Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2857

Search results for: metal oxide

2857 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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2856 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah


The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, alumina protective layer, sintered-metal-fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2855 [Keynote Talk]: Morphological Analysis of Continuous Graphene Oxide Fibers Incorporated with Carbon Nanotube and MnCl₂

Authors: Nuray Ucar, Pelin Altay, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek


Graphene oxide fibers have recently received increasing attention due to their excellent properties such as high specific surface area, high mechanical strength, good thermal properties and high electrical conductivity. They have shown notable potential in various applications including batteries, sensors, filtration and separation and wearable electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties and can be used together with graphene oxide fibers for several application areas such as lithium ion batteries, wearable electronics, etc. Metals salts that can be converted into metal ions and metal oxide can be also used for several application areas such as battery, purification natural gas, filtration, absorption. This study investigates the effects of CNT and metal complex compounds (MnCl₂, metal salts) on the morphological structure of graphene oxide fibers. The graphene oxide dispersion was manufactured by modified Hummers method, and continuous graphene oxide fibers were produced with wet spinning. The CNT and MnCl₂ were incorporated into the coagulation baths during wet spinning process. Produced composite continuous fibers were analyzed with SEM, SEM-EDS and AFM microscopies and as spun fiber counts were measured.

Keywords: continuous graphene oxide fiber, Hummers' method, CNT, MnCl₂

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2854 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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2853 Composite Electrodes Containing Ni-Fe-Cr as an Activatable Oxygen Evolution Catalyst

Authors: Olga A. Krysiak, Grzegorz Cichowicz, Wojciech Hyk, Michal Cyranski, Jan Augustynski


Metal oxides are known electrocatalyst in water oxidation reaction. Due to the fact that it is desirable for efficient oxygen evolution catalyst to contain numerous redox-active metal ions to guard four electron water oxidation reaction, mixed metal oxides exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction compared to single metal oxide systems. On the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass slide (FTO) deposited (doctor blade technique) mixed metal oxide layer composed of nickel, iron, and chromium. Oxide coating was acquired by heat treatment of the aqueous precursors' solutions of the corresponding salts. As-prepared electrodes were photosensitive and acted as an efficient oxygen evolution catalyst. Our results showed that obtained by this method electrodes can be activated which leads to achieving of higher current densities. The recorded current and photocurrent associated with oxygen evolution process were at least two orders of magnitude higher in the presence of oxide layer compared to bare FTO electrode. The overpotential of the process is low (ca. 0,2 V). We have also checked the activity of the catalyst at different known photoanodes used in sun-driven water splitting. Herein, we demonstrate that we were able to achieve efficient oxygen evolution catalysts using relatively cheap precursor consisting of earth abundant metals and simple method of preparation.

Keywords: chromium, electrocatalysis, iron, metal oxides, nickel, oxygen evolution

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2852 Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils

Authors: Bulent Topcuoglu


Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.

Keywords: metal speciation, metal mobility, greenhouse soils, biosystems engineering

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2851 In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design

Authors: C. S Lee, W. C. Hsu, H. Y. Liu, C. J. Lin, S. C. Yao, Y. T. Shen, Y. C. Lin


In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.

Keywords: backside metal-trench, InAlN/AlN/GaN, MOS-HFET, non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition

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2850 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian


The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

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2849 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System

Authors: J. S. Kim


This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, vector modulator, beamforming, 802.11ac

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2848 Hybrid Nano Material of Ground Egg Shells with Metal Oxide for Lead Removal

Authors: A. Threepanich, S. Youngme, P. Praipipat


Although ground egg shells had the ability to eliminate lead in water, their efficiency may decrease in a case of contaminating of other cations such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺ in the water. The development of ground egg shells may solve this problem in which metal oxides are a good choice for this case since they have the ability to remove any heavy metals including lead in the water. Therefore, this study attempts to use this advantage for improving ground egg shells for the specific lead removal efficiency in the water. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used for the chemical element contents analysis of ground egg shells (GES) and ground egg shells with metal oxide (GESM), and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique was used to examine the material sizes. The batch test studies were designed to investigate the factor effects on dose (5, 10, 15 grams), pH (5, 7, 9), and settling time (1, 3, 5 hours) for the lead removal efficiency in the water. The XRF analysis results showed GES contained calcium (Ca) 91.41% and Silicon (Si) 4.03% and GESM contained calcium (Ca) 91.41%, Silicon (Si) 4.03%, and Iron (Fe) 3.05%. TEM results confirmed the sizes of GES and GESM in the range of 1-20 nm. The batch test studies showed the best optimum conditions for the lead removal in the water of GES and GESM in dose, pH, and settling time were 10 grams, pH 9, 5 hours and 5 grams, pH 9, 3 hours, respectively. The competing ions (Na⁺ and Ca²⁺) study reported GESM had the higher % lead removal efficiency than GES at 90% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, this result can confirm that adding of metal oxide to ground egg shells helps to improve the lead removal efficiency in the water.

Keywords: nano material, ground egg shells, metal oxide, lead

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2847 Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent

Authors: V. P. Borker, K. S. Rane, A. J. Bhobe, R. S. Karmali


Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.

Keywords: cadmium doped zinc oxide, dye degradation, dye effluent degradation, N doped zinc oxide, zinc oxide

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2846 Preparation of Ternary Metal Oxide Aerogel Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide and Propylene Oxide Cycloaddition Reaction

Authors: Y. J. Lin, Y. F. Lin


CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas which causes global warming in recent years. As the carbon capture and storage (CCS) getting maturing, the reuse of carbon dioxide which made from CCS is the important issue. In this way, the most common method is the synthesis of cyclic carbonate chemicals from the cycloaddition reaction of carbon dioxide and epoxide. The catalyst plays an important role in the CO2/epoxide cycloaddition reactions. The Lewis acid and base sites are both needed on the catalyst surface for the help of epoxide ring opening, leading to the synthesis of cyclic carbonate. Furthermore, the larger specific surface area and more active site of the catalyst are also needed to enhance the efficiency of the CO2/epoxide cycloaddition reactions. Aerogel is a mesoporous nanomaterial (pore size between 2~50 nm) with high specific surface area and porosity (at least 90%) and low density. In this study, the ternary metal oxide aerogels, Mg-doped Al2O3 aerogels, with higher specific surface area and Lewis acid and base sites on the aerogel surface are successfully prepared by using a facile sol-gel reaction. The as-prepared Mg-doped Al2O3 aerogels are also served as heterogenous catalyst for the CO2/propylene- oxide cycloaddition reaction. Compared to the pristine Al2O3 aerogels, the Mg-doped Al2O3 aerogels possessed both Lewis acid and base sites on the surface are able to enhance the efficiency of the CO2/propylene oxide cycloaddition reactions. As a result, the as-prepared Mg-doped Al2O3 aerogels are a promising and novel catalyst for the CO2/epoxide cycloaddition reactions.

Keywords: ternary, metal oxide aerogel, CO2 reuse, cycloaddition, propylene oxide

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2845 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh


According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: memristor, quantum dot, resistive switching, thin film

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2844 Removal of Metal Ions (II) Using a Synthetic Bis(2-Pyridylmethyl)Amino-Chloroacetyl Chloride- Ethylenediamine-Grafted Graphene Oxide Sheets

Authors: Laroussi Chaabane, Emmanuel Beyou, Amel El Ghali, Mohammed Hassen V. Baouab


The functionalization of graphene oxide sheets by ethylenediamine (EDA) was accomplished followed by the grafting of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino group (BPED) onto the activated graphene oxide sheets in the presence of chloroacetylchloride (CAC) produced the martial [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. The physic-chemical properties of [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPs), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] was used for removing M(II) (where M=Cu, Ni and Co) ions from aqueous solutions using a batch process. The effect of pH, contact time and temperature were investigated. More importantly, the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] adsorbent exhibited remarkable performance in capturing heavy metal ions from water. The maximum adsorption capacity values of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) on the [(GO-EDA-CAC)-BPED] at the pH of 7 is 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹, 3.25 mmol.g⁻¹ and 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹ respectively. To examine the underlying mechanism of the adsorption process, pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were fitted to experimental kinetic data. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation was appropriate to describe the three metal ions adsorption by [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. Adsorption data were further analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Jossensadsorption approaches. Additionally, the adsorption properties of the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED], their reusability (more than 10 cycles) and durability in the aqueous solutions open the path to removal of metal ions (Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) from water solution. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] can be an effective and potential adsorbent for removing metal ions from an aqueous solution.

Keywords: graphene oxide, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino, adsorption kinetics, isotherms

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2843 Low-Temperature Catalytic Incineration of Acetone over MnCeOx Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Aluminosilicate: The Mn-Ce Bimetallic Effect

Authors: Liang-Yi Lin, Hsunling Bai


In this work, transition metal (metal= Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mn) modified cerium oxide catalysts supported on mesoporous aluminosilicate particles (Ce/Al-MSPs) were prepared using waste silicate as the precursors through aerosol-assisted flow process, and their catalytic performances were investigated for acetone incineration. Tests on the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs and Mn/Al-MSPs and trimetallic Mn-Ce, Fe-Ce, Co-Ce, Ni-Ce, and Cu-Ce/Al-MSPs in the temperature range of 100-300 oC demonstrated that Ce was the main active metal while Mn acted as a suitable promoter in acetone incineration reactions. Among tested catalysts, Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs with a Mn/Ce molar ratio of 2/1 exhibited the highest acetone catalytic activity. Moreover, the synergetic effect was observed for trimetallic Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs on the acetone removal as compared to the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs or Mn/Al-MSPs catalysts.

Keywords: acetone, catalytic oxidation, cerium oxide, mesoporous silica

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2842 Development of PPy-M Composites Materials for Sensor Application

Authors: Yatimah Alias, Tilagam Marimuthu, M. R. Mahmoudian, Sharifah Mohamad


The rapid growth of science and technology in energy and environmental fields has enlightened the substantial importance of the conducting polymer and metal composite materials engineered at nano-scale. In this study, polypyrrole-cobalt composites (PPy-Co Cs) and polypyrrole-nickel oxide composites (PPy-NiO Cs) were prepared by a simple and facile chemical polymerization method with an aqueous solution of pyrrole monomer in the presence of metal salt. These composites then fabricated into non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose sensor. The morphology and composition of the composites are characterized by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum and X-ray Powder Diffraction. The obtained results were compared with the pure PPy and metal oxide particles. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized composites are different from those of pure PPy and metal oxide particles, which were attributed to the strong interaction between the PPy and the metal particles. Besides, a favorable micro-environment for the electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 and glucose was achieved on the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with PPy-Co Cs and PPy-NiO Cs respectively, resulting in an enhanced amperometric response. Both PPy-Co/GCE and PPy-NiO/GCE give high response towards target analyte at optimum condition of 500 μl pyrrole monomer content. Furthermore, the presence of pyrrole monomer greatly increases the sensitivity of the respective modified electrode. The PPy-Co/GCE could detect H2O2 in a linear range of 20 μM to 80 mM with two linear segments (low and high concentration of H2O2) and the detection limit for both ranges is 2.05 μM and 19.64 μM, respectively. Besides, PPy-NiO/GCE exhibited good electrocatalytic behavior towards glucose oxidation in alkaline medium and could detect glucose in linear ranges of 0.01 mM to 0.50 mM and 1 mM to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.33 and 5.77 μM, respectively. The ease of modifying and the long-term stability of this sensor have made it superior to enzymatic sensors, which must kept in a critical environment.

Keywords: metal oxide, composite, non-enzymatic sensor, polypyrrole

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2841 Physicochemical Characterization of Mercerized Cellulose-Supported Nickel-Oxide

Authors: Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Hisham S. M. Abd-Rabboh, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Ibrahim H. A. Badr


Microwave radiation was applied to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel oxide supported on pretreated cellulose with metal acetate in the presence of NaOH. Optimization, in terms of irradiation time and metal concentration, was investigated. FT-IR spectrum of cellulose/NiO spectrum shows a band at 445 cm^-1 that is related to the Ni–O stretching vibration of NiO6 octahedral in the cubic NiO structure. cellulose/NiO showed similar XRD pattern of cellulose I and exhibited sharpened reflection peak at 2q = 29.8°, corresponding to (111) plane of NiO, with two weak broad peaks at 48.5°, and 49.2°, representing (222) planes of NiO. XPS spectrum of mercerized cellulose/NiO composite showed did not show any peaks corresponding to Na ion.

Keywords: cellulose, mercerized cellulose, cellulose/zinc and nickeloxides composite, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, Raman spectrum

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2840 Suspended Nickel Oxide Nano-Beam and Its Heterostructure Device for Gas Sensing

Authors: Kusuma Urs M. B., Navakant Bhat, Vinayak B. Kamble


Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are known to be excellent candidates for solid-state gas sensor devices. However, in spite of high sensitivities, their high operating temperatures and lack of selectivity is a big concern limiting their practical applications. A lot of research has been devoted so far to enhance their sensitivity and selectivity, often empirically. Some of the promising routes to achieve the same are reducing dimensionality and formation of heterostructures. These heterostructures offer improved sensitivity, selectivity even at relatively low operating temperatures compared to bare metal oxides. Thus, a combination of n-type and p-type metal oxides leads to the formation of p-n junction at the interface resulting in the diffusion of the carriers across the barrier along with the surface adsorption. In order to achieve this and to study their sensing mechanism, we have designed and lithographically fabricated a suspended nanobeam of NiO, which is a p-type semiconductor. The response of the same has been studied for various gases and is found to exhibit selective response towards hydrogen gas at room temperature. Further, the same has been radially coated with TiO₂ shell of varying thicknesses, in order to study the effect of radial p-n junction thus formed. Subsequently, efforts have been made to study the effect of shell thickness on the space charge region and to shed some light on the basic mechanism involved in gas sensing of MOS sensors.

Keywords: gas sensing, heterostructure, metal oxide semiconductor, space charge region

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2839 Gan Nanowire-Based Sensor Array for the Detection of Cross-Sensitive Gases Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Ashfaque Hossain Khan, Brian Thomson, Ratan Debnath, Abhishek Motayed, Mulpuri V. Rao


Though the efforts had been made, the problem of cross-sensitivity for a single metal oxide-based sensor can’t be fully eliminated. In this work, a sensor array has been designed and fabricated comprising of platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) decorated TiO2 and ZnO functionalized GaN nanowires using industry-standard top-down fabrication approach. The metal/metal-oxide combinations within the array have been determined from prior molecular simulation study using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The gas responses were obtained for both single and mixture of NO2, SO2, ethanol, and H2 in the presence of H2O and O2 gases under UV light at room temperature. Each gas leaves a unique response footprint across the array sensors by which precise discrimination of cross-sensitive gases has been achieved. An unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) technique has been implemented on the array response. Results indicate that each gas forms a distinct cluster in the score plot for all the target gases and their mixtures, indicating a clear separation among them. In addition, the developed array device consumes very low power because of ultra-violet (UV) assisted sensing as compared to commercially available metal-oxide sensors. The nanowire sensor array, in combination with PCA, is a potential approach for precise real-time gas monitoring applications.

Keywords: cross-sensitivity, gas sensor, principle component analysis (PCA), sensor array

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2838 Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed

Authors: Marcin Tadla, Robert Rusinek, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marek Gancarz


Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: electronic nose, fungal microflora, metal-oxide sensor, polymer-composite sensors

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2837 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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2836 An Evaluation of the Oxide Layers in Machining Swarfs to Improve Recycling

Authors: J. Uka, B. McKay, T. Minton, O. Adole, R. Lewis, S. J. Glanvill, L. Anguilano


Effective heat treatment conditions to obtain maximum aluminium swarf recycling are investigated in this work. Aluminium swarf briquettes underwent treatments at different temperatures and cooling times to investigate the improvements obtained in the recovery of aluminium metal. The main issue for the recovery of the metal from swarfs is to overcome the constraints due to the oxide layers present in high concentration in the swarfs since they have a high surface area. Briquettes supplied by Renishaw were heat treated at 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 ℃ for 1-hour and then cooled at 2.3, 3.5 and 5 ℃/min. The resulting material was analysed using SEM EDX to observe the oxygen diffusion and aluminium coalescence at the boundary between adjacent swarfs. Preliminary results show that, swarf needs to be heat treated at a temperature of 850 ℃ and cooled down slowly at 2.3 ℃/min to have thin and discontinuous alumina layers between the adjacent swarf and consequently allowing aluminium coalescence. This has the potential to save energy and provide maximum financial profit in preparation of swarf briquettes for recycling.

Keywords: reuse, recycle, aluminium, swarf, oxide layers

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2835 Preparation Static Dissipative Nanocomposites of Alkaline Earth Metal Doped Aluminium Oxide and Methyl Vinyl Silicone Polymer

Authors: Aparna M. Joshi


Methyl vinyl silicone polymer (VMQ) - alkaline earth metal doped aluminium oxide composites are prepared by conventional two rolls open mill mixing method. Doped aluminium oxides (DAO) using silvery white coloured alkaline earth metals such as Mg and Ca as dopants in the concentration of 0.4 % are synthesized by microwave combustion method and referred as MA ( Mg doped aluminium oxide) and CA ( Ca doped aluminium oxide). The as-synthesized materials are characterized for the electrical resistance, X–ray diffraction, FE-SEM, TEM and FTIR. The electrical resistances of the DAOs are observed to be ~ 8-20 MΩ. This means that the resistance of aluminium oxide (Corundum) α-Al2O3 which is ~ 1010Ω is reduced by the order of ~ 103 to 104 Ω after doping. XRD studies reveal the doping of Mg and Ca in aluminium oxide. The microstructural study using FE-SEM shows the flaky clusterous structures with the thickness of the flakes between 10 and 20 nm. TEM images depict the rod-shaped morphological geometry of the particles with the diameter of ~50-70 nm. The nanocomposites are synthesized by incorporating the DAOs in the concentration of 75 phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber) into VMQ polymer. The electrical resistance of VMQ polymer, which is ~ 1015Ω, drops by the order of 108Ω. There is a retention of the electrical resistance of ~ 30-50 MΩ for the nanocomposites which is a static dissipative range of electricity. In this work white coloured electrically conductive VMQ polymer-DAO nanocomposites (MAVMQ for Mg doping and CAVMQ for Ca doping) have been synthesized. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites such as specific gravity, hardness, tensile strength and rebound resilience are measured. Hardness and tensile strength are found to increase, with the negligible alteration in the other properties.

Keywords: doped aluminium oxide, methyl vinyl silicone polymer, microwave synthesis, static dissipation

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2834 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif


The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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2833 Sonochemically Prepared Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion

Authors: Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski, Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Lukasz Kuterasinski, Anna Gancarczyk, Maciej Sitarz


The aim of this study was to obtain highly active catalysts based on non-noble metal oxides supported on zirconia prepared via a sonochemical method. In this study, the influence of the stabilizers addition during the preparation step was checked. The final catalysts were characterized by using such characterization methods as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The proposed preparation method allowed to obtain uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support’s surface. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst samples was measured in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was considerably higher than their counterparts prepared by the incipient wetness method.

Keywords: methane catalytic combustion, nanoparticles, non-noble metals, sonochemistry

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2832 High Quality Gallium Oxide Microstructures by Catalyst-Free Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Jiang-Bei Qin, Rui-Xia Miao, Wei Ren


In this study, high crystalline gallium oxide microstructures (wires, belts, and sheets) were synthesized by catalyst-free thermal oxidation. Structural studies such as X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations on the microstructures showed monoclinic phase of gallium oxide and single crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that a huge super microsheet even grows up to 450 µm in length and 206 µm in width. Gallium oxide microstructures exhibit high crystallinity along (002) and (401), respectively. The PL spectrum of these microstructures excites a blue light band centered at 441 and 489nm. The growth mechanism of gallium oxide microstructures is discussed. These gallium oxide microstructures have great potential in functional devices.

Keywords: catalyst-free, gallium oxide, microstructures, thermal oxide

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2831 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan


A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation

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2830 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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2829 Fabrication and Analysis of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS)

Authors: Deepika Sharma, Bal Krishan


In this paper, the structure of N-channel VDMOS was designed and analyzed using Silvaco TCAD tools by varying N+ source doping concentration, P-Body doping concentration, gate oxide thickness and the diffuse time. VDMOS is considered to be ideal power switches due to its high input impedance and fast switching speed. The performance of the device was analyzed from the Ids vs Vgs curve. The electrical characteristics such as threshold voltage, gate oxide thickness and breakdown voltage for the proposed device structures were extarcted. Effect of epitaxial layer on various parameters is also observed.

Keywords: on-resistance, threshold voltage, epitaxial layer, breakdown voltage

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2828 NOx Abatement by CO with the Use of Grain Catalysts with Active Coating Made of Transition Metal (Cu, Mn, Nb) Oxides Prepared by Electroless Chemical Deposition Method

Authors: Davyd Urbanas, Pranas Baltrenas


It is well-known that, despite the constant increase of alternative energy sources usage, today combustible fuels are still widely used in power engineering. As a result of fuel combustion, significant amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO is a product of incomplete combustion) are supplied to the atmosphere. Also, these pollutants are formed in industry (chemical production, refining, and metal production). In this work, the investigation of nitrogen oxides CO-selective catalytic reduction using new grain load-type catalysts was carried out. The catalysts containing the substrate and a thin active coating made of transition metal (Mn, Cu, and Nb) oxides were prepared with the use of electroless chemical deposition method. Chemical composition, chemical state, and morphology of the formed active coating were investigated using ICP-OES, EDX, SEM, and XPS techniques. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts (Cu-Mn-oxide and Cu-Mn-Nb-oxide) have rough and developed surface and can be successfully used for the flue gas catalytic purification. The significant advantage of prepared catalysts is their suitability from technological application point of view, which differs this work from others dedicated to gas purification by SCR.

Keywords: flue gas, nitrogen oxides, selective catalytic reduction, transition metal oxides

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