Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4829

Search results for: public speaking

4829 The Role of Gender in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi, Ahmed Gaibani

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of gender in influencing public speaking anxiety. Questionnaire survey was administered to the samples of the study. Technique of correlation and descriptive analysis will be further applied to the data collected to determine the relationship between gender and public speaking anxiety. This study could serve as a guide to identify the effects of gender differences on public speaking anxiety and provide necessary advice on how to design a way of coping with or overcoming public speaking anxiety.

Keywords: across culture, communication, English language competence, gender, postgraduate students, speaking anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
4828 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

Abstract:

The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4827 Development of Cross Curricular Competences in University Classrooms: Public Speaking

Authors: M. T. Becerra, F. Martín, P. Gutiérrez, S. Cubo, E. Iglesias, A. A. Sáenz del Castillo, P. Cañamero

Abstract:

The consolidation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in universities has led to significant changes in student training. This paper, part of a Teaching Innovation Project, starts from new training requirements that are fit within Undergraduate Thesis Project, a subject that culminate student learning. Undergraduate Thesis Project is current assessment system that weigh the student acquired training in university education. Students should develop a range of cross curricular competences such as public presentation of ideas, problems and solutions both orally and writing in Undergraduate Thesis Project. Specifically, we intend with our innovation proposal to provide resources that enable university students from Teacher Degree in Education Faculty of University of Extremadura (Spain) to develop the cross curricular competence of public speaking.

Keywords: interaction, public speaking, student, university

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
4826 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early-Childhood Students

Authors: Ms Yaowaluck Ruampol

Abstract:

The research on the development of using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early-childhood students, (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013, were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-posttest for speaking development that were approved for content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results revealed that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4825 Etiquette Learning and Public Speaking: Early Etiquette Learning and Its Impact on Higher Education and Working Professionals

Authors: Simran Ballani

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to call education professionals to implement etiquette and public speaking skills for preschoolers, primary, middle and higher school students. In this paper the author aims to present importance of etiquette learning and public speaking curriculum for preschoolers, reflect on experiences from implementation of the curriculum and discuss the effect of the said implementation on higher education/global job market. Author’s aim to introduce this curriculum was to provide children with innovative learning and all around development. This training of soft skills at kindergarten level can have a long term effect on their social behaviors which in turn can contribute to professional success once they are ready for campus recruitment/global job markets. Additionally, if preschoolers learn polite, appropriate behavior at early age, it will enable them to become more socially attentive and display good manners as an adult. It is easier to nurture these skills in a child rather than changing bad manners at adulthood. Preschool/Kindergarten education can provide the platform for children to learn these crucial soft skills irrespective of the ethnicity, economic or social background they come from. These skills developed at such early years can go a long way to shape them into better and confident individuals. Unfortunately, accessibility of the etiquette learning and public speaking skill education is not standardized in pre-primary or primary level and most of the time embedding into the kindergarten curriculum is next to nil. All young children should be provided with equal opportunity to learn these soft skills which are essential for finding their place in job market.

Keywords: Early Childhood Learning, , public speaking, , confidence building, , innovative learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
4824 The Effect of The Speaker's Speaking Style as A Factor of Understanding and Comfort of The Listener

Authors: Made Rahayu Putri Saron, Mochamad Nizar Palefi Ma’ady

Abstract:

Communication skills are important in everyday life, communication can be done verbally in the form of oral or written and nonverbal in the form of expressions or body movements. Good communication should be able to provide information clearly, and there is feedback from the speaker and listener. However, it is often found that the information conveyed is not clear, and there is no feedback from the listeners, so it cannot be ensured that the communication is effective and understandable. The speaker's understanding of the topic is one of the supporting factors for the listener to be able to accept the meaning of the conversation. However, based on the results of the literature review, it found that the influence factors of person speaking style are as follows: (i) environmental conditions; (ii) voice, articulation, and accent; (iii) gender; (iv) personality; (v) speech disorders (Dysarthria); when speaking also have an important influence on speaker’s speaking style. It can be concluded the factors that support understanding and comfort of the listener are dependent on the nature of the speaker (environmental conditions, voice, gender, personality) or also it the speaker have speech disorders.

Keywords: listener, public speaking, speaking style, understanding, and comfortable factor

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4823 Speech Anxiety in Higher Education Students-Retention of an Ancestral Trait: A Study into the Students' Perspective of Communication Anxiety with Suggestions on How to Minimise Student Distress

Authors: Paul D. Facey, Claire Morgan

Abstract:

Speech anxiety is thought to be deep-seated within the human evolutionary lineage.As a result, almost all people display high levels of anxiety when asked to communicate in front of an audience.However, proficiency in oral communication is considered as an essential skill for a graduate career and significant emphasis is placed on developing these skills in many degree programs.Because of this, many degree schemes incorporate some form of assessed dialogic presentation. Yet, a student’s anxiety over public speaking, especially if severe, can be so great that at worst it can cause the student to withdraw from their study. This study investigated how students perceive their own levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking using the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) questionnaire developed by McCroskey. Additionally, students were asked to provide examples of adjustments that could be implemented that they felt would alleviate some/all of their anxiety. The results of the study indicated that the majority of the students experienced a moderate level of anxiety. However, further analysis showed that of those who were in the moderate anxiety’ group, 43% fell into the higher range suggesting that overall more students experience higher levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking than maybe first envisaged. Thus, it is essential that steps are taken to address student anxiety in order that students engage with presentations, are motivated and encouraged and do not avoid such assignments. The feedback from our students indicated a need to implement systematic desensitization programs where students learn to overcome their anxiety through a series of sessions that gradually increase their anxiety levels. Furthermore, these sessions should be run in parallel with skills sessions in order for students to be better prepared and allow self-reflection and self-analysis.This study highlights the paucity of these sessions on many degree schemes and suggests that they should form an integral part of a students’ early academic learning.

Keywords: student anxiety, communication anxiety, public speaking, higher education, desensitisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
4822 Effectiveness of Public Speaking Extracurricular in Gontor in Raising Leaders of the Advanced Global World's Needs

Authors: Ummi Sholihah Pertiwi Abidin, Khusnul Hajar Nuansari

Abstract:

Human resource is one of the most important components that can not be separated from communication fields, either in a large community like a mass or narrow ones such as an institution, office, group and even family. Human resource is an asset which is often used as a tool to achieve certain goals. Therefore, development of human resources is essential for improving skills and character of a person especially at the time that has entered globalization era. People are required to be able to compete both in the local and international arena, no matter what. This paper raised topic related to human resource development solution by a unique educational leadership and communication skill improvement through a linguistic approach. Here the authors want to go by form of public speaking method applied in Modern Islamic Boarding School Darussalam Gontor as the extracurricular activity that is using three languages, they are: Indonesian as the mother language or the nation language of the students, Arabic and English as the second language and Gontor’s mean to supply its students to be able to conquer the globalization needs. This implementation produced the establishment of great leaders through confidence growing to speak in public by adjusting the listener context. In linguistic term, it will help enhancing verbal and nonverbal communication skills and so forth in owning a lot of vocabulary.

Keywords: public speaking, Gontor, language, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4821 Emotional Intelligence Training: Helping Non-Native Pre-Service EFL Teachers to Overcome Speaking Anxiety: The Case of Pre-Service Teachers of English, Algeria

Authors: Khiari Nor El Houda, Hiouani Amira Sarra

Abstract:

Many EFL students with high capacities are hidden because they suffer from speaking anxiety (SA). Most of them find public speaking much demanding. They feel unable to communicate, they fear to make mistakes and they fear negative evaluation or being called on. With the growing number of the learners who suffer from foreign language speaking anxiety (FLSA), it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore its harmful outcomes on their performance and success, especially during their first contact with the pupils, as they will be teaching in the near future. Different researchers suggested different ways to minimize the negative effects of FLSA. The present study sheds light on emotional intelligence skills training as an effective strategy not only to influence public speaking success but also to help pre-service EFL teachers lessen their speaking anxiety and eventually to prepare them for their professional career. A quasi-experiment was used in order to examine the research hypothesis. We worked with two groups of third-year EFL students at Oum El Bouaghi University. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to collect data about the participants’ FLSA and EI levels. The analysis of the data has yielded that the assumption that there is a negative correlation between EI and FLSA was statistically validated by the Pearson Correlation Test, concluding that, the more emotionally intelligent the individual is the less anxious s/he will be. In addition, the lack of amelioration in the results of the control group and the noteworthy improvement in the experimental group results led us to conclude that EI skills training was an effective strategy in minimizing the FLSA level and therefore, we confirmed our research hypothesis.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence skills training, EQ-I, FLCAS, foreign language speaking anxiety, pre-service EFL teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4820 Flipped Classrooms 3.0: An Investigation of Students’ Speaking Performance and Learning Engagement

Authors: I Putu Indra Kusuma

Abstract:

The rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools has improved the implementation of flipped classrooms in English Language Teaching (ELT), especially in speaking course. Flipped classrooms have therefore evolved from the oldest version, which uses recorded videos to the newest one (3.0 version), which combines various materials and enables out-of-class interaction and learning engagement. However, how the latest version of flipped classrooms affects students’ speaking performance and influences students’ learning engagement remains unclear. This study therefore sought (1) to examine the effect of flipped classrooms 3.0 towards students’ speaking performance and (2) to explore the students’ learning engagement during the implementation of flipped classrooms in the speaking course. This study then employed explanatory sequential mixed-method design. This study conducted a quasi-experimental study by recruiting 164 twelfth grade students of a public senior high school in Indonesia as the sample. They were distributed into experimental (80 students) and control (84 students) groups. The experimental group was treated by implementing flipped classrooms with various use of ICT tools such as Schoology, Youtube, websites, and Flipgrid for eight weeks. Meanwhile, the control group implemented a conventional method. Furthermore, there were two variables examined in this study, such as the implementation of flipped classrooms 3.0 as the independent variable and students’ speaking performance as the dependent variable. The data of these two variables were then collected through administering a speaking test to both groups. The data from this experimental study were analyzed by using independent t-test analysis. Also, five students were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews to explore their learning engagement during the implementation of flipped classrooms. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference in students’ speaking performance between experimental where t (df = 162) = 5.810, p < 0.001, d = 0.91 in which experimental group performed better in speaking than the control group. Also, the results of interviews showed that the students had positive learning engagement during the implementation of flipped classrooms 3.0, especially on out-of-class interactions and face-to-face meetings. Some relevant implications to ELT, especially in speaking courses, are also drawn from the data findings. From the findings, it can be concluded that flipped classrooms 3.0 has a significant effect on students’ speaking performance and it promotes students’ learning engagement. Therefore, flipped classrooms 3.0 should be embraced as the newest version of flipped classrooms that promotes interaction outside the classrooms and learning engagement.

Keywords: Flipped Classrooms 3.0, learning engagement, teaching speaking with technology, technology-enhanced language learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
4819 The Use of Video in Increasing Speaking Ability of the First Year Students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru in the Academic Year 2011/2012

Authors: Elvira Wahyuni

Abstract:

This study is a classroom action research. The general objective of this study was to find out students’ speaking ability through teaching English by using video and to find out the effectiveness of using video in teaching English to improve students’ speaking ability. The subjects of this study were 34 of the first-year students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Students were given pre-test before the treatment and post-test after the treatment. Quantitative data was collected by using speaking test requiring the students to respond to the recorded questions. Qualitative data was collected through observation sheets and field notes. The research finding reveals that there is a significant improvement of the students’ speaking ability through the use of video in speaking class. The qualitative data gave a description and additional information about the learning process done by the students. The research findings indicate that the use of video in teaching and learning is good in increasing learning outcome.

Keywords: English teaching, fun learning, speaking ability, video

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
4818 Fostering Students’ Active Learning in Speaking Class through Project-Based Learning

Authors: Rukminingsih Rukmi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of L2 teaching speaking to ESL students by fostering their active learning through project-based learning. Project-based learning was employed in classrooms where teachers support students by giving sufficient guidance and feedback. The students drive the inquiry, engage in research and discovery, and collaborate effectively with teammates to deliver the final work product. The teacher provides the initial direction and acts as a facilitator along the way. This learning approach is considered helpful for fostering students’ active learning. that the steps in implementing of project-based learning that fosters students’ critical thinking in TEFL class are in the following: (1) Discussing the materials about Speaking Class, (2) Working with the group to construct scenario of ways on speaking practice, (3) Practicing the scenario, (4) Recording the speaking practice into video, and (5) Evaluating the video product. This research is aimed to develop a strategy of teaching speaking by implementing project-based learning to improve speaking skill in the second Semester of English Department of STKIP PGRI Jombang. To achieve the purpose, the researcher conducted action research. The data of the study were gathered through the following instruments: test, observation checklists, and questionnaires. The result was indicated by the increase of students’ average speaking scores from 65 in the preliminary study, 73 in the first cycle, and 82 in the second cycle. Besides, the results of the study showed that project-based learning considered to be appropriate strategy to give students the same amount of chance in practicing their speaking skill and to pay attention in creating a learning situation.

Keywords: active learning, project-based learning, speaking ability, L2 teaching speaking

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
4817 Native Speaker's Role in Improving the Speaking Skills of Second Language Learners

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Native speakers can play a significant role in improving second language learners speaking skills through weekly interaction. Speaking is one of the important skills that second language learners need to practice in order to be able to communicate the language. This study will examine Talkaboard as an important tool to achieve better outcomes in speaking a language. The subject of the study will be 16 advanced Arabic language learners at the college level. There will be a pre-test and post-test to examine the conversation outcomes using the Talkaborad tool. The students will be asked to write a summary and talk about their weekly conversation experience with the native speaker in class. The teacher will use a check list to determine the progress made in speaking the Arabic language. The results of this study will provide language teachers with information related to the native speakers’ role in language and the progress the second language learners made after interacting with native speakers.

Keywords: speaking, language, interaction, culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
4816 Using Electronic Portfolio to Promote English Speaking Ability of EFL Undergraduate Students

Authors: Jiraporn Lao-Un, Dararat Khampusaen

Abstract:

Lack of exposure to English language in the authentic English setting naturally leads to a lack of fluency in the language. As a result, Thai EFL learners are struggling in meeting with the communication 'can do' descriptors of the Common European Framework of References (CEFR) required by the Ministry of Education. This initial phase of the ongoing study, employing the e-portfolio to promote the English speaking ability, probed into the effects of the use of e-portfolio on Thai EFL nursing students' speaking ability. Also, their opinions towards the use of e-portfolio to enhance their speaking ability were investigated. The participants were 44 undergraduate nursing students at a Thai College of Nursing. The participants undertook four lessons to promote their communication skills according to the CEFR criteria. Throughout the semester, the participants videotaped themselves while completing the four speaking tasks. The videos were then uploaded onto the e-portfolio website where the researcher provided them with the feedbacks. The video records were analyzed by the speaking rubric designed according to the CEFR 'can do' descriptors. Also, students were required to record self-reflections in video format and upload onto the same URL Students' oral self-reflections were coded to find out the perceptions towards the use of the e-portfolio in promoting their speaking ability. The results from the two research instruments suggested the effectiveness of the tool on improving speaking ability, learner autonomy and media literacy skills. In addition, the oral reflection videos revealed positive opinion towards the tool. The discussion offers the current status of English speaking ability among Thai EFL students. This reveals the gaps between the EFL speaking ability and the CEFR ‘can do’ descriptors. In addition, the author raises the light on integration of the 21st century IT tool to enhance these students’ speaking ability. Lastly, the theoretical implications and recommendation for further study in integrating electronic tools to promote language skills in the EFL context are offered for further research.

Keywords: EFL communication, EFL speaking, English communication, E-learning, E-portfolio, speaking ability, Thai EFL learners

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
4815 Communication Apprehension among College Students in United Arab Emirates: A Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Abu Dhabi University

Authors: Nunna Venkata Prasad, Maryam Amoke Folarin, Muhammad Ali Shaukat Sham

Abstract:

A quantitative investigation was conducted to explore the communication apprehension among undergraduate students of Abu Dhabi University. Communication apprehension (CA) is an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. All individuals experience some level of communication apprehension. A total of 100 participants selected through a stratified sampling method, which includes 50 males and 50 females participated in the study. The research was conducted by distributing the personal report of communication apprehension questionnaire, randomly amongst these students. Results were affirmative with previous researches conducted. Demographics, age, or college year did not make any significant differences amongst the undergraduate students. More students were found to have high CA with public speaking rather than other scenarios. And lesser students were found to have high CA level with one-on-one conversations although a significant number of them still tested to have high CA with interpersonal communications.

Keywords: communication apprehension, interpersonal communication, oral communication, public speaking

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
4814 Understanding English Language in Career Development of Academics in Non-English Speaking HEIs: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Ricardo Pinto Mario Covele, Patricio V. Langa, Patrick Swanzy

Abstract:

The English language has been recognized as a universal medium of instruction in academia, especially in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) hence exerting enormous influence within the context of research and publication. By extension, the English Language has been embraced by scholars from non-English speaking countries. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the discussions using four databases. Discussion in the English language in the career development of academics, particularly in non-English speaking universities, is largely less visible. This paper seeks to fill this gap and to improve the visibility of the English language in the career development of academics focusing on non-English language speaking universities by undertaking a systematic literature review. More specifically, the paper addresses the language policy, English language learning model as a second language, sociolinguistic field and career development, methods, as well as its main findings. This review analyzed 75 relevant resources sourced from Western Cape’s Library, Scopus, Google scholar, and web of science databases from November 2020 to July 2021 using the PQRS framework as an analytical lens. The paper’s findings demonstrate that, while higher education continues to be under-challenges of English language usage, literature targeting non-English speaking universities remains less discussed than it is often described. The findings also demonstrate the dominance of English language policy, both for knowledge production and dissemination of literature challenging emerging scholars from non-English speaking HEIs. Hence, the paper argues for the need to reconsider the context of non-English language speakers in the English language in the career development of academics’ research, both as empirical fields and as emerging knowledge producers. More importantly, the study reveals two bodies of literature: (1) the instrumentalist approach to English Language learning and (2) Intercultural approach to the English Language for career opportunities, classified as the appropriate to explain the English language learning process and how is it perceived towards scholars’ academic careers in HEIs.

Keywords: English language, public and private universities, language policy, career development, non-English speaking countries

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4813 The Effect of Video Using in Teaching Speaking on Students of Non-Native English Speakers at STIE Perbanas Surabaya

Authors: Kartika Marta Budiana

Abstract:

Low competence in speaking for the students of Non English native speakers have been crucial so far for the teachers in language teaching in Indonesia. This study attempts to explore the effect of video using in teaching speaking onstudents of non-native English speakers at STIE Perbanas Surabaya. This includes investigate the students` attitudes toward the video used in classroom. This is a quantitative research that is an experimental one based on analyses derived the concepts of from teaching speaking and the use of video. There are two classes observed, the experimental and the control one. The experimental consist of 28 students and the control class consists of 25 students. Before the treatment given, both of the group is given the pre-test to check their ability level. Then, after the treatment is given, the post-test is given to the both groups. Then, the students were given treatment how to conduct a meeting that they learnt from a video of business English. The post test was held after they undergone a treatment. The instruments to get the data are the oral test and questionnaire. The data of this study is students` score and from the tests` score it can be seen there is a positive significant difference in the experimental group. The t-test to test hypothesize also shows that it is accepted which said that there is an improvement on the students` speaking competence achievement. In conclusion, the video effects on the significant difference on the students speaking competence achievement.

Keywords: video, teaching, speaking, Indonesia

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4812 The Investigation of Students’ Learning Preference from Native English Speaking Instructor and Non-Native Speaking Instructor

Authors: Yingling Chen

Abstract:

Most current research has been focused on whether NESTs have advantages over NNESTs in English language Teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate English learners’ preferences toward native English speaking teachers and non-English speaking teachers in four skills of English language learning. This qualitative study consists of 12 participants. Two open-ended questions were investigated and analyzed. The findings revealed that the participants held an overall preference for NESTs over NNESTs in reading, writing, and listening English skills; nevertheless, they believed both NESTs and NNESTs offered learning experiences strengths, and weaknesses to satisfy students’ need in their English instruction.

Keywords: EFL, instruction, Student Rating of Instructions (SRI), perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
4811 Working Memory Capacity and Motivation in Japanese English as a Foreign Language Learners' Speaking Skills

Authors: Akiko Kondo

Abstract:

Although the effects of working memory capacity on second/foreign language speaking skills have been researched in depth, few studies have focused on Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners as compared to other languages (Indo-European languages), and the sample sizes of the relevant Japanese studies have been relatively small. Furthermore, comparing the effects of working memory capacity and motivation which is another kind of frequently researched individual factor on L2 speaking skills would add to the scholarly literature in the field of second language acquisition research. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to investigate whether working memory capacity and motivation have significant relationships with Japanese EFL learners’ speaking skills and to investigate the degree to which working memory capacity and motivation contribute to their English speaking skills. One-hundred and ten Japanese EFL students aged 18 to 26 years participated in this study. All of them are native Japanese speakers and have learned English as s foreign language for 6 to 15. They completed the Versant English speaking test, which has been widely used to measure non-native speakers’ English speaking skills, two types of working memory tests (the L1-based backward digit span test and the L1-based listening span test), and the language learning motivation survey. The researcher designed the working memory tests and the motivation survey. To investigate the relationship between the variables (English speaking skills, working memory capacity, and language learning motivation), a correlation analysis was conducted, which showed that L2 speaking test scores were significantly related to both working memory capacity and language learning motivation, although the correlation coefficients were weak. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis was performed, with L2 speaking skills as the dependent variable and working memory capacity and language learning motivation as the independent variables. The results showed that working memory capacity and motivation significantly explained the variance in L2 speaking skills and that the L2 motivation had slightly larger effects on the L2 speaking skills than the working memory capacity. Although this study includes several limitations, the results could contribute to the generalization of the effects of individual differences, such as working memory and motivation on L2 learning, in the literature.

Keywords: individual differences, motivation, speaking skills, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
4810 Comparing Sounds of the Singing Voice

Authors: Christel Elisabeth Bonin

Abstract:

This experiment aims at showing that classical singing and belting have both different singing qualities, but singing with a speaking voice has no singing quality. For this purpose, a singing female voice was recorded on four different tone pitches, singing the vowel ‘a’ by using 3 different kinds of singing - classical trained voice, belting voice and speaking voice. The recordings have been entered in the Software Praat. Then the formants of each recorded tone were compared to each other and put in relationship to the singer’s formant. The visible results are taken as an indicator of comparable sound qualities of a classical trained female voice and a belting female voice concerning the concentration of overtones in F1 to F5 and a lack of sound quality in the speaking voice for singing purpose. The results also show that classical singing and belting are both valuable vocal techniques for singing due to their richness of overtones and that belting is not comparable to shouting or screaming. Singing with a speaking voice in contrast should not be called singing due to the lack of overtones which means by definition that there is no musical tone.

Keywords: formants, overtone, singer’s formant, singing voice, belting, classical singing, singing with the speaking voice

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4809 An Analysis of How Students Perceive Their Self-Efficacy in Online Speaking Classes

Authors: Heny Hartono, Cecilia Titiek Murniati

Abstract:

The pandemic has given teachers and students no other choice but having full online learning. In such an emergency situation as the time of the covid-19 pandemic, the application of LMS (Learner Management System) in higher education is the most reasonable solution for students and teachers. In fact, the online learning requires all elements of a higher education systems, including the human resources, infrastructure, and supporting systems such as the application, server, and stable internet connection. The readiness of the higher education institution in preparing the online system may secure those who are involved in the online learning process. It may also result in students’ self-efficacy in online learning. This research aimed to investigate how students perceive their self-efficacy in online English learning, especially in speaking classes which is considered as a productive language skill. This research collects qualitative data with narrative inquiry involving 25 students of speaking classes as the respondents. The results of this study show that students perceive their self-efficacy in speaking online classes as not very high.

Keywords: self-efficacy, online learning, speaking class, college students, e-learning

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4808 Analysis of Speaking Skills in Turkish Language Acquisition as a Foreign Language

Authors: Lokman Gozcu, Sule Deniz Gozcu

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This study aims to analyze the skills of speaking in the acquisition of Turkish as a foreign language. One of the most important things for the individual who learns a foreign language is to be successful in the oral communication (speaking) skills and to interact in an understandable way. Speech skill requires much more time and effort than other language skills. In this direction, it is necessary to make an analysis of these oral communication skills, which is important in Turkish language acquisition as a foreign language and to draw out a road map according to the result. The aim of this study is to determine the competence and attitudes of speaking competence according to the individuals who learn Turkish as a foreign language and to be considered as speaking skill elements; Grammar, emphasis, intonation, body language, speed, ranking, accuracy, fluency, pronunciation, etc. and the results and suggestions based on these determinations. A mixed method has been chosen for data collection and analysis. A Likert scale (for competence and attitude) was applied to 190 individuals who were interviewed face-to-face (for speech skills) with a semi-structured interview form about 22 participants randomly selected. In addition, the observation form related to the 22 participants interviewed were completed by the researcher during the interview, and after the completion of the collection of all the voice recordings, analyses of voice recordings with the speech skills evaluation scale was made. The results of the research revealed that the speech skills of the individuals who learned Turkish as a foreign language have various perspectives. According to the results, the most inadequate aspects of the participants' ability to speak in Turkish include vocabulary, using humorous elements while speaking Turkish, being able to include items such as idioms and proverbs while speaking Turkish, Turkish fluency respectively. In addition, the participants were found not to feel comfortable while speaking Turkish, to feel ridiculous and to be nervous while speaking in formal settings. There are conclusions and suggestions for the situations that arise after the have been analyses made.

Keywords: learning Turkish as a foreign language, proficiency criteria, phonetic (modalities), speaking skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
4807 Select Communicative Approaches and Speaking Skills of Junior High School Students

Authors: Sonia Arradaza-Pajaron

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Speaking English, as a medium of instruction among students who are non-native English speakers poses a real challenge to achieve proficiency, especially so if it is a requirement in most communicative classroom instruction. It becomes a real burden among students whose English language orientation is not well facilitated and encouraged by teachers among national high schools. This study, which utilized a descriptive-correlational research, examined the relationship between the select communicative approaches commonly utilized in classroom instruction to the level of speaking skills among the identified high school students. Survey questionnaires, interview, and observations sheets were researcher instruments used to generate salient information. Data were analyzed and treated statistically utilizing weighted mean speaking skills levels and Pearson r to determine the relationship between the two identified variables of the study. Findings revealed that the level of English speaking skills of the high school students is just average. Further, among the identified speaking sub-skills, namely, grammar, pronunciation and fluency, the students were considered above average level. There was also a clear relationship of some communicative approaches to the respondents’ speaking skills. Most notable among the select approaches is that of role-playing, compared to storytelling, informal debate, brainstorming, oral reporting, and others. It may be because role-playing is the most commonly used approach in the classroom. This implies that when these high school students are given enough time and autonomy on how they could express their ideas or comprehension of some lessons, they are shown to have a spontaneous manner of expression, through the maximization of the second language. It can be concluded further that high school students have the capacity to express ideas even in the second language, only if they are encouraged and well-facilitated by teachers. Also, when a better communicative approach is identified and better implemented, thus, will level up students’ classroom engagement.

Keywords: communicative approaches, comprehension, role playing, speaking skills

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4806 Implementing Contextual Approach to Improve EFL Learners’ English Speaking Skill

Authors: Samanik

Abstract:

This writing is correlated with English teaching material development, Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL). CTL is believed to facilitate students with real world challenge. Contextual Teaching and Learning is identified as a promising strategy that actively engages students and promotes skills development. It is based on the notion that learning can only occur when students are able to connect between content and context. It also helps teachers link between the materials taught with real-world situations and encourage students to make connection between the knowledge possessed by its application. Besides, it directs students to be critical and analytical. In accordance, this paper looks for the opportunity to improve EFL learners’ English speaking skill through tour guide presentation. A single case study will be conducted to highlight EFL learners’ experience of doing tour guide presentation in the English class room setting. The writer assumes that CLT will contribute positively to EFL learners’ English speaking skill.

Keywords: English speaking skill, contextual teaching learning, tour guide presentation

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4805 The Views of German Preparatory Language Programme Students about German Speaking Activity

Authors: Eda Üstünel, Seval Karacabey

Abstract:

The students, who are enrolled in German Preparatory Language Programme at the School of Foreign Languages, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Turkey, learn German as a foreign language for two semesters in an academic year. Although the language programme is a skills-based one, the students lack German speaking skills due to their fear of making language mistakes while speaking in German. This problem of incompetency in German speaking skills exists also in their four-year departmental study at the Faculty of Education. In order to address this problem we design German speaking activities, which are extra-curricular activities. With the help of these activities, we aim to lead Turkish students of German language to speak in the target language, to improve their speaking skills in the target language and to create a stress-free atmosphere and a meaningful learning environment to communicate in the target language. In order to achieve these aims, an ERASMUS+ exchange staff (a German trainee teacher of German as a foreign language), who is from Schwabisch Gmünd University, Germany, conducted out-of-class German speaking activities once a week for three weeks in total. Each speaking activity is lasted for one and a half hour per week. 7 volunteered students of German preparatory language programme attended the speaking activity for three weeks. The activity took place at a cafe in the university campus, that’s the reason, we call it as an out-of-class activity. The content of speaking activity is not related to the topics studied at the units of coursebook, that’s the reason, we call this activity as extra-curricular one. For data collection, three tools are used. A questionnaire, which is an adapted version of Sabo’s questionnaire, is applied to seven volunteers. An interview session is then held with each student on individual basis. The interview questions are developed so as to ask students to expand their answers that are given at the questionnaires. The German trainee teacher wrote fieldnotes, in which the teacher described the activity in the light of her thoughts about what went well and which areas were needed to be improved. The results of questionnaires show that six out of seven students note that such an acitivity must be conducted by a native speaker of German. Four out of seven students emphasize that they like the way that the activities are designed in a learner-centred fashion. All of the students point out that they feel motivated to talk to the trainee teacher in German. Six out of seven students note that the opportunity to communicate in German with the teacher and the peers enable them to improve their speaking skills, the use of grammatical rules and the use of vocabulary.

Keywords: Learning a Foreign Language, Speaking Skills, Teaching German as a Foreign Language, Turkish Learners of German Language

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4804 Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult English Language Learners through ALM

Authors: Wichuda Kunnu, Aungkana Sukwises

Abstract:

Audio-lingual method (ALM) is a teaching approach that is claimed that ineffective for teaching second/foreign languages. Because some linguists and second/foreign language teachers believe that ALM is a rote learning style. However, this study is done on a belief that ALM will be able to solve Thais’ English speaking problem. This paper aims to report the findings on teaching English speaking to adult learners with an “adapted ALM”, one distinction of which is to use Thai as the medium language of instruction. The participants are consisted of 9 adult learners. They were allowed to speak English more freely using both the materials presented in the class and their background knowledge of English. At the end of the course, they spoke English more fluently, more confidently, to the extent that they applied what they learnt both in and outside the class.

Keywords: teaching English, audio lingual method, cognitive science, psychology

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4803 Fostering Fresh Graduate Students’ Confidence in Speaking English: An Action Research to Students of Muria Kudus University, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Farid Noor Romadlon

Abstract:

Welcoming the ASEAN Economic Community and globalization, people need to have a good communication skill. Being able to speak English is one of important qualification in this skill and as global citizen. This study focused on fostering fresh graduate students’ confidence in speaking English. So, students have good performance in speaking. There were thirty (30) students from first semester of English Education Department who joined Intensive Course class as the subject. They had poor motivation to speak English since English is a foreign language which is not exposed in their environment. This study used Three Communicative Activities technique in twelve successive meetings totally. It was done in two cycles (six meetings for each) since there were some activities should be improved in the first session (cycle). Oral test was administered to find the quantitative result and observation conducted to strengthen the finding. The result indicated that Three Communicative Activities improved students’ confidence in speaking English. They had significant progress in their performance in the class. The technique which allowed students to have more spaces to explore and express their ideas to their friends increased their confidence in their performance. The group or cooperative activities stimulated students to think critically in the discussion and promoted their confidence to talk more.

Keywords: students’ confidence, three communicative activities, speaking, Muria Kudus University

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4802 Motivating EFL Students to Speak English through Flipped Classroom Implantation

Authors: Mohamad Abdullah

Abstract:

Recent Advancements in technology have stimulated deep change in the language learning classroom. Flipped classroom as a new pedagogical method is at the center of this change. It turns the classroom into a student-centered environment and promotes interactive and autonomous learning. The present study is an attempt to examine the effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom Model (FCM) on students’ motivation level in English speaking performance. This study was carried out with 27 undergraduate female English majors who enrolled in the course of Advanced Communication Skills (ENGL 154) at Buraimi University College (BUC). Data was collected through Motivation in English Speaking Performance Questionnaire (MESPQ) which has been distributed among the participants of this study pre and post the implementation of FCM. SPSS was used for analyzing data. The Paired T-Test which was carried out on the pre-post of (MESPQ) showed a significant difference between them (p < .009) that revealed participants’ tendency to increase their motivation level in English speaking performance after the application of FCM. In addition, respondents of the current study reported positive views about the implementation of FCM.

Keywords: english speaking performance, motivation, flipped classroom model, learner-contentedness

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4801 Prosodic Realisation of Focus in the Public Speeches Delivered by Spanish Learners of English and English Native Speakers

Authors: Raúl Jiménez Vilches

Abstract:

Native (L1) speakers can mark prosodically one part of an utterance and make it more relevant as opposed to the rest of the constituents. Conversely, non-native (L2) speakers encounter problems when it comes to marking prosodically information structure in English. In fact, the L2 speaker’s choice for the prosodic realization of focus is not so clear and often obscures the intended pragmatic meaning and the communicative value in general. This paper reports some of the findings obtained in an L2 prosodic training course for Spanish learners of English within the context of public speaking. More specifically, it analyses the effects of the course experiment in relation to the non-native production of the tonic syllable to mark focus and compares it with the public speeches delivered by native English speakers. The whole experimental training was executed throughout eighteen input sessions (1,440 minutes total time) and all the sessions took place in the classroom. In particular, the first part of the course provided explicit instruction on the recognition and production of the tonic syllable and how the tonic syllable is used to express focus. The non-native and native oral presentations were acoustically analyzed using Praat software for speech analysis (7,356 words in total). The investigation adopted mixed and embedded methodologies. Quantitative information is needed when measuring acoustically the phonetic realization of focus. Qualitative data such as questionnaires, interviews, and observations were also used to interpret the quantitative data. The embedded experiment design was implemented through the analysis of the public speeches before and after the intervention. Results indicate that, even after the L2 prosodic training course, Spanish learners of English still show some major inconsistencies in marking focus effectively. Although there was occasional improvement regarding the choice for location and word classes, Spanish learners were, in general, far from achieving similar results to the ones obtained by the English native speakers in the two types of focus. The prosodic realization of focus seems to be one of the hardest areas of the English prosodic system to be mastered by Spanish learners. A funded research project is in the process of moving the present classroom-based experiment to an online environment (mobile app) and determining whether there is a more effective focus usage through CAPT (Computer-Assisted Pronunciation) tools.

Keywords: focus, prosody, public speaking, Spanish learners of English

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4800 Post-Secondary Faculty Treatment of Non-Native English-Speaking Student Writing Errors in Academic Subject Courses

Authors: Laura E. Monroe

Abstract:

As more non-native English-speaking students enroll in English-medium universities, even more faculty will instruct students who are unprepared for the rigors of post-secondary academic writing in English. Many faculty members lack training and knowledge regarding the assessment of non-native English-speaking students’ writing, as well as the ability to provide effective feedback. This quantitative study investigated the possible attitudinal factors, including demographics, which might affect faculty preparedness and grading practices for both native and non-native English-speaking students’ academic writing and plagiarism, as well as the reasons faculty do not deduct points from both populations’ writing errors. Structural equation modeling and SPSS Statistics were employed to analyze the results of a faculty questionnaire disseminated to individuals who had taught non-native English-speaking students in academic subject courses. The findings from this study illustrated that faculty’s native language, years taught, and institution type were significant factors in not deducting points for academic writing errors and plagiarism, and the major reasons for not deducting points for errors were that faculty had too many students to grade, not enough training in assessing student written errors and plagiarism and that the errors and plagiarism would have taken too long to explain. The practical implications gleaned from these results can be applied to most departments in English-medium post-secondary institutions regarding faculty preparedness and training in student academic writing errors and plagiarism, and recommendations for future research are given for similar types of preparation and guidance for post-secondary faculty, regardless of degree path or academic subject.

Keywords: assessment, faculty, non-native English-speaking students, writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 66