine concentration by 1.74-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). All results in PhTX-343 group were comparable to control (p > 0.05). We conclude that PhTX-343 protects against NMDA-induced changes and visual impairments in the rat model by reducing nitrosative stress levels.

Keywords: excitotoxicity, glaucoma, nitrosative stress , NMDA receptor , N-methyl-D-aspartate , philanthotoxin, visual behaviour

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