Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Dominique Luneaub

22 Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties Study of New Magnetic Materials

Authors: Messai Amel, Badis Zakaria, Benali-Cherif Nourredine, Dominique Luneaub

Abstract:

We are interested in molecular polymetallic species having high spin and nuclearities in relation to the field of so call single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The goal is to find a way to synthesis metal clusters which may have application in magnetism and nano sciences. With this purpose, we decided to investigate the coordination chemistry of the Schiff base. Along this way we were able to create cubane-like complexes and elaborate new Single Molecule-Magnets. The idea was to use Schiff base ligands and different metals to generate high nuclear complexes. Complexation of Shiff base with copper (II) has been investigated. Tetra nuclear complex with a cubane like core have been synthesized with (Sciff base), with the same base and cobalt (II) we obtain an other single magnetic complex completely different. In this presentation, we report the synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the tetranuclear compound (Cu4 L4), and the tetranuclear compound. (Co4L4)

Keywords: cluster-assembled materials, magnetic compounds, Sciff base, cupper, cobalt

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21 Coupling of Reticular and Fuzzy Set Modelling in the Analysis of the Action Chains from Socio-Ecosystem, Case of the Renewable Natural Resources Management in Madagascar

Authors: Thierry Ganomanana, Dominique Hervé, Solo Randriamahaleo

Abstract:

Management of Malagasy renewable natural re-sources allows, in the case of forest, the mobilization of several actors with norms and/or territory. The interaction in this socio-ecosystem is represented by a graph of two different relationships in which most of action chains, from individual activities under the continuous of forest dynamic and discrete interventions by institutional, are also studied. The fuzzy set theory is adapted to graduate the elements of the set Illegal Activities in the space of sanction’s institution by his severity and in the space of degradation of forest by his extent.

Keywords: fuzzy set, graph, institution, renewable resource, system

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20 Access Control System for Big Data Application

Authors: Winfred Okoe Addy, Jean Jacques Dominique Beraud

Abstract:

Access control systems (ACs) are some of the most important components in safety areas. Inaccuracies of regulatory frameworks make personal policies and remedies more appropriate than standard models or protocols. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of software, such as integrated Big Data (BD) software for controlling large volumes of encrypted data and resources embedded in a dedicated BD production system. This paper proposes a general access control strategy system for the diffusion of Big Data domains since it is crucial to secure the data provided to data consumers (DC). We presented a general access control circulation strategy for the Big Data domain by describing the benefit of using designated access control for BD units and performance and taking into consideration the need for BD and AC system. We then presented a generic of Big Data access control system to improve the dissemination of Big Data.

Keywords: access control, security, Big Data, domain

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19 Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi

Authors: Thibaud Berthomier, Ali Mansour, Luc Bressollette, Frédéric Le Roy, Dominique Mottier, Léo Fréchier, Barthélémy Hermenault

Abstract:

Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.

Keywords: deep venous thrombosis, ultrasonography, elastography, scattering operator, wavelet, spectral clustering

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18 Design Parameters Optimization of a Gas Turbine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation: An Energy and Exergy Approach

Authors: Joe Hachem, Marianne Cuif-Sjostrand, Thierry Schuhler, Dominique Orhon, Assaad Zoughaib

Abstract:

The exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, implementation on gas turbines is increasingly gaining the attention of many researchers. This emerging technology presents many advantages, such as lowering the NOx emissions and facilitating post-combustion carbon capture as the carbon dioxide concentration in the cycle increases. As interesting as this technology may seem, the gas turbine, or its thermodynamic equivalent, the Brayton cycle, shows an intrinsic efficiency decrease with increasing EGR rate. In this paper, a thermodynamic model is presented to show the cycle efficiency decrease with EGR, alternative values of design parameters of both the pressure ratio (PR) and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) are then proposed to optimize the cycle efficiency with different EGR rates. Results show that depending on the given EGR rate, both the design PR & TIT should be increased to compensate for the deficit in efficiency.

Keywords: gas turbines, exhaust gas recirculation, design parameters optimization, thermodynamic approach

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17 Spatial Correlation of Channel State Information in Real Long Range Measurement

Authors: Ahmed Abdelghany, Bernard Uguen, Christophe Moy, Dominique Lemur

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT) is developed to ensure monitoring and connectivity within different applications. Thus, it is critical to study the channel propagation characteristics in Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN), especially Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). In this paper, an in-depth investigation of the reciprocity between the uplink and downlink Channel State Information (CSI) is done by performing an outdoor measurement campaign in the area of Campus Beaulieu in Rennes. At each different location, the CSI reciprocity is quantified using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) which shows a very high linear correlation between the uplink and downlink CSI. This reciprocity feature could be utilized for the physical layer security between the node and the gateway. On the other hand, most of the CSI shapes from different locations are highly uncorrelated from each other. Hence, it can be anticipated that this could achieve significant localization gain by utilizing the frequency hopping in the LoRa systems by getting access to a wider band.

Keywords: IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, effective signal power, onsite measurement

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16 Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)

Authors: Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Hipolito Fernández-Palacios, Dominique Schuchardt, Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Celal Erbaş, Oğuz Taşbozan

Abstract:

This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.

Keywords: Seriola rivoliana, meagre, sperm quality, motility, motility duration

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15 Diagnostic Accuracy Of Core Biopsy In Patients Presenting With Axillary Lymphadenopathy And Suspected Non-Breast Malignancy

Authors: Monisha Edirisooriya, Wilma Jack, Dominique Twelves, Jennifer Royds, Fiona Scott, Nicola Mason, Arran Turnbull, J. Michael Dixon

Abstract:

Introduction: Excision biopsy has been the investigation of choice for patients presenting with pathological axillary lymphadenopathy without a breast abnormality. Core biopsy of nodes can provide sufficient tissue for diagnosis and has advantages in terms of morbidity and speed of diagnosis. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of core biopsy in patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy. Methods: Between 2009 and 2019, 165 patients referred to the Edinburgh Breast Unit had a total of 179 axillary lymph node core biopsies. Results: 152 (92%) of the 165 initial core biopsies were deemed to contain adequate nodal tissue. Core biopsy correctly established malignancy in 75 of the 78 patients with haematological malignancy (96%) and in all 28 patients with metastatic carcinoma (100%) and correctly diagnosed benign changes in 49 of 57 (86%) patients with benign conditions. There were no false positives and no false negatives. In 67 (85.9%) of the 78 patients with hematological malignancy, there was sufficient material in the first core biopsy to allow the pathologist to make an actionable diagnosis and not ask for more tissue sampling prior to treatment. There were no complications of core biopsy. On follow up, none of the patients with benign cores has been shown to have malignancy in the axilla and none with lymphoma had their initial disease incorrectly classified. Conclusions: This study shows that core biopsy is now the investigation of choice for patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy even in those suspected as having lymphoma.

Keywords: core biopsy, excision biopsy, axillary lymphadenopathy, non-breast malignancy

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14 Dispersions of Carbon Black in Microemulsions

Authors: Mohamed Youssry, Dominique Guyomard, Bernard Lestriez

Abstract:

In order to enhance the energy and power densities of electrodes for energy storage systems, the formulation and processing of electrode slurries proved to be a critical issue in determining the electrode performance. In this study, we introduce novel approach to formulate carbon black slurries based on microemulsion and lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (namely, lamellar phase) composed of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100), decanol and water. Simultaneous measurements of electrical properties of slurries under shear flow (rheology) have been conducted to elucidate the microstructure evolution with the surfactant concentration and decanol/water ratio at rest, as well as, the structural transition under steady-shear which has been confirmed by rheo-microscopy. Interestingly, the carbon black slurries at low decanol/water ratio are weak-gel (flowable) with higher electrical conductivity than those at higher ratio which behave strong-gel viscoelastic response. In addition, the slurries show recoverable electrical behaviour under shear flow in tandem with the viscosity trend. It is likely that oil-in-water microemulsion enhances slurries’ stability without affecting on the percolating network of carbon black. On the other hand, the oil-in-water analogous and bilayer structure of lamellar phase cause the slurries less conductive as a consequence of losing the network percolation. These findings are encouraging to formulate microemulsion-based electrodes for energy storage system (lithium-ion batteries).

Keywords: electrode slurries, microemulsion, microstructure transition, rheo-electrical properties

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13 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys

Abstract:

During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: comfort, dentists, garment, thermal

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12 Study of Synergetic Effect by Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma and Photocatalysis for Abatement of Pollutants in Air Mixture System: Influence of Some Operating Conditions and Identification of Byproducts

Authors: Wala Abou Saoud, Aymen Amine Assadi, Monia Guiza, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Wael Aboussaoud, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Dominique Wolbert

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constitute one of the most important families of chemicals involved in atmospheric pollution, causing damage to the environment and human health, and need, consequently, to be eliminated. Among the promising technologies, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma - photocatalysis coupling reveals very interesting prospects in terms of process synergy of compounds mineralization’s, with low energy consumption. In this study, the removal of organic compounds such butyraldehyde (BUTY) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (exhaust gasses from animal quartering centers.) in air mixture using DBD plasma coupled with photocatalysis was tested, in order to determine whether or not synergy effect was present. The removal efficiency of these pollutants, a selectivity of CO₂ and CO, and byproducts formation such as ozone formation were investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out in a continuous reactor. Many operating parameters were also investigated such as the specific energy of discharge, the inlet concentration of pollutant and the flowrate. It appears from this study that, the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. In fact, we note an enhancement of 10 % on removal efficiency. It is interesting to note that the combined system leads to better CO₂ selectivity than for plasma. Consequently, intermediates by-products have been reduced due to various other species (O•, N, OH•, O₂•-, O₃, NO₂, NOx, etc.). Additionally, the behavior of combining DBD plasma and photocatalysis has shown that the ozone can be easily also decomposed in presence of photocatalyst.

Keywords: combined process, DBD plasma, photocatalysis, pilot scale, synergetic effect, VOCs

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11 Internal Stresses and Structural Evolutions in Zr Alloys during Oxidation at High Temperature and Subsequent Cooling

Authors: Raphaelle Guillou, Matthieu Le Saux, Jean-Christophe Brachet, Thomas Guilbert, Elodie Rouesne, Denis Menut, Caroline Toffolon-Masclet, Dominique Thiaudiere

Abstract:

In some hypothetical accidental situations, such as during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed for a few minutes to steam at High Temperature (HT up to 1200°C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. Under LOCA-like conditions, the cladding undergoes a number of metallurgical changes (phase transformations, oxygen diffusion and growth of an oxide layer...) and is consequently submitted to internal stresses whose state evolves during the transient. These stresses can have an effect on the oxide structure and the oxidation kinetics of the material. They evolve during cooling, owing to differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the various phases and phase transformations of the metal and the oxide. These stresses may result in the failure of the cladding during quenching, once the material is embrittled by oxidation. In order to progress in the evaluation of these internal stresses, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in-situ under synchrotron radiation during HT oxidation and subsequent cooling on Zircaloy-4 sheet samples. First, structural evolutions, such as phase transformations, have been studied as a function of temperature for both the oxide layer and the metallic substrate. Then, internal stresses generated within the material oxidized at temperatures between 700 and 900°C have been evaluated thanks to the 2θ diffraction peak position shift measured during the in-situ experiments. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was performed on the samples after cooling in order to characterize their crystallographic texture. Furthermore, macroscopic strains induced by oxidation in the conditions investigated during the in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments were measured in-situ in a dilatometer.

Keywords: APRP, stains measurements, synchrotron diffraction, zirconium allows

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10 Chemical Warfare Agent Simulant by Photocatalytic Filtering Reactor: Effect of Operating Parameters

Authors: Youcef Serhane, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Dominique Wolbert, Aymen Amin Assadi

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Throughout history, the use of chemical weapons is not exclusive to combats between army corps; some of these weapons are also found in very targeted intelligence operations (political assassinations), organized crime, and terrorist organizations. To improve the speed of action, important technological devices have been developed in recent years, in particular in the field of protection and decontamination techniques to better protect and neutralize a chemical threat. In order to assess certain protective, decontaminating technologies or to improve medical countermeasures, tests must be conducted. In view of the great toxicity of toxic chemical agents from (real) wars, simulants can be used, chosen according to the desired application. Here, we present an investigation about using a photocatalytic filtering reactor (PFR) for highly contaminated environments containing diethyl sulfide (DES). This target pollutant is used as a simulant of CWA, namely of Yperite (Mustard Gas). The influence of the inlet concentration (until high concentrations of DES (1200 ppmv, i.e., 5 g/m³ of air) has been studied. Also, the conversion rate was monitored under different relative humidity and different flow rates (respiratory flow - standards: ISO / DIS 8996 and NF EN 14387 + A1). In order to understand the efficacity of pollutant neutralization by PFR, a kinetic model based on the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) approach and taking into account the mass transfer step was developed. This allows us to determine the adsorption and kinetic degradation constants with no influence of mass transfer. The obtained results confirm that this small configuration of reactor presents an extremely promising way for the use of photocatalysis for treatment to deal with highly contaminated environments containing real chemical warfare agents. Also, they can give birth to an individual protection device (an autonomous cartridge for a gas mask).

Keywords: photocatalysis, photocatalytic filtering reactor, diethylsulfide, chemical warfare agents

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9 'Talent Schools' in North Rhine-Westphalia: Aims, Opportunities and Challenges of a 6-Year Study

Authors: Laura Beckmann, Sabrina Rutter, Isabell Van Ackeren, Nina Bremm, Esther Dominique Klein, Kathrin Racherbäumer

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Current evidence demonstrates that schools in socially disadvantaged contexts are often characterized by lower school performance and lower educational qualifications among the student body, compared to schools in more privileged socio-spacial contexts. At the same time, national and international findings on schools with structural and social challenges show that certain school and classroom development strategies, as well as human and material resources, can significantly contribute to improved school performance of students. The aim of this contribution is to present a 6-year mixed-methods study (Talent Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia), which is designed as a school experiment addressing the well-acknowledged inequality of educational opportunities in the German school system. Started in the year 2019 and funded by the Ministry for School and Education of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, the study targets schools in socio-spatially disadvantaged areas, which have increasingly been the focus of both public debate and educational policy. In the German-speaking countries, however, there is little knowledge available on the structure and design of complex strategies for school and classroom development that describe successful approaches to the further development of schools in disadvantaged locations in a process-oriented manner. Given these shortcomings, the present study aims at a longitudinal analysis of school and classroom development processes within 60 ‘talent schools’, whereby concrete micro-progressions within individual schools are documented and aggregated to general processes that may either impede or promote development. The main research question is the following: With the help of which strategies and (teaching) concepts, with which use of resources and with which forms of cooperation can schools contribute to the development of student achievement, including educational qualifications and transition rates in education and employment? Thus, the ‘talent schools’ may serve as examples of how social background can successfully be decoupled from educational success at schools with special structural and procedural challenges. The major chances and challenges of this project will be discussed.

Keywords: educational inequality, school development, student achievement, mixed-methods study

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8 Sustainable Production of Algae through Nutrient Recovery in the Biofuel Conversion Process

Authors: Bagnoud-Velásquez Mariluz, Damergi Eya, Grandjean Dominique, Frédéric Vogel, Ludwig Christian

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The sustainability of algae to biofuel processes is seriously affected by the energy intensive production of fertilizers. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus are required for a large-scale production resulting in many cases in a negative impact of the limited mineral resources. In order to meet the algal bioenergy opportunity it appears crucial the promotion of processes applying a nutrient recovery and/or making use of renewable sources including waste. Hydrothermal (HT) conversion is a promising and suitable technology for microalgae to generate biofuels. Besides the fact that water is used as a “green” reactant and solvent and that no biomass drying is required, the technology offers a great potential for nutrient recycling. This study evaluated the possibility to treat the water HT effluent by the growth of microalgae while producing renewable algal biomass. As already demonstrated in previous works by the authors, the HT aqueous product besides having N, P and other important nutrients, presents a small fraction of organic compounds rarely studied. Therefore, extracted heteroaromatic compounds in the HT effluent were the target of the present research; they were profiled using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The results indicate the presence of cyclic amides, piperazinediones, amines and their derivatives. The most prominent nitrogenous organic compounds (NOC’s) in the extracts were carefully examined by their effect on microalgae, namely 2-pyrrolidinone and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA). These two substances were prepared at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 150 ppm). This toxicity bioassay used three different microalgae strains: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The confirmed IC50 was for all cases ca. 75ppm. Experimental conditions were set up for the growth of microalgae in the aqueous phase by adjusting the nitrogen concentration (the key nutrient for algae) to fit that one established for a known commercial medium. The values of specific NOC’s were lowered at concentrations of 8.5 mg/L 2-pyrrolidinone; 1mg/L δ-valerolactam and 0.5 mg/L β-PEA. The growth with the diluted HT solution was kept constant with no inhibition evidence. An additional ongoing test is addressing the possibility to apply an integrated water cleanup step making use of the existent hydrothermal catalytic facility.

Keywords: hydrothermal process, microalgae, nitrogenous organic compounds, nutrient recovery, renewable biomass

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7 Laser-Dicing Modeling: Implementation of a High Accuracy Tool for Laser-Grooving and Cutting Application

Authors: Jeff Moussodji, Dominique Drouin

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The highly complex technology requirements of today’s integrated circuits (ICs), lead to the increased use of several materials types such as metal structures, brittle and porous low-k materials which are used in both front end of line (FEOL) and back end of line (BEOL) process for wafer manufacturing. In order to singulate chip from wafer, a critical laser-grooving process, prior to blade dicing, is used to remove these layers of materials out of the dicing street. The combination of laser-grooving and blade dicing allows to reduce the potential risk of induced mechanical defects such micro-cracks, chipping, on the wafer top surface where circuitry is located. It seems, therefore, essential to have a fundamental understanding of the physics involving laser-dicing in order to maximize control of these critical process and reduce their undesirable effects on process efficiency, quality, and reliability. In this paper, the study was based on the convergence of two approaches, numerical and experimental studies which allowed us to investigate the interaction of a nanosecond pulsed laser and BEOL wafer materials. To evaluate this interaction, several laser grooved samples were compared with finite element modeling, in which three different aspects; phase change, thermo-mechanical and optic sensitive parameters were considered. The mathematical model makes it possible to highlight a groove profile (depth, width, etc.) of a single pulse or multi-pulses on BEOL wafer material. Moreover, the heat affected zone, and thermo-mechanical stress can be also predicted as a function of laser operating parameters (power, frequency, spot size, defocus, speed, etc.). After modeling validation and calibration, a satisfying correlation between experiment and modeling, results have been observed in terms of groove depth, width and heat affected zone. The study proposed in this work is a first step toward implementing a quick assessment tool for design and debug of multiple laser grooving conditions with limited experiments on hardware in industrial application. More correlations and validation tests are in progress and will be included in the full paper.

Keywords: laser-dicing, nano-second pulsed laser, wafer multi-stack, multiphysics modeling

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6 Using Soil Texture Field Observations as Ordinal Qualitative Variables for Digital Soil Mapping

Authors: Anne C. Richer-De-Forges, Dominique Arrouays, Songchao Chen, Mercedes Roman Dobarco

Abstract:

Most of the digital soil mapping (DSM) products rely on machine learning (ML) prediction models and/or the use or pedotransfer functions (PTF) in which calibration data come from soil analyses performed in labs. However, many other observations (often qualitative, nominal, or ordinal) could be used as proxies of lab measurements or as input data for ML of PTF predictions. DSM and ML are briefly described with some examples taken from the literature. Then, we explore the potential of an ordinal qualitative variable, i.e., the hand-feel soil texture (HFST) estimating the mineral particle distribution (PSD): % of clay (0-2µm), silt (2-50µm) and sand (50-2000µm) in 15 classes. The PSD can also be measured by lab measurements (LAST) to determine the exact proportion of these particle-sizes. However, due to cost constraints, HFST are much more numerous and spatially dense than LAST. Soil texture (ST) is a very important soil parameter to map as it is controlling many of the soil properties and functions. Therefore, comes an essential question: is it possible to use HFST as a proxy of LAST for calibration and/or validation of DSM predictions of ST? To answer this question, the first step is to compare HFST with LAST on a representative set where both information are available. This comparison was made on ca 17,400 samples representative of a French region (34,000 km2). The accuracy of HFST was assessed, and each HFST class was characterized by a probability distribution function (PDF) of its LAST values. This enables to randomly replace HFST observations by LAST values while respecting the PDF previously calculated and results in a very large increase of observations available for the calibration or validation of PTF and ML predictions. Some preliminary results are shown. First, the comparison between HFST classes and LAST analyses showed that accuracies could be considered very good when compared to other studies. The causes of some inconsistencies were explored and most of them were well explained by other soil characteristics. Then we show some examples applying these relationships and the increase of data to several issues related to DSM. The first issue is: do the PDF functions that were established enable to use HSFT class observations to improve the LAST soil texture prediction? For this objective, we replaced all HFST for topsoil by values from the PDF 100 time replicates). Results were promising for the PTF we tested (a PTF predicting soil water holding capacity). For the question related to the ML prediction of LAST soil texture on the region, we did the same kind of replacement, but we implemented a 10-fold cross-validation using points where we had LAST values. We obtained only preliminary results but they were rather promising. Then we show another example illustrating the potential of using HFST as validation data. As in numerous countries, the HFST observations are very numerous; these promising results pave the way to an important improvement of DSM products in all the countries of the world.

Keywords: digital soil mapping, improvement of digital soil mapping predictions, potential of using hand-feel soil texture, soil texture prediction

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5 Tool Development for Assessing Antineoplastic Drugs Surface Contamination in Healthcare Services and Other Workplaces

Authors: Benoit Atge, Alice Dhersin, Oscar Da Silva Cacao, Beatrice Martinez, Dominique Ducint, Catherine Verdun-Esquer, Isabelle Baldi, Mathieu Molimard, Antoine Villa, Mireille Canal-Raffin

Abstract:

Introduction: Healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) is a burning issue for occupational medicine practitioners. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure (BMOE) is an essential tool for assessing AD contamination of healthcare workers. In addition to BMOE, surface sampling is a useful tool in order to understand how workers get contaminated, to identify sources of environmental contamination, to verify the effectiveness of surface decontamination way and to ensure monitoring of these surfaces. The objective of this work was to develop a complete tool including a kit for surface sampling and a quantification analytical method for AD traces detection. The development was realized with the three following criteria: the kit capacity to sample in every professional environment (healthcare services, veterinaries, etc.), the detection of very low AD traces with a validated analytical method and the easiness of the sampling kit use regardless of the person in charge of sampling. Material and method: AD mostly used in term of quantity and frequency have been identified by an analysis of the literature and consumptions of different hospitals, veterinary services, and home care settings. The kind of adsorbent device, surface moistening solution and mix of solvents for the extraction of AD from the adsorbent device have been tested for a maximal yield. The AD quantification was achieved by an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Results: With their high frequencies of use and their good reflect of the diverse activities through healthcare, 15 AD (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, 5-FU, dacarbazin, etoposide, pemetrexed, vincristine, cytarabine, methothrexate, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, mitomycin C) were selected. The analytical method was optimized and adapted to obtain high sensitivity with very low limits of quantification (25 to 5000ng/mL), equivalent or lowest that those previously published (for 13/15 AD). The sampling kit is easy to use, provided with a didactic support (online video and protocol paper). It showed its effectiveness without inter-individual variation (n=5/person; n= 5 persons; p=0,85; ANOVA) regardless of the person in charge of sampling. Conclusion: This validated tool (sampling kit + analytical method) is very sensitive, easy to use and very didactic in order to control the chemical risk brought by AD. Moreover, BMOE permits a focal prevention. Used in routine, this tool is available for every intervention of occupational health.

Keywords: surface contamination, sampling kit, analytical method, sensitivity

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4 Progressing Institutional Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Higher Education Programmes

Authors: Dominique Parrish

Abstract:

Globally, higher education institutions are responsible for the quality assurance and accreditation of their educational programmes (Courses). The primary purpose of these activities is to ensure that the educational standards of the governing higher education authority are met and the quality of the education provided to students is assured. Despite policies and frameworks being established in many countries, to improve the veracity and accountability of quality assurance and accreditation processes, there are reportedly still mistakes, gaps and deficiencies in these processes. An analysis of Australian universities’ quality assurance and accreditation processes noted that significant improvements were needed in managing these processes and ensuring that review recommendations were implemented. It has also been suggested that the following principles are critical for higher education quality assurance and accreditation to be effective and sustainable: academic standards and performance outcomes must be defined, attainable and monitored; those involved in providing the higher education must assume responsibility for the associated quality assurance and accreditation; potential academic risks must be identified and management solutions developed; and the expectations of the public, governments and students should be considered and incorporated into Course enhancements. This phenomenological study, which was conducted in a Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health in an Australian university, sought to systematically and iteratively develop an effective quality assurance and accreditation process that integrated the evidence-based principles of success and promoted meaningful and sustainable change. Qualitative evaluative feedback was gathered, over a period of eleven months (January - November 2014), from faculty staff engaged in the quality assurance and accreditation of forty-eight undergraduate and postgraduate Courses. Reflexive analysis was used to analyse the data and inform ongoing modifications and developments to the assurance and accreditation process as well as the associated supporting resources. The study resulted in the development of a formal quality assurance and accreditation process together with a suite of targeted resources that were identified as critical for success. The research findings also provided some insights into the institutional enablers that were antecedents to successful quality assurance and accreditation processes as well as meaningful change in the educational practices of academics. While longitudinal data will be collected to further assess the value of the assurance and accreditation process on educational quality, early indicators are that there has been a change in the pedagogical perspectives and activities of academic staff and growing momentum to explore opportunities to further enhance and develop Courses. This presentation will explain the formal quality assurance and accreditation process as well as the component parts, which resulted from this study. The targeted resources that were developed will be described, the pertinent factors that contributed to the success of the process will be discussed and early indicators of sustainable academic change as well as suggestions for future research will be outlined.

Keywords: academic standards, quality assurance and accreditation, phenomenological study, process, resources

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3 The Relationship between Wasting and Stunting in Young Children: A Systematic Review

Authors: Susan Thurstans, Natalie Sessions, Carmel Dolan, Kate Sadler, Bernardette Cichon, Shelia Isanaka, Dominique Roberfroid, Heather Stobagh, Patrick Webb, Tanya Khara

Abstract:

For many years, wasting and stunting have been viewed as separate conditions without clear evidence supporting this distinction. In 2014, the Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) examined the relationship between wasting and stunting and published a report highlighting the evidence for linkages between the two forms of undernutrition. This systematic review aimed to update the evidence generated since this 2014 report to better understand the implications for improving child nutrition, health and survival. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review was conducted using search terms to describe the relationship between wasting and stunting. Studies related to children under five from low- and middle-income countries that assessed both ponderal growth/wasting and linear growth/stunting, as well as the association between the two, were included. Risk of bias was assessed in all included studies using SIGN checklists. 45 studies met the inclusion criteria- 39 peer reviewed studies, 1 manual chapter, 3 pre-print publications and 2 published reports. The review found that there is a strong association between the two conditions whereby episodes of wasting contribute to stunting and, to a lesser extent, stunting leads to wasting. Possible interconnected physiological processes and common risk factors drive an accumulation of vulnerabilities. Peak incidence of both wasting and stunting was found to be between birth and three months. A significant proportion of children experience concurrent wasting and stunting- Country level data suggests that up to 8% of children under 5 may be both wasted and stunted at the same time, global estimates translate to around 16 million children. Children with concurrent wasting and stunting have an elevated risk of mortality when compared to children with one deficit alone. These children should therefore be considered a high-risk group in the targeting of treatment. Wasting, stunting and concurrent wasting and stunting appear to be more prevalent in boys than girls and it appears that concurrent wasting and stunting peaks between 12- 30 months of age with younger children being the most affected. Seasonal patterns in prevalence of both wasting and stunting are seen in longitudinal and cross sectional data and in particular season of birth has been shown to have an impact on a child’s subsequent experience of wasting and stunting. Evidence suggests that the use of mid-upper-arm circumference combined with weight-for-age Z-score might effectively identify children most at risk of near-term mortality, including those concurrently wasted and stunted. Wasting and stunting frequently occur in the same child, either simultaneously or at different moments through their life course. Evidence suggests there is a process of accumulation of nutritional deficits and therefore risk over the life course of a child demonstrates the need for a more integrated approach to prevention and treatment strategies to interrupt this process. To achieve this, undernutrition policies, programmes, financing and research must become more unified.

Keywords: Concurrent wasting and stunting, Review, Risk factors, Undernutrition

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2 Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Bilinear-Systems: Application to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems in Multi-Zone Buildings

Authors: Abderrhamane Jarou, Dominique Sauter, Christophe Aubrun

Abstract:

Over the past decade, the growing demand for energy efficiency in buildings has attracted the attention of the control community. Failures in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in buildings can have a significant impact on the desired and expected energy performance of buildings and on the user's comfort as well. FTC is a recent technology area that studies the adaptation of control algorithms to faulty operating conditions of a system. The application of Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) in HVAC systems has gained attention in the last two decades. The objective is to maintain the variations in system performance due to faults within an acceptable range with respect to the desired nominal behavior. This paper considers the so-called active approach, which is based on fault and identification scheme combined with a control reconfiguration algorithm that consists in determining a new set of control parameters so that the reconfigured performance is "as close as possible, "in some sense, to the nominal performance. Thermal models of buildings and their HVAC systems are described by non-linear (usually bi-linear) equations. Most of the works carried out so far in FDI (fault diagnosis and isolation) or FTC consider a linearized model of the studied system. However, this model is only valid in a reduced range of variation. This study presents a new fault diagnosis (FD) algorithm based on a bilinear observer for the detection and accurate estimation of the magnitude of the HVAC system failure. The main contribution of the proposed FD algorithm is that instead of using specific linearized models, the algorithm inherits the structure of the actual bilinear model of the building thermal dynamics. As an immediate consequence, the algorithm is applicable to a wide range of unpredictable operating conditions, i.e., weather dynamics, outdoor air temperature, zone occupancy profile. A bilinear fault detection observer is proposed for a bilinear system with unknown inputs. The residual vector in the observer design is decoupled from the unknown inputs and, under certain conditions, is made sensitive to all faults. Sufficient conditions are given for the existence of the observer and results are given for the explicit computation of observer design matrices. Dedicated observer schemes (DOS) are considered for sensor FDI while unknown input bilinear observers are considered for actuator or system components FDI. The proposed strategy for FTC works as follows: At a first level, FDI algorithms are implemented, making it also possible to estimate the magnitude of the fault. Once the fault is detected, the fault estimation is then used to feed the second level and reconfigure the control low so that that expected performances are recovered. This paper is organized as follows. A general structure for fault-tolerant control of buildings is first presented and the building model under consideration is introduced. Then, the observer-based design for Fault Diagnosis of bilinear systems is studied. The FTC approach is developed in Section IV. Finally, a simulation example is given in Section V to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords: bilinear systems, fault diagnosis, fault-tolerant control, multi-zones building

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1 National Digital Soil Mapping Initiatives in Europe: A Review and Some Examples

Authors: Dominique Arrouays, Songchao Chen, Anne C. Richer-De-Forges

Abstract:

Soils are at the crossing of many issues such as food and water security, sustainable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity protection, human health and well-being. They deliver many ecosystem services that are essential to life on Earth. Therefore, there is a growing demand for soil information on a national and global scale. Unfortunately, many countries do not have detailed soil maps, and, when existing, these maps are generally based on more or less complex and often non-harmonized soil classifications. An estimate of their uncertainty is also often missing. Thus, there are not easy to understand and often not properly used by end-users. Therefore, there is an urgent need to provide end-users with spatially exhaustive grids of essential soil properties, together with an estimate of their uncertainty. One way to achieve this is digital soil mapping (DSM). The concept of DSM relies on the hypothesis that soils and their properties are not randomly distributed, but that they depend on the main soil-forming factors that are climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time (age), and position in space. All these forming factors can be approximated using several exhaustive spatial products such as climatic grids, remote sensing products or vegetation maps, digital elevation models, geological or lithological maps, spatial coordinates of soil information, etc. Thus, DSM generally relies on models calibrated with existing observed soil data (point observations or maps) and so-called “ancillary co-variates” that come from other available spatial products. Then the model is generalized on grids where soil parameters are unknown in order to predict them, and the prediction performances are validated using various methods. With the growing demand for soil information at a national and global scale and the increase of available spatial co-variates national and continental DSM initiatives are continuously increasing. This short review illustrates the main national and continental advances in Europe, the diversity of the approaches and the databases that are used, the validation techniques and the main scientific and other issues. Examples from several countries illustrate the variety of products that were delivered during the last ten years. The scientific production on this topic is continuously increasing and new models and approaches are developed at an incredible speed. Most of the digital soil mapping (DSM) products rely mainly on machine learning (ML) prediction models and/or the use or pedotransfer functions (PTF) in which calibration data come from soil analyses performed in labs or for existing conventional maps. However, some scientific issues remain to be solved and also political and legal ones related, for instance, to data sharing and to different laws in different countries. Other issues related to communication to end-users and education, especially on the use of uncertainty. Overall, the progress is very important and the willingness of institutes and countries to join their efforts is increasing. Harmonization issues are still remaining, mainly due to differences in classifications or in laboratory standards between countries. However numerous initiatives are ongoing at the EU level and also at the global level. All these progress are scientifically stimulating and also promissing to provide tools to improve and monitor soil quality in countries, EU and at the global level.

Keywords: digital soil mapping, global soil mapping, national and European initiatives, global soil mapping products, mini-review

Procedia PDF Downloads 109