Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2989

Search results for: disease prognosis

2989 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale


Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, India

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2988 Autoimmune Diseases Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Study of 51 Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia


Introduction: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic cholangitis of unknown etiology. It is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases, which explains their systematic screening. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and the type of autoimmune disorders associated with PBC and to assess their impact on the prognosis of the disease. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study over a period of 16 years (2000-2015) including all patients followed for PBC. In all these patients we have systematically researched: dysthyroidism (thyroid balance, antithyroid autoantibodies), type 1 diabetes, dry syndrome (ophthalmologic examination, Schirmer test and lip biopsy in case of Presence of suggestive clinical signs), celiac disease(celiac disease serology and duodenal biopsies) and dermatological involvement (clinical examination). Results: Fifty-one patients (50 women and one men) followed for PBC were collected. The Mean age was 54 years (37-77 years). Among these patients, 30 patients(58.8%) had at least one autoimmune disease associated with PBC. The discovery of these autoimmune diseases preceded the diagnosis of PBC in 8 cases (26.6%) and was concomitant, through systematic screening, in the remaining cases. Autoimmune hepatitis was found in 12 patients (40%), defining thus an overlap syndrome. Other diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 10), dry syndrome (n = 7), Gougerot Sjogren syndrome (n=6), celiac disease (n = 3), insulin-dependent diabetes (n = 1), scleroderma (n = 1), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1), Biermer Anemia (n=1) and Systemic erythematosus lupus (n=1). The two groups of patients with PBC with or without associated autoimmune disorders were comparable for bilirubin levels, Child-Pugh score, and response to treatment. Conclusion: In our series, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in PBC was 58.8%. These diseases were dominated by autoimmune hepatitis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Even if their association does not seem to alter the prognosis, screening should be systematic in order to institute an early and adequate management.

Keywords: autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, prognosis

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2987 Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis in Cutaneous Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Narrative Review Apropos of a Case

Authors: Laura Gleason, Sahithi Talasila, Lauren Banner, Ladan Afifi, Neda Nikbakht


Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL) accounts for 9% of all cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. pcALCL is classically characterized as a solitary papulonodule that often enlarges, ulcerates, and can be locally destructive, but overall exhibits an indolent course with overall 5-year survival estimated to be 90%. Distinguishing pcALCL from systemic ALCL (sALCL) is essential as sALCL confers a poorer prognosis with average 5-year survival being 40-50%. Although extremely rare, there have been several cases of ALK-positive ALCL diagnosed on skin biopsy without evidence of systemic involvement, which poses several challenges in the classification, prognostication, treatment, and follow-up of these patients. Objectives: We present a case of cutaneous ALK-positive ALCL without evidence of systemic involvement, and a narrative review of the literature to further characterize that ALK-positive ALCL limited to the skin is a distinct variant with a unique presentation, history, and prognosis. A 30-year-old woman presented for evaluation of an erythematous-violaceous papule present on her right chest for two months. With the development of multifocal disease and persistent lymphadenopathy, a bone marrow biopsy and lymph node excisional biopsy were performed to assess for systemic disease. Both biopsies were unrevealing. The patient was counseled on pursuing systemic therapy consisting of Brentuximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, and Prednisone given the concern for sALCL. Apropos of the patient we searched for clinically evident, cutaneous ALK-positive ALCL cases, with and without systemic involvement, in the English literature. Risk factors, such as tumor location, number, size, ALK localization, ALK translocations, and recurrence, were evaluated in cases of cutaneous ALK-positive ALCL. The majority of patients with cutaneous ALK-positive ALCL did not progress to systemic disease. The majority of cases that progressed to systemic disease in adults had recurring skin lesions and cytoplasmic localization of ALK. ALK translocations did not influence disease progression. Mean time to disease progression was 16.7 months, and significant mortality (50%) was observed in those cases that progressed to systemic disease. Pediatric cases did not exhibit a trend similar to adult cases. In both the adult and pediatric cases, a subset of cutaneous-limited ALK-positive ALCL were treated with chemotherapy. All cases treated with chemotherapy did not progress to systemic disease. Apropos of an ALK-positive ALCL patient with clinical cutaneous limited disease in the histologic presence of systemic markers, we discussed the literature data, highlighting the crucial issues related to developing a clinical strategy to approach this rare subtype of ALCL. Physicians need to be aware of the overall spectrum of ALCL, including cutaneous limited disease, systemic disease, disease with NPM-ALK translocation, disease with ALK and EMA positivity, and disease with skin recurrence.

Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma, systemic, cutaneous, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ALK, ALCL, sALCL, pcALCL, cALCL

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2986 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can


It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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2985 Clinical Evaluation of Neutrophil to Lymphocytes Ratio and Platelets to Lymphocytes Ratio in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Authors: Aisha Arshad, Samina Naz Mukry, Tahir Shamsi


Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder. Besides platelets counts, immature platelets fraction (IPF) can be used as tool to predict megakaryocytic activity in ITP patients. The clinical biomarkers like Neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocytes ratio(PLR) predicts inflammation and can be used as prognostic markers.The present study was planned to assess the ratios in ITP and their utility in predicting prognosis after treatment. Methods: A total of 111 patients of ITP with same number of healthy individuals were included in this case control study during the period of January 2015 to December 2017.All the ITP patients were grouped according to guidelines of International working group of ITP. A 3cc blood was collected in EDTA tube and blood parameters were evaluated using Sysmex 1000 analyzer.The ratios were calculated by using absolute counts of Neutrophils,Lymphocytes and platelets.The significant (p=<0.05) difference between ITP patients and healthy control groups was determined by Kruskal wallis test, Dunn’s test and spearman’s correlation test was done using SPSS version 23. Results: The significantly raised total leucocytes counts (TLC) and IPF along with low platelets counts were observed in ITP patients as compared to healthy controls.In ITP groups,very low platelet count with median and IQR of 2(3.8)3x109/l with highest mean and IQR IPF 25.4(19.8)% was observed in newly diagnosed ITP group. The NLR was high with prognosis of disease as higher levels were observed in P-ITP. The PLR was significantly low in ND-ITP ,P-ITP, C-ITP, R-ITP and compared to controls with p=<0.001 as platelet were less in number in all ITP patients. Conclusion: The IPF can be used in evaluation of bone marrow response in ITP. The simple, reliable and calculated NLR and PLR ratios can be used in predicting prognosis and response to treatment in ITP and to some extend the severity of disease.

Keywords: neutrophils, platelets, lymphocytes, infection

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2984 How OXA GENE Expression is Implicated in the Treatment Resistance and Poor Prognosis in Glioblastoma

Authors: Naomi Seidu, Edward Poluyi, Chibuikem Ikwuegbuenyi, Eghosa Morgan


The current poor prognosis of glioblastoma has called for the need for an improvement in treatment methods in order to improve its survival rate. Despite the different interventions currently available for this tumor, the average survival is still only a few months. (12-15). The aim is to create a more favorable prognosis and have a reduction in the resistance to treatment currently being experienced, even with surgical interventions and chemotherapy. From the available literature, there is a relationship between the presence of HOX genes (Homeobox genes) and glioblastoma, which could be attributable to the increasing treatment resistance. Hence silencing these genes can be a key to improving survival rates of glioblastoma. A series of studies have highlighted the role that HOX genes play in glioblastoma prognosis. Promotion of human glioblastoma initiation, aggressiveness, and resistance to Temozolomide has been associated with HOXA9. The role of HOX gene expression in cancer stem cells should be studied as it could provide a means of designing CSC-targeted therapies, as CSCs play a part in the initiation and progression of solid tumors.

Keywords: GBM- glioblastoma, HOXA gene- homeobox genes cluster, signaling pathways, temozolomide

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2983 Outcome of Unilateral Retinoblastoma: A Ten Years Experience of Children's Cancer, Hospital Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Elhussein, Hossam El-Zomor, Adel Alieldin, Mahmoud A. Afifi, Abdullah Elhusseiny, Hala Taha, Amal Refaat, Soha Ahmed, Mohamed S. Zagloul


Background: A majority of children with retinoblastoma (60%) have a disease in one eye only (unilateral disease). This is a retrospective study to evaluate two different treatment modalities in those patients for saving their lives and vision. Methods: Four hundred and four patients were diagnosed with unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma at Children’s Cancer, Hospital Egypt (CCHE) through the period of July/2007 until December/2017. Management strategies included primary enucleation versus ocular salvage treatment. Results: Patients presented with mean age 24.5 months with range (1.2-154.3 months). According to the international retinoblastoma classification, Group D (n=172, 42%) was the most common, followed by group E (n=142, 35%), group C (n=63, 16%), and group B (n=27, 7%). All patients were alive at the end of the study except four patients who died, with 5-years overall survival 98.3% [CI, (96.5-100%)]. Patients presented with advanced disease and poor visual prognosis (n=241, 59.6%) underwent primary enucleation with 6 cycles adjuvant chemotherapy if they had high-risk features in the enucleated eye; only four patients out of 241 ended-up either with extraocular metastasis (n=3) or death (n=1). While systemic chemotherapy and focal therapy were the primary treatment for those who presented with favorable disease status and good visual prognosis (n=163, 40.4%); seventy-seven patients of them (47%) ended up with a pre-defined event (enucleation, EBRT, off protocol chemotherapy or 2ry malignancy). Ocular survival for patients received primary chemotherapy + focal therapy was [50.9% (CI, 43.5-59.6%)] at 3 years and [46.9% (CI,39.3-56%)] at 5 years. Comparison between upfront enucleation and primary chemotherapy for occurrence of extraocular metastasis revealed that there was no statistical difference between them except in group D (p value). While for occurrence of death, no statistical difference in all classification groups. Conclusion: In retinoblastoma, primary chemotherapy is a reasonable option and has a good probability for ocular salvage without increasing the risk of metastasis in comparison to upfront enucleation except in group D.

Keywords: CCHE, chemotherapy, enucleation, retinoblastoma

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2982 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan


We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

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2981 The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghadeer F. Alharthi, Duaa A. Alhejaili, Rawan E. Hudairy, Wafaa A. Altaezi, Raghad M. Alhejaili


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, dysplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

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2980 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan


The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

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2979 Effect of Leptin Gene Methylation on Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumors all over the world. Obesity, considered a risk factor of CRC, is characterized by a high level of secreted cytokines from adipose tissue. Among these inflammatory molecules, leptin is considered the key mediator for CRC cancer development and progression by activation of mitogenic and anti apoptotic signaling pathways. Gene expression can be significantly modulated by alterations in DNA methylation patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leptin gene methylation on CRC prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The study involved 70 CRC tissue samples collected from King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from which only 53 was analyzed because of bisulfate fragmentation and low yield of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. A total of 22 blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and enrolled as a control group. Leptin promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation specific PCR after bisulfate conversion. Results revealed that the incidence of leptin gene methylation was significantly higher in CRC patients in comparison to that of controls (P < 0.05). The correlation between patient’s demographics and leptin gene methylation was not significant (P < 0.05). However, a significant correlation between leptin gene methylation status and early cancer stages (I, II and III) was found in male but not in female (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between leptin promoter methylation and early tumor localization T1-2 (p < 0.05). The correlation between epigenetic regulation of leptin and chemosensitivity was not significant. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility to use leptin gene methylation as a biomarker for the evaluation of CRC prognosis and metastasis.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, obesity, leptin, DNA methylation, disease prognosis, bisulfate conversion, chemoresistance

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2978 Lymphatic Microvessel Density as a Prognostic Factor in Endometrial Carcinoma

Authors: Noha E. Hassan


Little is known regarding the influence of lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) on prognosis in endometrial cancer. Prospective study was done in tertiary education and research hospital (Shatby Alexandria university hospital) on sixty patients presented with endometrial carcinoma underwent complete surgical staging. Our aim was to assess the intratumoral and peritumoral Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) of endometrial carcinomas identified by immunohistochemical staining using an antibody against podoplanin and to investigate their association with classical clinicopathological factors and prognosis. The result shows that high LMVD was associated with endometroid type of tumors, lesser myometrial, adnexal, cervical and peritoneal infiltration, lower tumor grade and stage and lesser recurrent cases. There is lower lymph node involvement among cases with high intratumoral LMVD and cases of high peritumoral LMVD; that reach statistical significance only among cases of high intratumoral LMVD. No association was seen between LMVD and lymphovascular space invasion. On the other hand, low LMVD was associated with poor outcome. Finally, we can conclude that increased LMVD is associated with favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, lymphatic microvessel, microvessel density, prognosis

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2977 A Case Series on Isolated Lead aVR ST-Segment Elevation Clinical Significance and Outcome

Authors: Fae Princess Bermudez


Background: One of the least significant leads on a 12-lead electrocardiogram is the augmented right lead (aVR), as it is not as specific compared to the other leads. In this case series, the value of lead aVR, which is more often than not ignored, is highlighted. Three cases of aVR ST segment elevation on 12-lead electrocardiogram are described, with the end outcome of demise of all three patients. The importance of immediate revascularization is described to improve prognosis in this group of patients. Objectives: This case series aims to primarily present under-reported cases of isolated aVR ST-segrment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), their course and outcome. More specific aims are to identify the criteria in determination of isolated aVR STEMI, know its clinical significance, and determine appropriate management for patients with this ECG finding. Method: A short review of previous studies, case reports, articles and guidelines from 2011-2016 was done. The author reviewed available literature, sorted out those that proved to be significant for the presented cases, and described them in conjunction with the aforementioned cases. Findings: Based on the limited information on these rare or under-reported cases, it was found that isolated aVR STEMI had a poorer prognosis that led to significant mortality and morbidity of patients. The significance of aVR ST-elevation was that of an occlusion of the left coronary artery or a severe three-vessel disease in the presence of an Acute Coronary Syndrome. Guidelines from American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation in 2013 already recognized ST-elevation of lead aVR in isolation as a STEMI; hence, recommended that patients with this particular ECG finding should undergo reperfusion strategies to improve prognosis. Conclusion: The indispensability of isolated aVR ST-segment elevation on ECG should alert physicians, especially Emergency physicians, to the high probability of Acute Coronary Syndrome with a very poor prognosis. If this group of patients is not promptly managed, demise may ensue, with cardiogenic shock as the most probable cause. With this electrocardiogram finding, physicians must be quick to make clinical decisions to increase chances of survival of this group of patients.

Keywords: AVR ST-elevation, diffuse ST-segment depression, left coronary artery infarction, myocardial infarction

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2976 Prediction of Survival Rate after Gastrointestinal Surgery Based on The New Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM Score) With Neural Network Classification Method

Authors: Ayu Nabila Kusuma Pradana, Aprinaldi Jasa Mantau, Tomohiko Akahoshi


The incidence of Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following gastrointestinal surgery has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to determine the factors that can predict the prognosis of DIC. This study will investigate the factors that may influence the outcome of DIC in patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Eighty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit after gastrointestinal surgery in Kyushu University Hospital from 2003 to 2021. Acute DIC scores were estimated using the new Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) score from before and after surgery from day 1, day 3, and day 7. Acute DIC scores will be compared with The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, platelet count, lactate level, and a variety of biochemical parameters. This study applied machine learning algorithms to predict the prognosis of DIC after gastrointestinal surgery. The results of this study are expected to be used as an indicator for evaluating patient prognosis so that it can increase life expectancy and reduce mortality from cases of DIC patients after gastrointestinal surgery.

Keywords: the survival rate, gastrointestinal surgery, JAAM score, neural network, machine learning, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

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2975 Alzheimer’s Disease Measured in Work Organizations

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri


The effects of sick workers have an impact in administration of labor. This study aims to provide knowledge on the disease that is Alzheimer’s while presenting an answer to the research question of when and how is the disease considered as a disaster inside the workplace. The study has the following as its research objectives: 1. Define Alzheimer’s disease, 2. Evaluate the effects and consequences of an employee suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, 3. Determine the concept of organizational effectiveness in the area of Human Resources, and 4. Identify common figures associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researcher gathered important data from books, video presentations, and interviews of workers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and from the internet. After using all the relevant data collection instruments mentioned, the following data emerged: 1. Alzheimer’s disease has certain consequences inside the workplace, 2. The occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease in an employee’s life greatly affects the company where the worker is employed, and 3. The concept of workplace efficiency suggests that an employer must prepare for such disasters that Alzheimer’s disease may bring to the company where one is employed. Alzheimer’s disease can present disaster in any workplace.

Keywords: administration, Alzheimer's disease, conflict, disaster, employment

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2974 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database

Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao


Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.

Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEER

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2973 Autoimmune Diseases Associated with Celiac Disease in Adults

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Taieb Ach, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Neirouz Ghannouchi, Koussay Ach, Elhem Ben Jazia


Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated small intestinal disorder that occurs in genetically susceptible people. It is significantly associated with other autoimmune disorders represented mainly by type 1 diabetes and autoimmune dysthyroidism. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence and the type of the various autoimmune diseases associated with CD in adult patients. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study including patients diagnosed with CD, explored in Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology and Diabetology Departments of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, between January 2005 and January 2016. The diagnosis of CD was confirmed by serological tests and duodenal biopsy. The screening of autoimmune diseases was based on physical examination, biological and serological tests. Results: Sixty five patients with a female predominance were included, 48women (73.8%) and 17 men (26.2%). The mean age was 31.8 years (17-75). A family history of CD or other autoimmune diseases was present in 5 and 10 patients respectively. Clinical presentation of CD was made by recurrent abdominal pain in 49 cases, diarrhea in 29 cases, bloating in 17 cases, constipation in 25 cases and vomiting in 8 cases. Autoimmune diseases associated with CD were found in 30 cases (46.1%): type 1 diabetes in 15 patients attested by the positivity of anti-GAD antibodies in 11 cases and anti-IA2 in 4 cases, Hashimoto thyroiditis in 8 cases confirmed by the positivity of anti-TPO antibodies, Addison's disease in 2 patients, Anemia of Biermer in 2 patients, autoimmune hepatitis, Systemic erythematosus lupus, Gougerot Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Vitiligo and antiphospholipid syndrome in one patient each. CD was associated with more than one autoimmune disease defining multiple autoimmune syndrome in 2 female patients. The first patient had Basedow disease, Addison disease and type 1 diabetes. The second patient had systemic erythematosus lupus and Gougerot Sjögren syndrome. Conclusion: In our study autoimmune diseases were associated with CD in 46.1% of cases and were dominated by diabetes and dysthroidism. After establishing the diagnosis of CD the search of associated autoimmune diseases is necessary in order to avoid any therapeutic delay which can alter the prognosis of the patient.

Keywords: association, autoimmune thyroiditis, celiac disease, diabetes

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2972 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang


The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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2971 Demographic Profile, Risk Factors and In-hospital Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Young Population, in Pakistan-Single Center Real World Experience

Authors: Asma Qudrat, Abid Ullah, Rafi Ullah, Ali Raza, Shah Zeb, Syed Ali Shan Ul-Haq, Shahkar Ahmed Shah, Attiya Hameed Khan, Saad Zaheer, Umama Qasim, Kiran Jamal, Zahoor khan


Objectives: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major public health issue associated with high mortality and morbidity rate worldwide. Young patients with ACS have unique characteristics with different demographic profiles and risk factors. The precise diagnosis and early risk stratification is important in guiding treatment and predicting the prognosis of young patients with ACS. To evaluate the associated demographics, risk factors, and outcomes profile of ACS in young age patients. Methods: The research follow a retrospective design, the single centre study of patients diagnosis with the first event of ACS in young age (>18 and <40) were included. Data collection included demographic profiles, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes of young ACS patients. The patient’s data was retrieved through Electronic Medical Records (EMR) of Peshawar Institute of Cardiology (PIC), and all characteristic were assessed. Results: In this study, 77% were male, and 23% were female patients. The risk factors were assessed with CAD and shown significant results (P < 0.01). The most common presentation was STEMI, with (45%) most in ACS young patients. The angiographic pattern showed single vessel disease (SVD) in 49%, double vessel disease (DVD) in 17% and triple vessel disease (TVD) was found in 10%, and Left Artery Disease (LAD) (54%) was present to be the most common involved artery. Conclusion: It is concluded that the male sex was predominant in ACS young age patients. SVD was the common coronary angiographic finding. Risk factors showed significant results towards CAD and common presentations.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, ST elevation myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute coronary syndrome

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2970 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy


Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

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2969 Varietal Screening of Watermelon against Powdery Mildew Disease and Its Management

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Amer Habib, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hasnain Sajjad


Except for few scattered cases, powdery mildew disease was not a big problem for watermelon in the past but with the outbreaks of its pathotypes, races 1W and 2W, this disease becomes a serious issue all around the globe. The severe outbreak of this disease also increased the rate of fungicide application for its proper management. Twelve varieties of watermelon were screened in Research Area of Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to check the incidence of powdery mildew disease. Disease inoculum was prepared and applied with the help of foliar spray method. Fungicides and plants extracts were also applied after the disease incidence. Percentage leaf surface area diseased was assessed visually with a modified Horsfall-Barratt scale. The results of the experiment revealed that among all varieties, WT2257 and Zcugma F1 were highly resistant showing less than 5% disease incidence while Anar Kali and Sugar baby were highly susceptible with disease incidence of more than 65%. Among botanicals neem extract gave best results with disease incidence of less than 20%. Besides neem, all other botanicals also gave significant control of powdery mildew disease than the untreated check. In case of fungicides, Gemstar showed least disease incidence i.e. < 10%, however besides control maximum disease incidence was observed in Curzate (> 30%).

Keywords: botanicals, fungicides, pathotypes, powdery mildew

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2968 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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2967 Prognosis, Clinical Outcomes and Short Term Survival Analyses of Patients with Cutaneous Melanomas

Authors: Osama Shakeel


The objective of the paper is to study the clinic-pathological factors, survival analyses, recurrence rate, metastatic rate, risk factors and the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center. Methodology: From 2014 to 2017, all patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) were included in the study. Demographic variables were collected. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Median age was 46.5 +/-15.9 years. There were 16 male and 12 female patients. The family history of melanoma was present in 7.1% (n=2) of the patients. All patients had a mean survival of 13.43+/- 9.09 months. Lower limb was the commonest site among all which constitutes 46.4%(n=13). On histopathological analyses, ulceration was seen in 53.6% (n=15) patients. Unclassified tumor type was present in 75%(n=21) of the patients followed by nodular 21.4% (n=6) and superficial spreading 3.5%(n=1). Clark level IV was the commonest presentation constituting 46.4%(n=13). Metastases were seen in 50%(n=14) of the patients. Local recurrence was observed in 60.7%(n=17). 64.3%(n=18) lived after one year of treatment. Conclusion: CMM is a fatal disease. Although its disease of fair skin individuals, however, the incidence of CMM is also rising in this part of the world. Management includes early diagnoses and prompt management. However, mortality associated with this disease is still not favorable.

Keywords: malignant cancer of skin, cutaneous malignant melanoma, skin cancer, survival analyses

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2966 Communication of Expected Survival Time to Cancer Patients: How It Is Done and How It Should Be Done

Authors: Geir Kirkebøen


Most patients with serious diagnoses want to know their prognosis, in particular their expected survival time. As part of the informed consent process, physicians are legally obligated to communicate such information to patients. However, there is no established (evidence based) ‘best practice’ for how to do this. The two questions explored in this study are: How do physicians communicate expected survival time to patients, and how should it be done? We explored the first, descriptive question in a study with Norwegian oncologists as participants. The study had a scenario and a survey part. In the scenario part, the doctors should imagine that a patient, recently diagnosed with a serious cancer diagnosis, has asked them: ‘How long can I expect to live with such a diagnosis? I want an honest answer from you!’ The doctors should assume that the diagnosis is certain, and that from an extensive recent study they had optimal statistical knowledge, described in detail as a right-skewed survival curve, about how long such patients with this kind of diagnosis could be expected to live. The main finding was that very few of the oncologists would explain to the patient the variation in survival time as described by the survival curve. The majority would not give the patient an answer at all. Of those who gave an answer, the typical answer was that survival time varies a lot, that it is hard to say in a specific case, that we will come back to it later etc. The survey part of the study clearly indicates that the main reason why the oncologists would not deliver the mortality prognosis was discomfort with its uncertainty. The scenario part of the study confirmed this finding. The majority of the oncologists explicitly used the uncertainty, the variation in survival time, as a reason to not give the patient an answer. Many studies show that patients want realistic information about their mortality prognosis, and that they should be given hope. The question then is how to communicate the uncertainty of the prognosis in a realistic and optimistic – hopeful – way. Based on psychological research, our hypothesis is that the best way to do this is by explicitly describing the variation in survival time, the (usually) right skewed survival curve of the prognosis, and emphasize to the patient the (small) possibility of being a ‘lucky outlier’. We tested this hypothesis in two scenario studies with lay people as participants. The data clearly show that people prefer to receive expected survival time as a median value together with explicit information about the survival curve’s right skewedness (e.g., concrete examples of ‘positive outliers’), and that communicating expected survival time this way not only provides people with hope, but also gives them a more realistic understanding compared with the typical way expected survival time is communicated. Our data indicate that it is not the existence of the uncertainty regarding the mortality prognosis that is the problem for patients, but how this uncertainty is, or is not, communicated and explained.

Keywords: cancer patients, decision psychology, doctor-patient communication, mortality prognosis

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2965 Clinical and Chemokine Profile in Leprosy Patients During Multidrug Therapy (MDT) and Their Healthy Contacts: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Rohit Kothari


Background: Leprosyis a chronic granulomatous diseasecaused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. Lepra). Reactions may interrupt its usual chronic course.Type-1 (T1R)and type-2 lepra reaction(T2R) are acute events and signifytype-IV and type-III hypersensitivity responses, respectively. Various chemokines like CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 may be increased during the course of leprosy or during reactions and may serve as markers of early diagnosis, response to therapy, and prognosis. Objective: To find correlation of CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 in leprosy patients on multidrug therapy and their family contacts after ruling out active disease during leprosy treatment and during periods of lepra reactions. Methodology: This randomized control trial was conducted in 50 clinico-histopathologically diagnosed cases of leprosy in a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, India. 50 of their family contacts were adequately examined and investigated should the need be to rule out active disease. The two study-groups comprised of leprosy cases, and the age, sex, and area of residence matched healthy contactswho were given single-dose rifampicin prophylaxis, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline, six months, and after one yearin both the groups (on completion of MDT in leprosy cases)and also during periods of reaction if occurred in leprosy cases. Results: Our study found that at baseline, CCL5, 11, and 24 were higher in leprosy cases as compared to the healthy contacts, and the difference was statistically significant.CCL3 was also found to be higherat baseline in leprosy cases, however, the difference was not statistically significant. At six months and one year, the levels of CCL 5, 11, and 24 reduced, and the difference was statistically significant in leprosy cases, whereas it remained almost static in all the healthy contacts. Twenty patients of leprosy developed lepra reaction during the course of one year, and during reaction, the increase in CCL11 and 24 was statistically significant from baseline, whereas CCL3 and 5 did not rise significantly. One of the healthy contacts developed signs of leprosy in the form of hypopigmented numb patch and was clinico-histopathologically, and CCL11 and 24 were found to be higher with a statistically significant difference from the baseline values. Conclusion: CCL5, 11, and 24 are sensitive markers of diagnosing leprosy, response to MDT, and prognosis and are not increased in healthy contacts. CCL11 and 24 are sensitive markers of lepra reactions and may serve as one of the early diagnostic modalities for identifying lepra reaction and also leprosy in healthy contacts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate these biomarkers in leprosy cases and their healthy contacts with a follow-up of upto one year with one of them developing the disease, and the same was confirmed based on these biomarkers as well.

Keywords: chemokine profile, healthy contacts, leprosy, lepra reactions

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2964 The Non-Motor Symptoms of Filipino Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Cherrie Mae S. Sia, Noel J. Belonguel, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul


Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder known for its motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and postural instability. Patients with PD also experience non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances that are most of the time unrecognized by clinicians. This may be due to the lack of spontaneous reports from the patients or partly because of the lack of systematic questioning from the healthcare professional. There is limited data with regards to these NMS especially that of Filipino patients with PD. Objectives: This study aims to determine the non-motor symptoms of Filipino patients with Parkinson’s disease. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, cohort study involving thirty-four patients of Filipino-descent diagnosed with PD in three out-patient clinics in Cebu City from April to September 2014. Each patient was interviewed using the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS). A Cebuano version of the NMSS was also provided for the non-English speaking patients. Interview time was approximately ten to fifteen minutes for each respondent. Results: Of the thirty-four patients with Parkinson’s disease, majority was noted to be males (N=19) and the disease was noted to be more prevalent in patients with a mean age of 62 (SD±9) years old. Hypertension (59%) and diabetes mellitus (29%) were the common co-morbidities in the study population. All patients presented more than one NMS, with insomnia (41.2%), poor memory (23.5%) and depression (14.7%) being the first non-motor symptoms to occur. Symptoms involving mood/cognition (mean=2.21), and attention/memory (mean=2.05) were noted to be the most frequent and of moderate severity. Based on the NMSS, the symptoms that were noted to be mild and often to occur were those that involved the mood/cognition (score=3.84), attention/memory (score=3.50), and sleep/fatigue (score=3.00) domains. Levodopa-Carbidopa, Ropinirole, and Pramipexole were the most frequently used medications in the study population. Conclusion: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). They appear at the time of diagnosis of PD or even before the motor symptoms manifest. The earliest non-motor symptoms to occur are insomnia, poor memory, and depression. Those pertaining to mood/cognition and attention/memory are the most frequent NMS and they are of moderate severity. Identifying these NMS by doing a questionnaire-guided interview such as the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS) before they can become more severe and affect the patient’s quality of life is a must for every clinician caring for a PD patient. Early treatment and control of these NMS can then be given, hence, improving the patient’s outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: non motor symptoms, Parkinson's Disease, insomnia, depression

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2963 Comparing Accuracy of Semantic and Radiomics Features in Prognosis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Mahya Naghipoor


Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the main reason which causes NSCLC. Computed tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancers because of low price and little invasion. Semantic analyses of qualitative CT features are based on visual evaluation by radiologist. However, the naked eye ability may not assess all image features. On the other hand, radiomics provides the opportunity of quantitative analyses for CT images features. The aim of this review study was comparing accuracy of semantic and radiomics features in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC. Methods: For this purpose, the keywords including: non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, semantic, radiomics, feature, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar. Totally 29 papers were reviewed and the AUC of ROC analyses for semantic and radiomics features were compared. Results: The results showed that the reported AUC amounts for semantic features (ground glass opacity, shape, margins, lesion density and presence or absence of air bronchogram, emphysema and pleural effusion) were %41-%79. For radiomics features (kurtosis, skewness, entropy, texture, standard deviation (SD) and wavelet) the AUC values were found %50-%86. Conclusions: In conclusion, the accuracy of radiomics analysis is a little higher than semantic in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC.

Keywords: lung cancer, radiomics, computer tomography, mutation

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2962 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park


As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

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2961 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam


The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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2960 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi


Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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